Nitschke 2011 Pella to Gandhara-libre

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From Pella to Gandhara Hybridisation and Identity in the Art and Architecture of the Hellenistic East Edited by Anna Kouremenos, Sujatha Chandrasekaranand Roberto Rossi with a foreword by Sir John Boardman. BAR International Series 2221 2011 Published by Archaeopress Publishers of British Archaeological Reports Gordon House 276 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7ED England bar@archaeopress.com www.archaeopress.com BAR S2221 From Pella to Gandhara: Hybridisation and I dentity in the Art and Architecture of the Hellenistic East Archaeopress and the individual authors 2011 I SBN 978 1 4073 0779 4 Cover image: Cybele Plate (silver and gold, d. 25 cm, c. 3rd B.C.) from Ai Khanum, the Temple with I ndented Niches. Afghanistan National Museum, Kabul. Mus. No: 04.42.7.After F. Hiebert and P. Cambon (eds.), Afghanistan, Hidden Treasures from National Museum, Kabul, cover image/ Pl. 11. Washington. (I SBN 978-1-4262-0295-7). Printed in England by Blenheim Colour Ltd All BAR titles are available from: Hadrian Books Ltd 122 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7BP England www.hadrianbooks.co.uk The current BAR catalogue with details of all titles in print, prices and means of payment is available free from Hadrian Books or may be downloaded from www.archaeopress.com i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures ...................................................................................................................... iii Preface ................................................................................................................................ viii Anna KouremenosForeword ................................................................................................................................ x Sir John BoardmanIntroduction ............................................................................................................................ 1 Roberto RossiAlcibiades, a classical archetype for Alexander ............................................................... 11 Michael VickersHybridisation of Palatial Architecture: Hellenistic Royal Palacesand Governors Seats ...................................................................................................... 17 Maria KopsacheiliHellenising the Cypriot Goddess: Reading the Amathousian TerracottaFigurines ......................................................................................................................... 35 Giorgos PapantoniouThe Ruins on Mount Karasis in Cilicia ................................................................................ 49 Timm RadtA Hybridized Aphrodite: the Anadyomene Motif at Tel Kedesh ......................................... 65 Lisa Ayla akmakHybrid Art, Hellenism and the Study of Acculturation in the Hellenistic East:The Case of Umm el-Amed in Phoenicia ...................................................................... 85 Jessica NitschkeCultural interaction and the emergence of hybrids in the material cultureof Hellenistic Mesopotamia: An interpretation of terracotta figurines,ceramic ware and seal impressions ............................................................................... 103 Sidsel Maria Westh-HansenTemple Architecture in the Iranian World in the Hellenistic Period .................................. 117 Michael ShenkarCultural convergence in Bactria: the votives from the Templeof the Oxos at Takht-i Sangin ....................................................................................... 141 Rachel Wood ii From Gandharan Trays to Gandharan Buddhist Art: The Persistenceof Hellenistic Motifs From the Second Century BC and Beyond ................................. 153 Jessie PonsThe Places in Between: Model and Metaphor in the Archaeologyof Hellenistic Arachosia ............................................................................................... 177 Rachel MairsConclusion ......................................................................................................................... 191 Sujatha Chandrasekaran 87 HYBRID ART, HELLENISM AND THE STUDY OFACCULTURATION IN THE HELLENISTIC EAST:THE CASE OF UMM EL-AMED IN PHOENICIA1 Jessica L. Nitschke Georgetown University TheideathatHellenismwasresponsiblefortheendof PhoeniciancultureandidentityintheLevantisanold one,goingbacktothefirstmodernexplorationsofthe Phoenicianhomelandinthe19thcentury:1Linfluence grecquefutdebonneheureprdominanteSidon.Cette influenceavaitcommencsexerceravantAlexandre. Dslan400peuprs,Sidonshellnise.2This sentimenthaspersistedsincethenincontemporary scholarship;soGlennMarkoewrites,whiletheageof Alexander marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period in the eastern Mediterranean, the process of Hellenization had begun in earnest a full century before.3 Josette layi, perhaps the foremost scholar on Persian period Phoenicia, assertsthatthedominationoftheGreekswhoseculture hadattractedthePhoeniciansevenbeforeAlexanders conquest,wasmorepowerfulanduncompromisingthan theAchaemenid,anditprogressivelydestroyedthe Phoenician civilization.4 Nina Jidejians oft-cited surveys of the Phoenician cities and their culture largely discount anysenseofindependentPhoeniciancharacterinthe Hellenisticperiod:they[thePhoenicians]adapted themselvestotheinfluencesofHellenizationtosuchan extentthatitiswithdifficultythatadistinctioncanbe madebetweenGreeksandnativePhoenicians.5John 1Theideasandresearchreflectedinthispaperstemfrommy2007 doctoralthesis,PerceptionsofCulture:InterpretingGreco-Near EasternHybridityinthePhoenicianHomeland(UCBerkeley), currentlybeingrevisedinpreparationforpublicationasamonograph. Theresearchincludedinthispaperwouldnothavebeenpossible withoutagrantfromthegraduategroupinAncientHistoryand MediterraneanArchaeologyatUCBerkeleytofundthestudyofthis materialinParisandLebanon.IamgratefulalsotoSuzyHakimianat the National Museum of Beirut and the Director General of Antiquities in Lebanon for access to material, as well as to the Dunand Archives in GenevaforallowingmeaccesstowhatremainsofDunandsoriginal notes and documentation concerning the site of Umm el-Amed.2 Renan 1864, 398.3 Markoe 2000, 63. 4 layi 1980, 28. 5 Jidejian 1988, 128; echoed in Jidejian 1968, 1969, 1971a, 1971b, and 1973.Graingerpresentsacomparablecharacterizationinhis harshassessmentoftheimpactofMacedonianwar: Their[thePhoeniciansurvivors]culturalheritagewas alsosurelymutilatedbeyondrepair,leavinganimpove-rishmentwhichGreekculturecouldhopetofill.6The historianSebastoBondiarrivesatasimilarconclusion: withtheMacedonianconquestthehistoryofPhoenicia as a free country in reality comes to an end. It is true that a number of original cultural expressions and moments of true independence remained ... These were however flick-ersoflifeduemoretotheforceoftraditionthantothe rekindled vitality of the Phoenician world, whose histori-cal season finished against the background of the triumph ofHellenism.7Amongnon-specialistsPhoenicias hellenizedcharacterisoftenpresentedassimply establishedfact;soPeterGreenremarks(incorrectly)in his survey of the Hellenistic world: in the heavily Helle-nizedareasofSyria,Phoenicia,andPalestine,bilingual inscriptions are common.8 Stanley Burstein, in his essay onGreekidentityintheHellenisticperiod,assertsthat many ancient cities in the East took on a Greek identity, and that the majority were in Syria and Phoenicia.9 ButthenotionthatPhoeniciancivilizationintheLevant simplyendedwithAlexanderorsoonafterisincorrect andeasilydisproved.Thereissubstantialevidenceto suggestthatthecitizensofthePhoeniciancities conceivedofthemselvesashavingaseparateidentity, bothethnicandcultural,fromtheGreeksandwere perceivedinasimilarfashionbyGreeksaswellas Romansinreturn.Weneedonlylookatlaterwriters, suchasArrian,Lucian,Strabo,Pausanias,Pomponius Mela, Polybius, Diodorus, and others to find proof of the 6 Grainger 1991, 51. 7 Bondi in Moscati 1988, 44.8Green1990,313,givingnoexamples.Infact,Greekandbilingual Greek-PhoenicianinscriptionsthatcanbedatedtobeforetheRoman period are extremely rare in central Phoenicia.9 Burstein 2003, 240. FROM PELLA TO GANDHRA 88 Fig. 1: Satrap Sarcophagus, from the Ayaa Necropolis, Sidon, c. 420 BC. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. (Courtesy of Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) continuityofthePhoeniciansasaculturalentitydistinct from other cultural or ethnic groups in the Mediterranean intheHellenisticperiodandbeyond.10Onceweaccept that the Phoenicians did continue on as a distinct identity in the centuries after Alexander, it is necessary to reframe thisquestionofsupposedhellenizationintosomething more tangible and precise. Did the particulars of cultural lifeinPhoeniciabecomeincreasinglysimilartothatof theGreekcities,ordidtheyremainculturallydistinct? DidthedailylifeofthePhoenicians,includingtheir beliefs,customs,habits,theirart,andtheirphysical space,transform,eithergraduallyorabruptly,intowhat we understand as a Greek, Hellenistic way of life? Or, to put the question in a simpler but more pointed way: Was there anything particularly Phoenician (at least in terms ofhowscholarshavetypicallyappliedthatlabel)about being a Phoenician in the Hellenistic Age?Thisisalargequestionthatpresentsmanydifficulties, not least of which is that of methodology, and how we are toevaluatethepresenceofforeignculturalinfluences andtheirultimateimpactonPhoeniciancultureand identity. It is a question made all the more difficult by the natureofouravailableevidence.Wehavelittleinthe way of surviving written testimony from Phoenicia or by the Phoenicians themselves.11 As such, the preponderance 10E.g.,Diod.Sic.33.5,Strabo16.2.25,Heliod.Aeth.10.41.3,Arr. Anab. 2.16, Lucian Syr. D., Pomp. Mela Chor. 1.12, Paus. 7.23. 11Mostlyintheformofbriefvotiveandfuneraryinscriptions.Thata PhoenicianhistoricaltraditiondidexistissuggestedbyJosephuswho claimsto,haveconsultedPhoenicianrecordsincompilinghisaccount (Euseb.Praep.evang.1.9.23-24,1.10.5,1.10.36,1.10.42-43;Joseph. Ap.1.106;AJ.1.107).Phil