Pineapple Report

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    SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

    FOOD TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

    IMK 226

    POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    POST-HARVEST HANDLING SYSTEM OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT REPORT

    GROUP 3:

    LECTURER: DR. HAYATI SAMSUDIN

    DATE OF SUBMITTION: 5th MAY 2016

    NAME MATRIC NO.

    AKMAL HUSAINY BIN ANNUAR HUSAINY 124793

    ALIA NAJIHAH BINTI MOHD RASHID 124794

    HENG CIA KHAI 124825

    MADIHAH HUSNA BINTI MUHAMMED 124846

     NAFEESA BINTI MOHAMAD JILANI 124856

     NASREEN BINTI ZHARI 124857

    SHAIRAH HANIS BINTI MEOR IBRAHIM 124906

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    TABLE OF CONTENT

    No Content  Page 

    1. Introduction 2

    2. Objective

    3

    3. Material and methods

    4. Result presentation 4 - 10

    5.

    Discussion

    (a) Farm

    (b) Transportation & Grading

    (c) Market

    (d) Consumer

    11 –  18

    6 Conclusion 19

    7 References 20 –  21

    8 Appendix 22 - 25

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    INTRODUCTION

    Pineapple or in scientific known as  Ananas comosus is one of the most popular and

    appreciated tropical fruit around the world. Furthermore, pineapple was ‘discovered’ in

    America as cultivated plant by Christopher Columbus in 1492, who took specimens back

    to Europe (Amar bin Talip, Tong P.S and Casey Ng, 2015). One of its original native

    names in Brazil was nana, from which scientific name Ananas (Amar bin Talip, Tong P.S

    and Casey Ng, 2015). Nine variety of pineapple are planted across Malaysia today, such

    as N36, Sarawak, Moris, Moris Gajah, Gandul, Yankee, Josapine, MD2 and Masapine.

    MD2 is a hybrid species of pineapple that is brought in from the Philippines. 

    Pineapples plants flower between twelve and eighteen months of growth. The whole

     process of planting pineapples seed to harvesting pineapple fruits are normally between nineteen and twenty-four months. Pineapples are non-climacteric fruits. Thus, harvesting

     period is very crucial for this fruit since there is significant change in ripening after

    harvest. Pineapples are a good source of nutrients such as vitamin C, manganese, copper

    and folate. Bromelain is a type of enzyme that can be found in the pineapple fruit and

    abundantly in the core of the pineapple. Bromelain enzyme is widely used a meat

    tenderizer in cooking.

    Pineapple is a very versatile fruit since it can be consumed fresh, juice, dried, canned or as an ingredient in various recipes. Some pineapples are even made into jams and

    marmalade. The varieties of products that can be developed using pineapples are the

    reason they are well known in many countries and cultures around the globe.

    Post-harvest handling system that consist of harvesting, storage, processing,

     packaging, transporting and marketing of crops plays a very important role in meeting

    food requirements and standards by eliminating avoidable losses that can occur after the

    harvesting process. Good agriculture practices helps in minimizing yield loss in fruits and

    vegetables farms. On a larger point of view, higher yield can open opportunities to a

    larger market scale.

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    OBJECTIVE

    1)  To investigate the pre-harvest and post-harvest handling system of pineapple fruit in

     pineapple farm during planting, harvesting, transportation, storage, packaging house

    and at market or supermarket.

    2)  To identify the cause of loss of yield and quality of pineapple produce from the farm,

    transportation, warehouse and markets.

    3)  To understand further how the environmental factors and farmer’s practices can

    affect the quality and number of saleable pineapple produce.

    4)  To apply Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices

    (GMP) in the existing chain to help minimize crop loss.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD

    In this project, the fruit that had been chosen is pineapple, a local fruit that can be

     plant at various types of soil and ground. The pineapple farm located at Kampung

    Sekolah, Juru is a 10 acres mineral soil land. The visit was planned two weeks before the

    suggested date of 11th April 2016. The Lembaga Perindustrian Nenas Malaysia (LPNM),

    Penang branch had been prior noticed before the visit. Mr. Syed Ghazali had been the

    officer in charge to usher and guide at the farm. This farm had been chosen due to the

    demographic aspects of place and time. It took only about 40 minutes from Penang Island

    to reach there. Local farmers harvest the whole process while the seeds were provided to

    the farmers by the LPNM Penang Branch.

    Mr Anuar from LPNM Johor branch was also contacted to understand better how

    implementation of MyGAP or Malaysia Good Agriculture Practice in the pineapple farm

    is carried out. Comparisons between practices in pineapple farm located in Johor and the

    farm we visited was made. The students spent about two and a half hours to gather all the

    input and carry the site visit. Various aspects from preparing a land plot for pineapple

     planting to harvesting and maturity indexes were discussed and explained by En. Ghazali.

    Using local labor, the growth and development of the pineapple plants are monitored by

    LPNM.

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    RESULT

    Flow chat of post-harvest process of pineapple

    Direct

    selling

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    1) Farm

    Figure 1: The space required for pineapple plant growth.

    Figure 2: Fence as physical barrier for farm.

    Figure 3: Plant growth regulator to promote flowering in pineapple

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    Figure 4: 5% NPN organic fertilizer.

    Figure 5: Fertilizing process carried out by farmer.

    Figure 6: Unripe pineapple fruit.

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    2) Transportation

    Figure 7: Pineapples transported by lorry.

    Source: https://reader015.{domain}/reader015/html5/0717/5b4cdf89c51e6/5b4cdf94cbae9.jpg 

    3) Market

    Figure 8: Moris pineapple for sale at supermarket

    http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpg http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpg http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpg http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpg

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    4) Direct Selling

    Figure 9: Pineapple, pineapple juice and pineapple slices sold at pineapple farm

    Figure 10: Pineapple jelly sold at pineapple farm.

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    5) Consumer 

    Figure 11: Pineapple jamsold commercially.

    Source : http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg 

    Figure 12: Pineapple juice commercially sold.

    Source :

    http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b8501

    2777af7 

    http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7 http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7 http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7 http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7 http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7 http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg

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    Figure 13 :Canned pineapple cubes in syrup commercially sold.

    Source:

    http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/produ

    ct/L/10674527_L1.jpg 

    Figure 14: Freshly consumed pineapple

    Source :

    http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1 

    http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1 http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1 http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1 http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg

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    DISCUSSION

    1) Farm

    i) Type of pineapple

    Two species of pineapples were planted on the visited pineapple farm which is

    Moris sp. and MD2 sp. Both species were selected to b