PREHRANA LISICE (Vulpes vulpes) V KULTURNI · PDF fileThey are opportunistic feeders who will...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    08-Sep-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    217
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of PREHRANA LISICE (Vulpes vulpes) V KULTURNI · PDF fileThey are opportunistic feeders who will...

  • UNIVERZA V LJUBLJANI

    BIOTEHNIKA FAKULTETA

    ODDELEK ZA BIOLOGIJO

    Katja GOLAVEK

    PREHRANA LISICE (Vulpes vulpes) V KULTURNI KRAJINI

    DIPLOMSKO DELO

    Univerzitetni tudij

    FEEDING HABITS OF THE RED FOX (Vulpes vulpes) IN A

    CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    GRADUATION THESIS

    University studies

    Ljubljana, 2008

  • Golavek K. Prehrana lisice (Vulpes vulpes) v kulturni krajini. Dipl. delo. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Odd. za biologijo, 2008

    II

    Diplomsko delo je zakljuek univerzitetnega tudija biologije. Opravljeno je bilo na

    Katedri za ekologijo in varstvo okolja Oddelka za biologijo Biotehnike fakultete v

    Ljubljani, kjer je potekalo laboratorijsko delo. Terensko delo se je odvijalo na obmoju

    severozahodne Spodnje Savinjske doline.

    tudijska komisija Oddelka za biologijo je za mentorja diplomskega dela imenovala

    prof. dr. Ivana Kosa.

    Komisija za oceno in zagovor:

    Predsednik: prof. dr. Peter TRONTELJ

    Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Oddelek za biologijo

    lan: doc. dr. Davorin TOME

    NIB, Oddelek za raziskovanje sladkovodnih in kopenskih ekosistemov raziskovanje sladkovodnih in kopenskih ekosistemov

    lan: prof. dr. Ivan KOS

    Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Oddelek za Biologijo

    Podpisana se strinjam z objavo svoje naloge v polnem tekstu na spletni strani Digitalne

    knjinice Biotehnike fakultete. Izjavljam, da je naloga, ki sem jo oddala v elektronski

    obliki, identina tiskani verziji.

    Datum zagovora: 17.1.2008

    Delo je rezultat lastnega raziskovalnega dela.

    Katja Golavek

  • Golavek K. Prehrana lisice (Vulpes vulpes) v kulturni krajini. Dipl. delo. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Odd. za biologijo, 2008

    III

    KLJUNA DOKUMENTACIJSKA INFORMACIJA

    D Dn

    DK 591.5:599.74(497.4)(043.2)=163.6

    KG zveri/psi/lisica/Vulpes vulpes/prehrana/kulturna krajina/Slovenija

    AV GOLAVEK, Katja

    SA KOS, Ivan

    KZ SI 1001 Ljubljana, Vena pot 111

    ZA Univerza v Ljubljani. Biotehnika fakulteta. Oddelek za biologijo

    LI 2008

    IN PREHRANA LISICE (VULPES VULPES) V KULTURNI KRAJINI

    TD Diplomsko delo (univerzitetni tudij)

    OP X, 98 str., 29 sl., 10 pregl., 4 pril., 114 ref.

    IJ sl

    JI sl/en

    AL Navadna lisica (Vulpes vulpes) je ena najbolj razirjenih zveri, uspena v razlinih ivljenjskih okoljih. Glavni dejavnik, ki prispeva k uspehu lisice so njene prehranske navade. Lisica je prehranski generalist in poje vse kar je na razpolago. Je oportunist, zato je njena prehrana odvisna od ponudbe okolja; izbira hrano katero v doloenem okolju, v doloenem asu najlaje dobi. Najbolj tevilno se lisica pojavlja v ekoloko raznovrstni pokrajini, kjer so na voljo mnogovrstni prehranski viri. Med take nedvomno sodi s lovekimi posegi ustvarjena kulturna krajina. Namen naloge je bil raziskati in primerjati poletno (iz vzorcev iztrebkov nabranih poleti 2004) in zimsko prehrano lisic (iz vzorcev lisic ustreljenih v zimi 2003/04) v kulturni krajini Spodnje Savinjske doline; ugotoviti ali obstajajo razlike v zimski prehrani med samci in samicami lisic in ugotoviti ali obstajajo razlike v zimski prehrani med eno letnimi lisicami in lisicami starimi dve ali ve let. Za analizo smo uporabili metodo izpiranja in tehtanja (Lockie in Goszczyski), ki temelji na izpiranju iztrebkov in prebavil ez sito ter doloanju makroskopskih ostankov. Dalje smo uporabili metodo tehtanja loenih vsebin. V zimskih vzorcih je bila najpogosteje zastopana mrhovina, ki je najlaje dostopna v tem letnem asu, tudi njena masa v elodcih je bila velika (41 % od 280 g). Dopolnilna hrana so bili mali sesalci. V poletnih vzorcih pa je najviji odstotek v biomasi zauite hrane zavzelo sadje (47 % od 138 g), predvsem enja (Prunus avium) (30 %) in mali glodalci (23 %), od katerih so bile najpomembneje voluharice iz rodu Microtus. Zimska prehrana samcev in samic se v kulturni krajini ni razlikovala. Zimska prehrana enoletnih lisic je bila drugana od prehrane osebkov starih dve leti in ve. Mladi osebki so jedli laje dostopno mrhovino, medtem ko so v zimski prehrani osebkov starih dve leti in ve imeli vejo pomembnost mali glodalci, predvsem veverica. Vzrok temu so izkunje, ki so si jih s starostjo pridobile stareje lisice.

  • Golavek K. Prehrana lisice (Vulpes vulpes) v kulturni krajini. Dipl. delo. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Odd. za biologijo, 2008

    IV

    KEY WORDS DOCUMENTATION DN Dn

    DC 591.5:599.74(497.4)(043.2)=163.6

    CX carnivora/canidae /red fox /Vulpes vulpes/feeding habits/cultural

    landscape/Slovenia

    AU GOLAVEK, Katja

    AA KOS, Ivan

    PP SI 1001 Ljubljana, Vena pot 111

    PB Univesity of Ljubljana. Biotehnical faculty. Department of Biology

    PY 2008

    TI FEEDING HABITS OF THE RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) IN A CULTURAL

    LANDSCAPE

    DT Graduation thesis (Univesity studies)

    NO X, 98 p., 29 fig., 10 tab., 4 epp, 114 ref.

    LA sl

    AL sl/en

    AB Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is one of the most common carnivors, successfull in various habitats. The main factor contributing to success are its feeding habits. Foxes are generalists and will eat almost anything they can find. They are opportunistic feeders who will sample any acceptable food often in proportion to its availability. Feeding habits depend upon food offer in a landscape. Red foxes are most numerous in a landscape with rich ecological diversity, like cultural landscape is. The purpose of this study was to study and compare winter (based on a samples of foxes killed in the winter 2003/04) and summer (based on a samples of faeces collected in the summer 2004) diet of red foxes in a cultural landscape of Lower Savinija valley; to establish if there are any differences in winter diet of males and females and to find out if there are any differences in winter diet between one year old foxes and foxes that are two or more years of age. We used the method of washing off and weighing (Lockie in Goszczyski), which is based on washing off the sample content through the sieve and determinatig macroscopical fragments. Macroscopical fragments were dried and weighed. In winter samples the most common food were carcasses of dead animals, which were easy to get in that time of the year. The part that carcasses took in stomachs content were also high (41 % of 280 g). Supplemental food were small mammals. In summer samples fruits took the biggest part in the diet (47 % of 138 g); the most common was cherry (Prunus avium) (30 %). Rodents, especially voles from genus Microtus, were also important regarding biomass (23 %). Winter diet of males and females was similar in a cultural landscape of Lower Savinija valley. Winter diet of one year old foxes was different from the diet of two and more years old foxes. Young foxes ate mainly easy accessible carcasses, while older foxes preyed mainly small rodents; the cause of this difference were experiences. Older foxes had more experiences in hunting. They gained experieces with age.

  • Golavek K. Prehrana lisice (Vulpes vulpes) v kulturni krajini. Dipl. delo. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehnika fakulteta, Odd. za biologijo, 2008

    V

    Kljuna dokumentacijska informacija (KDI)

    Key Words Documentation (KWD)

    Kazalo vsebine

    Kazalo preglednic

    Kazalo slik

    1 UVOD ................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Biologija navadne lisice (Vulpes vulpes Linne 1758) ........................................... 2

    1.1.1 Sistematika ........................................................................................................... 2

    1.1.2 Telesne lastnosti ................................................................................................... 3

    1.1.3 Razirjenost.......................................................................................................... 4

    1.1.4 Aktivnost............................................................................................................... 6

    1.1.5 Razmnoevanje in ivljenjska doba................................................................... 6

    1.1.6 ivljenjski prostor ............................................................................................... 8

    1.1.7 Socialni odnosi.................................................................................................... 11

    1.1.8 Iztrebki ............................................................................................................... 12

    1.2 Lisica in lovek.................................................................................................... 13

    1.3 Lisica kot plenilec................................................................................................ 16

    1.4 Cilji diplomske naloge......................................................................................... 23

    2 METODE DELA ............................................................................................... 24

    2.1 Metode raziskovanja prehrane zveri.................................................................... 24

    2.2 Material in metode vzorenja .............................................................................. 25

    2.2.1 Terensko delo ...........................