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  • University of California, Irvine

    http://www.apep.uci.edu

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    Advanced Power and Energy Program

    POWERING THE FUTURE

    OF TRANSPORTATION

    Scott Samuelsen, Director

    Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

    April 10, 2009

  • 2/27Portland State University, April 2009

  • 3/27Portland State University, April 2009

    COMBUSTION

    CO2 + H2O + N2 + POLLUTANTS

    GHG SMOG

    AIR

    FUEL COMBUSTION

    ENGINEEXHAUST

    THERMAL ENERGY

    94% OF WORLDS CO2 90% OF WORLDS POLLUTANTS

    SOURCE: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

    80% OF WORLDS POWER

    TON

  • 4/27Portland State University, April 2009

    WORLD ENERGY DEMAND

    ENERGY DEMAND

    WORLD ENERGY DEMAND[Million B/D Oil Equivalent]

    SOURCE: IEA WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK

    Other

    Transportation

    Industry

    Electric Power

    Residential and Services

    TRANSPORTATION

    ELECTRIC POWER

    2000

    2030

  • 5/27Portland State University, April 2009

    SOURCE: IEA WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK

    GHG INTENSITY

    WORLD GHG INTENSITY[Billion Metric T/Y]

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    2000 2030

    Transportation

    Residential and Services

    Other

    Electric Power

    Industry

    ELECTRIC POWER

    TRANSPORTATION

  • 6/27Portland State University, April 2009

    #1 GREEN HOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990)

    FORCES FOR CHANGE

    #2 POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940)

    #3 HUBBERTS CURVE (1980)

    #4 FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11)

    #5 NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11)

  • 7/27Portland State University, April 2009

    HUBBERTS CURVEB

    ILL

    ION

    B

    BL

    /Y

    YEAR

    2020P

    ET

    RO

    LE

    UM

    PR

    OD

    UC

    TIO

    N R

    AT

    E

  • 8/27Portland State University, April 2009

    #1 GREENHOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990)

    #2 POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940)

    #3 HUBBERTS CURVE (1980)

    #4 FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11)

    #5 NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11)

    PARADIGM SHIFTS

    ELECTRIC POWER

    TRANSPORTATION

    FUEL

    ENGINE

    CONSERVATION

    ELECTRICAL POWER

    PERSONAL VEHICLE

    PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

    BUILDING DESIGN

    URBAN DESIGN

    FORCES FOR CHANGE

  • 9/27Portland State University, April 2009

    CALIFORNIA

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    1990 2000 2004 2020 2050

    Year

    80% Reduction

    30% Reduction

    GH

    G E

    mis

    sio

    ns

    [M

    MT

    CO

    2e]

    AB 32

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    1990 2000 2004 2020 2050

    0

    Year

  • 10/27Portland State University, April 2009

    #1 GREENHOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990)

    #2 POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940)

    #3 HUBBERTS CURVE (1980)

    #4 FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11)

    #5 NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11)

    PARADIGM SHIFTS

    ELECTRIC POWER

    TRANSPORTATION

    FUEL

    ENGINE

    CONSERVATION

    ELECTRICAL POWER

    PERSONAL VEHICLE

    PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

    BUILDING DESIGN

    URBAN DESIGN

    FORCES FOR CHANGE

  • 11/27Portland State University, April 2009

    COMBUSTION

    AIR

    FUEL COMBUSTION

    ENGINEEXHAUST

    THERMAL ENERGY

  • 12/27Portland State University, April 2009

    FOSSIL FUEL

    FUEL CELLS

    ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    COMBUSTION

    ELECTRICITY

    COMBUSTION

    THERMAL ENERGY

    EXPANSION

    PISTON

    GENERATOR

    ELECTRICITY

    FOSSIL FUEL

    80% OF WORLDS POWER

    94% OF WORLDS CO2 90% OF WORLDS POLLUTANTS

  • 13/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Load

    e

    Product Gases

    Residual Fuel

    Fuel Oxidant

    Anode CathodeElectrolyte

    (ION CONDUCTOR)

    Product Gases

    Residual Oxidant

    ee

    H2H2O

    O2H+

    FUEL CELL STACK

  • 14/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Fuel Cell Types Slide

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

  • 15/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Fuel Cell Vehicle

    FC

    60 %

  • 16/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Fuel Cell Vehicle

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    University of California, Irvine

  • 17/27Portland State University, April 2009

    0.20 1.00.4 0.6 0.8

    Gasoline Vehicle

    CO2 EMISSION: FUEL and VEHICLE

    Today Gasoline HV

    Hydrogen HV

    FCHV

    Fuel Vehicle

    FCHV(H2OH2 by Renewable Energy)

    FCHV (CoalHydrogen)

    FCHV (Natural GasHydrogen)

    FCHV (Biomass)

    Target

    Fuel

    Vehicle

    (Natural GasHydrogen)

  • 18/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Fuel Cell Types Slide

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

  • 19/27Portland State University, April 2009

    WASTEWATER TREATMENT 6.10

    MOBILE RENEWABLES 3.90

    HOTELS 2.75

    GOVERNMENT 2.25

    UNIVERSITIES 1.00

    BREWERIES 1.00

    INDUSTRIAL 1.20

    MANUFACTURING 0.50

    FOOD PROCESSING 0.50

    UTILITIES 0.25

    TOTAL = 19.45 MW

    Sierra Nevada Brewery

    Chico

    SOURCE: WWW.CASFCC.ORG

    Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Tulare

    California State University

    Northridge

    Sheraton Hotel

    San Diego

  • 20/27Portland State University, April 2009

    ENERGY STATION

    Electric Power Generation

    Thermal Power Generation

    Hydrogen Generation

    NATURAL GAS

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    University of California, Irvine

  • 21/27Portland State University, April 2009

    HTFC

    47 MJ

    electricity

    =47%

    43 MJ H2

    =100%

    53 MJ high

    quality heat

    with Tri-

    Generation

    143 MJ of

    CH4

    HTFC

    43 MJ H2

    =100%

    53 MJ high

    quality heat

    with Tri-

    Generation

    High-Temperature Fuel Cell with H2 Tri-Generation

  • 22/27Portland State University, April 2009

    ENERGY STATION

    Electric Power Generation

    Thermal Power Generation

    Hydrogen Generation

    NATURAL GASDIGESTER GAS

    LAND-FILL GAS

    GREEN ENERGY STATION

    Green Electricity

    Green Thermal Power

    Green Hydrogen

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    University of California, Irvine

  • 23/27Portland State University, April 2009

    STORAGE

    TANK

    ADG

    HOT

    WATER

    HEAT

    EXCHANGER ANAEROBIC

    DIGESTION

    GAS HOLDER

    SLUDGE

    DIGESTER

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    University of California, Irvine

    High-Temperature Fuel Cell with H2 Tri-Generation

    BOILER

    HYDROGENHYDROGEN

    STORAGE

    HYDROGEN

    DISPENSER

    FUEL

    TREATMENT

    AC

    POWER

    PROJECT

    HIGH-T

    FUEL CELL

    PROJECT

    Orange County Sanitation District

    Euclid Exit, I405, Fountain Valley

    Support: DOE, ARB, AQMD

    October 2009

  • 24/27Portland State University, April 2009

    DUAL FUEL

    POWER CONTROL UNIT

    SECONDARY

    BATTERY

    MOTOR

    FUEL CELL HYDROGEN

    FUEL CELL PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLE

  • 25/27Portland State University, April 2009

    HYBRID FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    C

    C

    C

    AIR

    FUEL

    C T T GENERATOR

    C = Compressor; T = Turbine

    60%

    70%

    70+%

    EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    HYBRID FC/GT

  • 26/27Portland State University, April 2009

    Locomotives

    Ships

    Trucks

    Aircraft

    HYBRID FC/GT

    HYBRID FC/GT

    HYBRID FC/GT

    HYBRID FC/GT

  • 27/27Portland State University, April 2009

    NEXUS: TRANSPORTATION and ELECTRICITY

    SOURCE: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

    NEXUS: TRANSPORTATION and WATER

    NEXUS: ELECTRICITY and WATER

    GHGs

    POLLUTANTS

    CONSUMPTION OF OXYGEN

    POWERING THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION

  • University of California, Irvine

    http://www.apep.uci.edu

    National Fuel Cell Research Center

    Advanced Power and Energy Program

    POWERING THE FUTURE

    OF TRANSPORTATION

    Scott Samuelsen, Director

    Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

    April 10, 2009