Pineapple Seminar Taiwan

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  • World Culture of World Culture of PineapplePineapple

    Practices and ProblemsPractices and Problems

    Dr. Duane P. BartholomewProfessor, University of Hawaii

    Chair, Pineapple Working Group of ISHSVice Chair, Section on Tropical and Subtropical Crops, ISHS

  • World Culture of PineappleWorld Culture of Pineapple

    Pineapple origins Areas of production

    Major producing countries Principle cultivars

    Physiology and environment, effects and interactions

    Overview of cultural practices Problems

  • Pineapple Origins Pineapple Origins

    Family Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus varcomosus

    Probable origin Northern Brazil,

    Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela

    Tropical plant Soil adaptation

    Low pH High Al and Mn

  • Pineapple OriginsPineapple Origins

    Ancestors

    Amerindian selections

  • Areas of ProductionAreas of Production

    Where produced Between 30 N and S latitude Produced in at least 40 countries in tropics

    Central and South America (Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador, etc.)

    Africa (Nigeria, Kenya, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, South Africa)

    Asia (China, Indonesia, India) Australia Island nations (Philippines, Taiwan, Okinawa, Sri

    Lanka, Caribbean, Pacific Islands, Mauritius, etc.)

  • Areas of Production Areas of Production -- Fresh FruitFresh Fruit

    Most countries produce pineapple for in-country fresh consumption

    Major producers (country and rank) Brazil (#1 in total production; small export

    industry) Costa Rica (#1 in fruit for export) Ecuador (mostly fruit for export) China (local consumption) Taiwan (local consumption and export)

  • Areas of Production Areas of Production -- ProcessingProcessing

    Common packs Slices, chunks, tidbits, crush,

    juice Major producers

    Thailand Rank #2 in world Thousands of small farms

    Philippines Rank #3 Two large plantations

    Indonesia Largest plantation in world Rank #3 in processing

    Kenya Singapore Australia and South Africa

    (small industries)

  • Principle CultivarsPrinciple Cultivars

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment Environmental factors affecting growth

    Water 12 to 36 month crop Drought slows growth

    Pineapple survives extreme drought

    Irrigation or uniform rainfall sustains growth Solar radiation

    Less limiting than temperature Temperature

    Multiple important effects

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Photosynthesis (Ps) by pineapple Ps is relatively insensitive to temperature Water stress reduces growth before Ps declines CO2 is fixed by Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) Four phases recognized

    I, CO2 fixed at night into malic acid II, CO2 fixed in morning III, stomata closed, C reduction by C3 pathway IV, CO2 fixation by C3 pathway

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Respiration (R) Maintains existing tissue Provides energy and skeletons for biosynthesis,

    growth Increases rapidly with increasing temperature

    More sensitive than photosynthesis

    Net assimilation rate (NAR, g kg-1 day-1) Ps produces sugars R consumes sugars R mainly sensitive to temperature NAR also sensitive to temperature

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    T (C)(Day/Night)

    Day CO2mol/m2

    (D leaf)

    Night CO2mol/m2

    (D leaf)

    Total CO2mol/m2

    (D leaf)

    RGRg kg-1 d-1

    (Plant)

    30/20 57.0 250.1 307.1 7.2

    30/25 59.9 130.7 190.6 6.6

    35/25 29.1 179.0 208.1 6.9

    Data of Zhu et al., 1999

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Adaptation to environment Little written about adaptation of cultivars Nothing published about clones Does adaptation matter?

    Pineapple grown from ~30 N to ~30 S Latitude Temperature range

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Average temperature effects on growth South Africa (30 S Lat; cold)

    200 g shoot, 14+ months to 4.5 pound plant Hawaii (20 N Lat; moderate)

    200 g shoot, 10 months to 4.5 pound plant Thailand, Ghana, Indonesia (5 6 N (S) Lat;

    hot, humid) 200 g slip, 7 months to 4.5 pound plant

    Large variation in plant quality

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    ~80% of plant weight is leaves Leaf expansion rate

    Slower in cool than in hot environments Leaf dry matter content

    Higher in cool than in hot environments. Stem dry matter content

    Increases with plant age/size Higher in cool than in hot environments

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment Sensitivity to forced flowering (ethylene)

    Low Smooth Cayenne (SC) Sensitivity increases, with limits, with plant size

    High(er) 73-114 (MD-2), Queen, Singapore Spanish

    Cultural practices help minimize effects of environment SC difficult to force in hot, humid tropics

    Imposing stress (reduced N) increases sensitivity Sensitive cultivars flower precociously in cool

    environments Promoting rapid growth reduces sensitivity

    High N, optimum irrigation

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    81 days growth at day/night T

    30/20 30/30

    Fruit F wt., g 392 270**

    Crown F wt., g 60.2 214.1**

    Stem D wt., g 82.3 44.6**

    Stem F wt., g 343.3 314.9

    Leaf F wt., g 2239.9 2136.7**Significantly different at 0.01 levelMin & Bartholomew, 1995

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Harvest index calculated from plant fresh weight at forcing and fruit weight at harvest. Fig. 6.12, Hepton, 2003

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    0.40.50.60.70.80.91.01.1

    2 4 6 8 10 12

    Stem DM as % plant DM at force

    F

    r

    u

    i

    t

    F

    M

    /

    p

    l

    a

    n

    t

    F

    M

    a

    t

    f

    o

    r

    c

    e

    Effect of stem dry-matter content on harvest index calculated from plant freshweight at forcing and fruit weight at harvest. Hepton et al., 1993.

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Day from forcing of SC to harvest 130 (Ghana) to ~300 (South Africa)

    Slip and sucker development (ratooning) Forcing breaks apical dominance Good ratoons

    Suckers begin to develop before harvest in cool environments (Hawaii, Queensland, South Africa)

    Ratooning difficult Suckers begin to develop after harvest in hot environments

    (Thailand, Indonesia) Plants lack reserves; fruit strongest sink for CH2O Sucker development is erratic

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Fruit quality Total soluble solids (Brix) Acidity Flavors

    Fruit diseases/disorders No time

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and Environment

    Zhu, Bartholomew and Goldstein, 2005

  • Physiology and EnvironmentPhysiology and EnvironmentEffects of CAM on water useEffects of CAM on water use

    CAM plants use water very efficiently

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- Land PreparationLand Preparation

    Clearing Knock down and desiccate old

    pineapple plants Plow, disc, harrow, etc.

    Cameco Equipment Co.

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- Land PreparationLand Preparation

    Subsoil to break up hard pan

    Other tillage Produce friable

    planting bed

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- Land PreparationLand Preparation

    Bed formation Improves drainage Improve aeration where water table high Marks plant location

    Courtesy of Graham Petty

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- Land PreparationLand Preparation

    Mulching Mostly used with fumigation

    Retains fumigant Controls weeds Raises soil temperature

    Important effect in cool environments Improves moisture distribution Determine plant spacing (note marks) Expensive

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- Land PreparationLand Preparation

    Broadcast amendments Manure Lime (for Ca and to adjust pH) Phosphorus (rock phosphate or soluble forms)

    Fumigation Used for nematode control

    Pre-plant fertilization Band N, K and P if not broadcast

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices -- PlantingPlanting

    Vegatativepropagation Seed fragile Tons/ha required

    200 g tops 13.2 mT ha-1 @

    66,000 plants ha-1

    15 mT ha-1 @ 75,000 plants ha-1

    Courtesy of Graham Petty

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices PlantingPlanting

    Vegetative propagation Quality deteriorates

    quickly with storage

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices PlantingPlanting

    Grading for quality Weight or length Big = faster growth

  • Cultural Cultural Practices Practices

    PlantingPlanting Uniformity

    Treat to control pests and diseases

    Plant same types together

    Good soil-seed piece contact

    Uniformity improves yield Uniform plant size Uniform forcing Uniform fruit maturation

  • Cultural Practices Cultural Practices Fertilization & Fertilization & Pest/Disease ControlPest/Disease Control

    Post-plant spraying Plant nutrients (foliar)

    N, Fe Mg, P, Zn, B

    Herbicides Insecticides

    Mealy bugs Fungicides

    Phytophthora rots Growth regulators

    Forcing De-greening

    Cameco Equipment Co.

  • Tractor or trailer sprayers used on small farms in South Africa, and Australia

    Hand spraying don