PRESENTATION: Current situation of important vector-borne diseases in Thailand

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Presented by Uraiwan Arunyawat & T. Chareonviriyaphap, Kasetsart University, Bangkok Thailand in Bogor, Indonesia last 29 Oct 2015

Transcript of PRESENTATION: Current situation of important vector-borne diseases in Thailand

  • Current situation of important vector-borne diseases in Thailand

    Uraiwan Arunyawat & T. Chareonviriyaphap

    Kasetsart University, Bangkok Thailand

  • Outline

    Four main vector-borne diseases

    Malaria

    Lymphatic filariasis

    Chikungunya

    Dengue

    Perspectives

  • Malaria in the world

    43% of 5.6 billion population at risk

  • Malaria vector in Thailand

    Leucosphyrus Group Funestus Group Maculatus Group

    An. sawadwongporni (species A) *

    An. maculatus (species B, E, F)*

    An. pseudowillmori (species I)*

    Minimus Complex

    An. minimus (species A)*

    Aconitus Subgroup

    An. aconitus*

    Dirus Complex

    An. dirus (species A)*

    An. baimaii (species D)*

    * malaria vector

    http://www.typepad.com http://www.typepad.com http://www.typepad.com

  • Parasite: Plasmodium

    Taxonomy

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Apicomplexa

    Class: Coccidia

    Order: Haemosporidia

    Genus: Plasmodium

    Human malarias

    Plamodium falciparum

    Plasmodium vivax

    Plasmodium malariae

    Plasmodium ovale

    Plasmodium knowlesi

  • Parasite rate

    Year

  • Source: BVBD (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014)

    Malaria cases in Thailand (Thai) N

    um

    ber

    of

    mal

    aria

    cas

    es

    year

  • Malaria cases in Thailand (Non-Thai) N

    um

    ber

    of

    mal

    aria

    cas

    es

  • Malaria in Thailand (Jan-Sep, 2015)

    4,701 cases 4 deaths

  • Prevalence

  • Lymphatic filariasis

    http://image.dek-d.com/24/2652954/106532183

    http://pixshark.com/brugia-malayi-microfilaria.htm

    Mosquito vectors of filariasis

    Wuchereria bancrofti: Culex quinquefasciatus Brugia malayi: Mansonia spp., Aedes spp.

  • http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/857935/fig3/

    Lymphatic filariasis in Thailand

    Source: CDC, 2003

  • Current Filariasis cases in Thailand

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

    Nu

    mb

    er

    of

    case

    s

    Year

    7, (0.01)

    9, (0.01)

    3, (0.00)

    11, (0.02) 9, (0.01)

    19, (0.03)

    13, (0.02)

    25, (0.04)

    17, (0.03)

    6, (0.01)

    * Morbidity rate/100000 Pop

    0, (0) 0, (0)

  • Filariasis cases (2005-2014)

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

    Nu

    mb

    er

    of

    case

    s

    Year

    Thai

    Non-Thai

  • Chikungunya in Thailand

    Aedes albopictus Exophilic and Exophagic mosquito

    Aedes aegypti Endophilic and Endophagic mosquito

    Vectors of Chikungunya

  • The first record found in Bangkok, 1958

    The fever disappeared from Thailand 14 years

    Until some cases were reported in Prachin Buri, 1976

    Since in 2009, Chikungunya fever has re-emerged again with at least 55 provinces

    Chikungunya in Thailand

  • Years Cases Deaths 2008 2,494 0 2009 52,057 0 2010 1,565 0 2011 169 0 2012 84 0 2013 125 0 2014 190 0 2015 13 0

    Number of Chikungunya cases

  • Myanmar

    Lao PDR

    Cambodia

    Malaysia

    morbidity rate /100000 population

    Jan 1, 2015 Oct 5, 2015

    13 cases

    No death

    6 Provinces

    Chikungunya cases in Thailand

  • Dengue situation in Thailand

  • 020000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    160000

    2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

    46214 64872

    88274

    55694

    114607

    68864 77947

    148306

    40118

    88812

    615

    709

    1352

    957

    2340

    936

    1646

    6138

    964

    2606

    Thai Non Thai

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

    59

    90 99

    47

    129

    63

    82

    131

    48

    90

    0

    5 3

    3

    10

    0

    5

    5

    1

    1

    Thai Non Thai

    Cases

    Deaths

    Nu

    mb

    er o

    f d

    eath

    s N

    um

    ber

    of

    case

    s

    Reported total cases and deaths of dengue fever by Thai and non Thai

  • 010000

    20000

    30000

    40000

    50000

    60000

    70000

    80000

    90000

    2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

    17062

    25446

    36645

    25194

    53149

    29759

    39911

    87502

    23170

    55408

    29024

    39053

    51355

    30480

    60770

    38639 38263

    64645

    35029 35029

    743 1082 1626 977 3028

    1402 1419 2297 558 981

    Reported cases of DF, DHF, DSS between 2006-2015

    Source: Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health

    DF: Dengue fever

    DHF: Dengue hemorrhagic fever DSS: Dengue shock syndrome

  • 020000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    160000

    Health official

    Special work

    Monk

    livestock

    Unknow/preschool

    Other

    Teacher

    Fisherman

    Military, Policeman

    Student

    Housework

    Trade

    Labor

    Government officer

    Agriculture work

    Reported cases by occupation

  • 05000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    35000

    Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

    2015

    2014

    2013

    2012

    2011

    2010

    2009

    2008

    2007

    2006

    Seasonal Trend of Dengue in Thailand

  • North 139.91

    Northeast 117.28

    Central 187.21

    South 82.68

    1. Rayong 454.04 2. Rachaburi 416.31 3. Petchburi 416.29 4. Uthaithani 352.54 5. Trad 342.63

    Morbidity rate / 100,000 population

    Dengue at 1 January 2015 - 12 October 2015

  • Mosquito breeding habitats

  • Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious-disease mosquitoes

    My main interest is to understand evolutionary aspects of malaria and dengue vectors, using SNP data and statistical analyses of population genetic models, in order to achieve an effective malaria and dengue vectors control program.

    1. Molecular population genetics of malaria vectors in Thailand based on SNP data

    2. Evolutionary genetic studies of immune system genes in malaria vectors

    3. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium of dengue virus vector

    Current research projects:

    4. Local adaptation of malaria vectors in Thailand

  • Local adaptation research project

    NGS Technology

    GENOMICS TRANSCRIPTOMICS PROTEOMICS

    Climate change Local adaptation vs. Phenotypic plasticity

    Circadian clock genes

  • Prof. Dr. Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap

    Dr. Michael J. Bangs

    Prof. Dr. Sylvie Manguin

    EGCB lab members at Dept. of Genetics, KU

    Theeraphaps lab members at Dept. of Entomology, KU

    Thanks

  • Thank you for your attention

    uraiwan.a@ku.ac.th