Optical Fiber Communication | Report

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A detailed look at Optical Fiber Communication and FTTH.

Transcript of Optical Fiber Communication | Report

  • 1.UNRAVELLING FIBERS AND FIBER TO THE HOME A Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree ofBachelor of TechnologySubmitted By: Vanhishikha Bhargava (Roll No: 0941631056)Under the Supervision of Mr. Vinod C.P (Technical and Business Development Head) Advanced Fiber Systems Pvt. Ltd. No. 137/ 2, Service Road, Outer Ring Road Banaswadi, Kalyan Nagar Post Bangalore - 560043Department of Electronics and Communication G.N.I.T. (Girls) GREATER NOIDA Session 2012-20131

2. INDEX Basics of Fiber Optics and its Evolution01Color Coating05Understanding wavelengths06Types of Optical Fibers11Advantages and Disadvantages of Optical Fibers14Applications of Optical Fibers15ITU- T Standards16Connectors and its Types20Polishing and its Types27Adapters and its Types29Attenuators and its Types34FTTH Customer Premises38Cables and its Types39Losses in Optical Fibers56Splitters and its Types66Field Assembly Connectors70Splicing and its Types72Wavelength Division Multiplexing75Conclusion77Bibliography782 3. DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this project report entitled, Unravelling Fibers and Fiber To The Home, has been prepared by me during the academic year 2012-13, under the guidance and supervision of Mr.Vinod C.P (Technical and Business Development Head). I also declare that this project is the result of my own efforts and the information is collected from the companys records and the conclusion is arrived after discussing with the project head and other staff.Date: 24-07- 2012 Place: Greater NoidaSignature of the Candidate (Vanhishikha Bhargava)3 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to the department of Electronics and Communication, Greater Noida Girls Institute of Technology, GautamBuddh Technical University, for giving an opportunity to do this training which helped me to understand the real working environment.First and for most, I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Shanbhag RV ( Technical Director) and Mr. Vijay Kumar HP (Business Development Director) , who have been a source of inspiration throughout my course their guidance and advice have made this work possible.I am very grateful to Mr. Vinod C.P (Technical and Business Development Head) for his advice and guidance throughout this project.I sincerely thank Mr. Anantha B.N, Mrs. Vimala S.V, and other employees for their co-operation, without them my study would not have been a success.I also wish to present my gratitude to my parents, and all my friends who have directly and indirectly helped to bring out this project report.VANHISHIKHA BHARGAVA4 5. COMPANY PROFILE AFS is a Bangalore based original equipment manufacturer. We provide full range of passive products for network management. We manufacture, distribute and supply fiber optic products that telecom service providers require for high speed, scalable and reliable voice ,video and data services. AFS is expanding through its relentless efforts, aimed at providing true value to the wide segments of telecom and enterprise businesses all across the globe.Our Vision To be a leading manufacturer of full line fiber optic interconnect products and fiber management solutions for the telecommunication industry, as well as being an active contributor in the establishment of telecom infrastructure in the country.Our Mission To distinguish ourself as a customer driven company, providing genuine concern and competent products/services to our valued customers. We will also ensure total customer satisfaction.Production Team Backed by a strong drive for research and development, our production team is an amalgamation of technical expertise and proprietary technological expertise to provide the telecom service providers the best in Quality Technology Reliability and Design aesthetics. Our main strength is this team of highly motivated and qualified designers, researchers and engineers with a high level of knowledge and dedication. We believe in keeping close contact with world renowned academic institutions, other industry leaders and experts for understanding the evolving industry requirements.5 6. AFS GREEN POLICY Our green policy is based on providing efficient and eco-friendly practices and products, which upon usage and disposal will have minimal impact on the environment. We are committed to apply the best green practices and strive to provide eco sustainability in all the activities we undertake. We are committed towards reducing our carbon footprint and improving out green credentials.Our GREEN COMMITMENT stands for 1. Energy conservation. Use of energy efficient lighting (CFL) Use of public transportation or taking a walk instead of using a car Working with other green businesses 2. 3Rs -Reduce Waste-Reduce material-Recycle waste By reducing waste we try to optimise the full use of a product in its life cycle. Use of digital and electronic and digital communication before using print or paper based communication. Thus, promoting a PAPERLESS office in the long run. By reusing paper, we ensure that our carbon footprint is minimised. All waste papers are disposed through recycling only and using them on both sides. For recycling, we work with NGOs to ensure that we have zero discharge to the landfill.6 7. INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBRES ORIGIN OF OPTICAL FIBRES Optical communication systems date back two centuries, to the OPTICAL TELEGRAPH" invented by French engineer Claude Chappe in the 1790s. His system was a series of semaphores mounted on towers, where human operators relayed messages from one tower to the next. It beat hand-carried messages hands down, but by the mid 19th century, it was replaced by the electric telegraph, leaving a scattering of telegraph hills as its most visible legacy. In the 1840s, physicist Daniel Collodo and Jacques Babinet showed that light could be directed along jets of water for fountain displays. In 1854, John Tyndall, a British physicist, demonstrated that light could travel through a curved stream of water thereby proving that a light signal could be bent. He proved this by setting up a tank. He proved this by setting up a tank of water with a pipe that ran out of one side. As water flowed from the pipe, he shone a light into the tank into the stream of water. As the water fell, an arc of light followed the water down. Alexander Graham Bell patented an optical telephone system, which he called PHOTOPHONE, in 1880, but his earlier invention, the telephone , proved far more practical. He dreamed of sending signals through air, but the atmosphere did not transmit light as reliably as wires carried electricity. In the intervening years, new technology that would ultimately solve the problem of optical transmission slowly took root, although it was a long time before it was adapted for communications. This technology depended on the phenomenon of TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION, which can confine light in a material surrounded by other material with lower refractive index such as glass and air .Optical fibers went a step further. They are essentially transparent rod glass or plastic stretched to be long and flexible.7 8. BASICS OF OPTICAL FIBRES Optical fiber is a medium in which communication signals are transmitted from one location to another in the form of light through thin fibers of glass or plastic. These signals are digital pulses or continuously modulated analog streams of light representing information. These can be voice information, data information, computer information, video information or any other type of information. This same type of information can be sent on metallic wires such as twisted pair and coax (coaxial cables) and through the air on microwave frequencies. Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that happens when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, no light can pass through and all of the light is reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflection occurs. When light crosses a boundary between materials with different kinds of refractive indices, the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e. the ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that it travels along the boundary then the light will stop crossing the boundary altogether and instead be totally reflected back internally. This can only occur where light travels from a medium with a higher [n1=higher refractive index] to one with a lower refractive index [n2=lower refractive index]. For example, it will occur when passing from glass to air, but not when passing from air to glass.If you have ever half-submerged a straight stick into water, you have probably noticed that the stick appears bent at the point it enters the water. This optical effect is due to refraction. As light passes from one transparent medium to another, it changes speed, and bends.Each medium has a different refractive index. The angle between the light ray and the normal as it leaves a medium is called the angle of incidence. The angle between the light ray and the normal as it enters a medium is called the angle of refraction.8 9. Snells Law Snell's law(law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropicmedia, such as water and glass. Refraction of light occurs at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2> n1. Since the velocity is lower in the seco