Citizen Classes, Beginners Photography
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- 1. Digital BasicsCapture LightManual Mode
2. TERMINOLOGY: Exposure: combination of Shutter & Aperture & ISO Exposure Reading: light meter reading of your shutter & aperture combination example: ( 1/125 @ f11 ) Exposure ZEROED: EV scale is centered ( balance of Shutter + Aperture ) EV: exposure value measurement of light Shutter: curtain that opens allowing light to expose sensor- 1/sec. Aperture: bladed diaphragm in lens that opens and closes ISO: sensitivity of your camera to record light Over Exposure: to much light creating bright photographs Under Exposure: not enough light creating dark photographs Density: the amount of light detail in your photographs Shadow density: the darkest area in your photograph Highlight density: the lightest area in your photograph Depth of Field: the focus distance in front and behind subject Shoot (shooting): slang for taking picture Scene: the total area in your view finder Subject: the area in your photography that is your point of interest Ambient or Available Light: the existing light in your scene indoor or outdoor 3. Manual Mode: understanding exposure and camera functions1. You control all camera functions and exposure 4. Camera settings: shooting setup Manual Mode: use for total control ISO: indoors start at ISO 400 outdoors start at ISO 200 WB: set to AWB ( average or auto white balance ) Quality : High JPEG ( RAW for advanced ) Focus target: center ( AUTO FOCUS not MANUAL FOCUS ) Meter Mode: center weighed ( spot for advanced) Flash: turn flash on, locate flash compensation 5. Shutter Speed: designated by 1/125 WHERE IS YOUR SHUTTER CONTROL Controls subject movement and camera blur Control for stopping action (higher your ISO the faster you can shoot) Shutter speed refers to fraction of a second 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 6. Aperture: designated by f/numbers called f/stops WHERE IS YOUR APERTURE CONTROL Allows light to enter camera by the size of the diaphragm The larger the f/number the smaller the diaphragm allowing less light into camera The larger the f/number the more DEPTH of FIELD ( range of sharpness) 7. Aperture DEPTH of FIELD: Determines the range of sharpness in front and behind subject The larger the APERTURE the more depth of field and sharpness f5.6 f16( Less Depth of Field ) ( More Depth of Field ) 8. DEPTH of FIELD: SAMPLES f5.6 f22 f5.6 f22 9. Camera LIGHT METER: EV ( exposure value ) bar scale in finder Meter scale explanation: under, over and center point 10. Light Meter Reading : simplified Exposure is always balance of SHUTTER + APERTURE + (ISO) When metering adjust your SHUTTER & APERTURE till exposure is ZEROED Rule of Thumb: when you adjust one control you need to adjust the other ( example: NORMAL exposure -1/125 @ f11 : 1/250 @ f8 ) 11. Flash: photographers best friend! Adds light to your dark areas Stops subject movement Flash power is controlled by f/stop & TTL capabilities thru lens USE FLASH OUTDOORS and INDOORS ( BALANCE TO AMBIENT )shadow exposure background exposureFLASH exposure 12. Lets Take some FOTOS 1. Team up for OUTDOORS: Canon/Nikon Normal EXPOSURE in sunlight Normal EXPOSURE in shadow Normal EXPOSURE with flash 13. ISO: controls the light sensitivity of your camera ISO choices range from ISO 100 to ISO 6400 The lower your ISO the better overall quality Increased NOISE is common with higher ISOs Rule of Thumb: Indoors you want a high ISO 400 & aboveOutdoors you want a low ISO 200 & less The higher your ISO the faster you may shoot 14. Image Quality: based on how many PIXELS you use PIXEL: picture element Rule of Thumb: determine what size your final image will be printed orviewed. Standard printers use a 300 dpi setting for their print quality.If you multiply 300 dpi x both sides or your print size, you will get thecorrect Pixel count for that size of reproduction:( example: 8x10 print - 300 x 8 = 2400 ppi & 300 x 10 = 3000 ppi ) File format determines maximum image quality: RAW or JPEG 15. Focus Mode: Manual or AUTO Remember when focus is in Manual Mode your shutter will releasewhether you are in focus or not Auto Focus normally chooses the closest subject in your target Auto Focus also relies on contrast or the lightest value in your target You will always have more control with focus on your subject if youset your focus mode to SINGLE or ONE Shot Mode 16. WB (white balance): color temperature of light AWB: auto white balance uses camera default for proper color Two distinct color balance that are widely used: Daylight & Tungsten Proper application of your CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE will give youthe best WHITE BALANCE of your digital images RAW does not allow for CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE 17. FLASH: auxiliary light source Your FLASH can be your savior in difficult light situations Your FLASH will save those photographs with horrible shadows The trick to applying your FLASH is always balance your FLASHexposure to match your AVAILABLE light in your scene Your FLASH also is your tool to stopping action Remember that your f/stop controls the power output of your FLASHPRACTICE ! PRACTICE! PRACTICE!