Photoshop and Photography for Beginners

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    Highly Integrated Low-Power Radars

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    For a complete listing of titles in the  Artech House Radar Series,

    turn to the back of this book.

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    Highly Integrated Low-Power Radars

    Sergio Saponara

    Maria Greco

    Egidio Ragonese

    Giuseppe Palmisano

    Bruno Neri

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data   A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 

     A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Cover design by Igor Valdman

    ISBN 13: 978-1-60807-665-9

    © 2014 ARTECH HOUSE 685 Canton Street Norwood, MA 02062

     All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission

    in writing from the publisher.  All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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    Contents

      Preface i x 

      Acknowledgments xiii 

    1 Scenarios, Applications, and Requirements for

    Highly Integrated Low-Power Radar 1

      References 8

    2 Radar Integration Levels, Technology Trends,

    and Transceivers 11

    2.1 Radar Integration Levels 11

    2.1.1 System-on-a-Single-Chip 11

    2.1.2 System-in-a-Package 12

    2.1.3 Single-Board Radar 13

    2.2 Next Steps in Radar Miniaturization 14

    2.3 Integrated Antennas 15

    2.4 Semiconductor Technology and Devices for Integrated

    Radar 18

    2.5 Trends in IC Radar Design 21

    2.5.1 MIC and MMIC Technology 21 2.5.2 Si-Based Technology 22

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    vi   Highly Integrated Low-Power Radars

    2.6 Radar Transceivers 25

      References 28

    3 Hardware-Software Implementing Platforms for

    Radar Digital Signal Processing 31

    3.1 Implementing Platforms and Performance Metrics for

    Radar Signal Processing 31

    3.1.1 Implementing Platforms for Radar Digital Signal

    Processing 31

    3.1.2 Main Performance Metrics for Radar Implementing

    Platforms 34

    3.2 Hardware-Software Architecture for a Cost-Effective

    Radar 38

    3.3 DSP and GPU for Radar Signal Processing 40

    3.3.1 Vector DSP and the CELL Many-Core Computing

    Engine 42

    3.3.2 GPU 44

    3.3.3 VLIW DSP for Space Applications (DSPace) Processor 48

    3.4 FPGA for Radar Signal Processing 57

    3.4.1 Overview of FPGAs 57

    3.4.2 High-End FPGA for Radar Signal Processing 59

    3.4.3 Cost-Effective FPGA for Radar Signal Processing 61

    3.5 Conclusions 66

      References 68

    4 Radar for E-Health Applications: Signal Processing

    Perspective 71

    4.1 General Characteristic of the Sensor and Its Functions 71

    4.2 CW Doppler Radar for Health Care Monitoring 72

    4.3 Choice of Carrier Frequency 78

    4.4 Phase Noise and Range-Correlation 78

    4.5 Front-End Architectures 79

    4.5.1 Homodyne 80

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      Contents   vii 

    4.5.2 Double-Sideband Heterodyne 80

    4.6 UWB Radar for Health Care Monitoring 81

    4.7 UWB Radar with Correlator 83

    4.8 Conclusions 85

      References 86

    5 Radar for Automotive Applications: Signal Processing

    Perspective 89

    5.1 General Characteristic of the Sensor and Its Functions 89

    5.2 Signal Processing for the Single Sensor 91

    5.2.1 Range and Frequency Estimation 93

    5.2.2 CFAR Processing 97

    5.2.3 Azimuth Direction of Arrival Estimation 100

    5.2.4 Target Tracking 104

    5.3 SRR Radar 108

    5.4 Conclusions 111   References 111

    6 Low-Power Radar Front-End for E-Health and Harbor

    Surveillance: Implementation Examples 115

    6.1 Summary 115

    6.2 Miniaturized Radar for E-Health 116

    6.3 Microwave Integrated Circuit 122

    6.3.1 The Substrates 124

    6.3.2 Design, Simulation, and Realization of Microwave

    Integrated Circuits 125

    6.4 Low-Cost Radar Prototype for Harbor Surveillance 126

    6.4.1 Feasibility Study and Dimensioning 127

    6.4.2 Realization 130 6.4.3 Data Processing 132

      References 134

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    viii   Highly Integrated Low-Power Radars

    7 Automotive Radar IC Design: 24-GHz UWB and 77-GHz

    FMCW Implementation Examples 137

    7.1 Silicon Technologies for Automotive Radar 138

    7.2 A Fully Integrated 24-GHz UWB SRR Sensor 139

    7.2.1 Sensor Architecture 140

    7.2.2 PLL Circuit Design 143

    7.2.3 RX Circuit Design 146

    7.2.4 TX Circuit Design 152

    7.2.5 On-Chip Inductive Component Design 155

    7.2.6 Radar Sensor Implementation 159

    7.3 Transmitter Chipset for 24-/77-GHz Automotive Radar Sensors 159

    7.3.1 Design of the 77-GHz TX Front-End 162

    7.3.2 Experimental Results of the 77-GHz TX Front-End 165

    7.4 W-Band TX Front-End for FMCW Automotive Radar 167

    7.4.1 Design of the W-Band TX Front-End 167

    7.4.2 Experimental Results of the W-Band TX Front-End 174

    7.5 W-Band RX Front-End for FMCW Automotive Radar 175

    7.5.1 Design of the W-Band RX Front-End 178

    7.5.2 Experimental Results of the W-Band RX Front-End 180

      References 183

    8 Conclusions 187

      List of Acronyms 191

      About the Authors 203

      Index 209

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    ix 

    Preface The main idea behind this book is that radar, properly designed to minimize its power consumption, size, and cost, has the potential to become in the near future a ubiquitous contactless sensor for large market applications.

    The large amount of business that can be derived from ubiquitous radar sensing justifies research from industry and academia in this direction.

    The origin of this book was the plenary talk entitled “Advances in Tech- nologies and Architectures for Low-Power and Highly-Integrated Ubiquitous Radars” that I was invited to give at the IEEE Radar Conference (Radarcon 2012) in Atlanta, GA, in May 2012 and the tutorial entitled “RF and Digital Components for Radar” that was held at the same conference with my col- league, IEEE Fellow Prof. Maria Greco.

     According to the main theme of Radarcon 2012, “Ubiquitous Radar: Op- portunity, Needs, and Solutions for Innovative Radar,” the plenary talk and the tutorial presented recent advances in silicon technologies, integrated hardware- software architectures, and radar signal processing techniques enabling the real- ization of highly integrated ubiquitous radars with low cost, compact size, and

    low power consumption. Since then, accepting the invitation of Mark Walsh from Artech, the team

    of authors for the book has been enlarged to benefit of the experience acquired in several R&D laboratories in academia and industry: the signal processing and remote sensing lab, the RF and microwave IC lab, and the electronic systems lab at the University of Pisa (Professors Maria Greco, Bruno Neri, and Sergio Saponara, respectively) and the Radio Frequency Advanced Design Center (RF-

     ADC), a joint research center of University of Catania and STMicroelectronics

    (Dr. Egidio Ragonese and Prof. Giuseppe Palmisano).  As discussed in the book, radar has some key characteristics that make it a

    unique contactless sensor solution with respect to other competing technologies

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    x   Highly Integrated Low-Power Radars

    for large market applications (laser, lidar, visible or infrared cameras, ultra- sound, capacitive sensors, etc.). Radar is a sensor capable of operating in all

     weather conditions and gives to the user a multitude of information and data about the sensed target: if there is a target or not, its distance, its relative speed,

    and its direction of arrival. Moreover, radar works with nonionizing radiation and hence can be used for vital sign contactless monitoring in biomedical ap- plications, and often it can operate in harsh environmental conditions (extreme temperatures, humidity, radiation levels, etc.).

    To reach this goal, the approach to radar design and the performance required of radar should be different than traditional approaches.

    The development of a conventional radar technique was mainly pushed by military applications during the Second World War with high-power, large-

    sized