Optics timeline (1851 2000)

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Optical history, part II, between 1851 to 2000. Please send comments and suggestions for improvements to solo.hermelin@gmail.com. More presentations on Optics and other subjects can be found on my website at http://www.solohermelin.com.

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  • 1. 1OPTICSTIMELINE(1851 2000)SOLO HERMELINUpdated: 6.08.08 Run This

2. 2SOLO Optics Timeline(continue fromUp to 1850 ) 3. 3SOLO Spectroscopy 1851MA Masson introduced in 1851 the apparatus shown above. This is the first sparkemission spectrometer known. The set-up consists of a prism mounted on a Duboscqgoniometer with a rather complete sparking source. Underneath the set-up arerecords of the position of iron and copper emission lines in the visible domain.http://www.thespectroscopynet.com/educational/Masson.htm 4. 4SOLOColor TheoryHermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) championed Young's idea thatretinal particles varied in the light to which they were "maximallysensitive." As a result, the trichromatic theory of colour vision also cameto be known as Young-Helmholtz Theory. Influenced by his colourmixing experiments, however, Helmholtz could not accept the notion thatthere could be fewer than five colour primaries. Thus, he failed to acceptthe three retinal primaries proposed by Young.1851 5. 5PolarizationSOLOThe Stokes Polarization ParametersG.G. Stokes, On the Composition and Resolution of Streams ofPolarized Light from different Sources,Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc., Vol.9, 1852, pp.399-416 E A cos t k z x x 1 x A cos t k z 1y y y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 cos 2 sin x y x y x y x y A A A A A A A AStokes Parameters are defined asS I A Ax yS Q A Ax yS U A A2 cosx y S V A A2 sin232 212 20x y 23S 2 S 2 S 2 S0 12cos 0 A S x xyAsin 0 A S y AStokes Vector is defined as 2 2A Ax y2 2A A x yA A2 cosx yA A2 sin0SS123x yIQUVSSSStokes Parameters are observable using aproper experiment.1852George Gabriel Stokes(1819 1903)Return toPoincare 6. 6SOLO Ions 1853 - 1859Between 1853 and 1859, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf worked onion movement caused by electric current. In 1853 Hittorf pointedout that some ions traveled more rapidly than others. Thisobservation led to the concept of transport number, the fractionof the electric current carried by each ionic speciesJohann Wilhelm Hittorf1824 - 1919Hittorf was the first to compute the electricity-carryingcapacity of charged atoms and molecules (ions), animportant factor in understanding electrochemical reactions.He formulated ion transport numbers and the first methodfor their measurements 7. SOLO Optics History 1853Bausch & Lomb CompanyJohn Jacob Bausch opens his spectacle opticians businessimproting spectacles from his brother in Germany, and Borrowingfrom one friend or another and paying back each loan as it camedue. Henry Lomb, a cabinet maker and close friend who gaveLomb his first loan based on a gentlemens deal that should thebusiness become successful that Lomb would be a full partner.Lomb shortly decides to join Baush selling specticles.John Jacob Bausch1830 - 1928Henry Lomb19081848 -In 1853, Bausch opened a retail optical shop in Rochester, NewYork. Bausch sold spectacles, thermometers, field glasses,magnifiers and opera glasses. His friend Henry Lomb invested hissavings in Bausch's shop and in 1855 became his partner.Bausch and Lomb begans making photographic lenses, and fiveyears later, in 1888, they began to manufacture shutters. B & Ldominates the market and acquire a sole north Americanagreement with Zeiss lens. 8. SOLO Color Theory 1853Grassmann's Law in OpticsIn 1853, Grassmann published a theory of how colors mix; it and itsthree color laws are still taught, as Grassmann's law. Grassman'swork on this subject was inconsistent with that of Helmholtz.Hermann GntherGrassmann(1809,1877)In optics, Grassmann's law is an empirical result about humancolor perception: that chromatic sensation can be described interms of an effective stimulus consisting of linear combinationsof different light colors.Grassmann's law can be expressed in general form by stating that for a givencolor with a spectral power distribution I() the RGB coordinates are given by: R I r d 0G I g d0 B I b d0 Red requires somenegative values forthe function 9. 9SOLO Fiber Optics History 1854John TyndallIn 1854, John Tyndall demonstrated to the Royal Society that lightcould be conducted through a curved stream of water, proving that alight signal could be bent.In 1854, John Tyndall, a British physicist, demonstrated that lightcould travel through a curved stream of water thereby proving thata light signal could be bent. He proved this by setting up a tank ofwater with a pipe that ran out of one side. As water flowed fromthe pipe, he shone a light into the tank into the stream of water. Asthe water fell, an arc of light followed the water down.http://www.timbercon.com/History-of-Fiber-Optics/index.html 10. 10SOLO Microscope 1855Joseph Philip Amadios Compound microscopeCompound microscope built by Joseph Philip Amadio. Thecircular base supports from its middle a round pillar with compassjoint. The pillar holds the limb that carries the mirror, the stage,and the body-tube with an eyepiece consisting of two double-convexlenses. Focusing is by rackwork. The box contains someaccessories including three objectives.http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/museum/esim.asp?c=408030Height 290 mm,Base diameter 75 mm;Box 182x153x83 mm 11. 11SOLO Vacuum Tubes 1855Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geissler developed the mercuryvacuum pump, with this instrument he was able to create an highervacuum (2 Torr) than possible that time with standard equipment.This new developed vacuum pump enabled the production of highvacuum tubes which led to many discoveries of new physicsinstruments like the different Crookes, Hittorf, Goldstein and X-raytubesJohann Heinrich WilhelmGeissler1814 - 1879Geissler experimented with different gasses in vacuum tubes,together with Julius Plcker who worked with him and namedthem Geissler tubes. When he applied high tension to the tubesthey produced a bright luminous effect which was demonstratedfor public in 1864 together with his new mercury vacuum pump.This was the discovery of the first discharge light, in that time theGeissler tubes where sold for demonstrations at Universities,schools and later on even for home-entertainment use. In the timethat there was only electric carbon light, this was a rarephenomena. In 1874 Franz Mller joined his firm in Bonn 12. David Alter of Pittsburgh used spectroscopes of his own making to classify the spectra ofsparks and of flame. He began this work circa 1845 and published in 1854 [AmericanJournal of Science], on the spectra of metals, describing lines due to impurities and notingthat an alloy shows evidence of its fractions. In 1855, he published on the spectra of gases,speculating on the colors of the aurora and on whether the elements in meteors could befound by examining their spectra12SOLO Spectroscopy 1855David Alter (1807 1881), in Freeport, Pennsylvania, in 1855, described the spectrum ofhydrogen and other gases. In the 1840's, Alter had started the first commercial production ofbromine from brines. He also found a way to extract oil from coal, but that proved uneconomicafter the discovery of oil in Pennsylvania. His work was not widely recognized, either.Alter, D. Am. J. Sci. Arts 1854, 18, 5557Alter, D. Am. J. Sci. Arts 1855, 19, 213214Dr. Alter began studying the optical properties of matter ever since finding a piece of melted,prismatic glass in the debris of the great Pittsburgh fire of 1845. By 1855, Alter publishedanother article that expanded his original theory by including six gases, including the firstdiscovery of what came to be named the Balmer lines of hydrogen. The proof that elementalgases have spectra peculiar to themselves was an extremely important scientific advance.Alter's article contains a paragraph where he even visualized the application of spectrumanalysis to astronomy, mentioning the study and detection of elements in the combustion ofshooting-stars or luminous meteors, and daguerreotyped the dark lines of the solar spectrum.David's spectral discoveries were noted in various scientific publications in France, Germanyand Switzerland from 1854 to 1860http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrum_analysis 13. 13SOLO Microscope 1855 1869Carl Kellner microscopesCarl Kellner was a German mechanic who founded in 1849 an "OpticalInstitute" that would later become the Leitz company, makers of theLeica cameras.Carl Kellner Simple microscope, dissectinghttp://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/museum/esim.asp?c=408031Height 115 mm,Base diameter 69 mm;Case 165x94x95 mmSimple dissecting microscope signed by Carl Kellner (1826 1855). The circular iron base supports a pillar carrying the stageabove which is the lens. The mirror is hinged to the middle of thebase. The box, which also contains three objectives, carries theinitials Prof. T.T., in all likelihood those of the owner, AdolfoTargioni Tozzetti.Carl Kellner (1826 1855)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Kellner_(optician)After his early death in Wetzlar, his widow led the company, which hastwelve employees at that time. In 1856, she married her employeeFriederich Belthle (1829 1869), who from then on managed thecompany. In 1864, precision mechanic Ernst Leitz joined them; hebecame a partner on, 1865, took over the company in 1869 and re-foundedit as the Ernst Leitz GmbH. The company expanded quickly; itsnewly developed binocular microscope was a market success.Ernst Leitz I (1843-1920) 14. 14SOLO InterferenceJamins Interferometer1856J. Jamin, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 42, p.482, 1856Jules Clestin Jamin1818 - 1886S1 T 1 C2 T2 CD1 C 2 CDE1 G2 G12Jamin's InterferometerIn the Jamins Interferometer a monochromaticlight from a broad source S is broken into twoparallel beams by two parallel faces of a tick plateof glass G1. These two rays pass through toanother identical plate of glass G2 to recombineafter reflection, forming interference fringes. Ifthe plates are parallel the paths are identical.To measure the refractive index of a gas asfunction of pressure and temperature, two identicalempty tubes T1 and T2 are placed in the twoparallel beams.The g