Behrendt, The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara

download Behrendt, The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

    20-Jul-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    228
  • download

    19

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Behrendt, The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara

  • '

    This book is printed on acid-free paper. '

    Library of Con!P'ess Cataloging-in-Publication Data '

    Bchrendt, Kurt A., I 964- J The Buddhist architecture of Gandhara I by Kurt A. Behrendt. ,

    p. cm. - (Handbook of oriental studies. Section two. India. ISSN 0 I 69-93 77 ; v. I 7 = ' Handbuch der Orientalistik, Indien) '

    Includes bibl.iograpbical references and index. ISBN 90-04-1 1595-2 (hardback : alk. paper) I. Architecture, Buddhist-Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) 2. Sculpture,

    Gandhara-Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) 3. Sculpture, Buddhist- Gandbara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) I. T itle. U. Handbuch der Ol'icntali~tik. Zwcite Abteilung. Indien ; I 7. Bd.

    NA6010.72.G36B44 2003 722'.4-dc22

    ISSN 0169-9377 ISBN 90 04 13595 2

    IQ Coj!)lrig!Lt 2003 by KoninJdijke .Brill NV, L.eiden, V.e Netherlmzds

    2003045 119

    A/J. rights rest>ved. No part '!lthis publicalionml!)' be reproduced, trwzslaled, stored in a rtlrieua.L fYSiern, or transmitted in a1zy form or by a'!Y means, electronic,

    I

    mechanical, photocopying, recording or othm.vise, wilhout prior writJm , pmnissum from the publisher. .

    ' Arahorie:ation w photocqpy items for internal or personal use is granted by .Brill fJrooided tlwt the apjJTOpriate fw are paid direct!Y lo

    The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Roso.uoodDri-e, Suite 910 Danvers .NLA 01923, USA.

    Fees are sui!jtct to change.

    PRINTED IN THE Nl!THlllU.ANDS

    Copyritted material

    t

    '

  • CONTENTS

    I .i!(t o( l'lh JStrations . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,, ..... , ................ ,. >;;V Acknowled men ts ................. ........... .... ..................... ......... ........ .. " x:xvu

    In trod! Jction " "" """" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. I Chapter One: O verview of Greater Gandha.ra .... .. .. ............ .. 12

    I. I Historic Smvey of Archaeology in Gandhara .......... .. 16 I .2 Geography of Greater Gandhara and the

    Distribution of Buddhist Sites ..................................... . 22 I .2. I Major Buddhist. Sites in the Peshawar

    Basin Ancient Gandbara 24 I .2.2 T he Buddhist Complexes of Taxila ................ 25 I .2.3 Buddhjst Remains in the Swat Valley:

    Ancient Udayana .............................................. 26 I .3 Charact"eristic Architectural Featmes of Gandharan

    Buddbj st Cen ters .................... , .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2 7 1.3. I The Main Stapa ................................................ 28 1 .3.2 Small St1ipas ........................................................ 29 I .3.3 Swpa Shrines and Direct-Access

    R elic- Shrines 30 I .3.4 Direct-Access Main Stii as ................................ 31 I .3.5 Distribution of Sculpture in the

    Sacred A rea .. .................................... , ............. . , 3 I I .3.6 M'onasteries ......... ... ................................. ........... 33

    Qyadrangular Monasteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 'M'cumtain Viharos 37

    Chapter Two: Architecture and Sculpture from Phase I ...... 39 2. l T he MaUJyan Peiod in Gandhara ............................ 39 2.2 Pbasr I Architectura l Evidence .................... ................ 4 1

    2.2. 1 Dharmara,jika Complex in Taxila: Phase I .... 41 2.2.2 Buddhist Structures in the Taxila City

    of Sirkap: Phase I .. .. .. .. ...................................... 45 2.2.3 Butkara. I in Swat: Phase I .. ..,,,,,,,,,,,, ... 47

    2.3 Architectural Links to the Indian Buddhist T radition During Phase I .................... ........... ............. 50

    Copyrighted material

  • VIJJ CONTENTS

    2 0 3 0 I The Phase I Stupa. 00 00 00 00 00 .... 0 ............ ...... 00 ...... 00 51 20302 Use of Columns During Phase I .................. 00 55 20303 Phase I Sculpture 0000.......................................... 56

    204 Conclusions About the Nature of Phase I Material from Northwest India .. 00 00 00 .......... 00 ................ 59

    Chapter T hree: The Development of Relic Shrines: Phases I and Il .......... ....... oooooooooooOoooo . oooooo ............ ooooooo""'""" 61 301 Chinese Pilgrims' Accounts of Direct-Access

    Relic Shrines in Gandhara 00 ....................................... 0 61 302 Architecmral FNidence for Direei'-Access Relic

    Shrines in and around Sirkap: Phases I and 11 oooo.... 65 303 Two-Celled Stztptt Shrines and Direct-Access

    Shrines: Phas'S I and II 00 ................... 00 00 . 00 . 00 00 . 00 00 0 7 3 Chapter Four: The Phase IT Sacred Area .... 000000 .................. 00 77

    401 Taxila: Phase IT Architectural Evidence oooooooooooooo ooooo o 79 40101 Kalawan: Phase IT ArchitecOJre ...................... 81 40102 The Dharmariijika Complex: Phase I1

    Architecture and the Relic Shrine 84 . 40103 Dharmara,jika Satellite Monastic

    Complexes: Phase Il Architecture .. OOoO ...... 00 00 .... 40 1.4 Mohra Morii.du: Phase IT Architecrme oo oooo oo 00 4. 105 Pippala: Phase 11 Architecture ............ oo .. oooooOoo

    402 Peshawar Basin: Phase II Architectural Evidence ...... 40201 Ranigat: Phase IT Architecture .................. 0 .... 0

    4.3 Swat: Phase U Arcbitecn,ral Evidence 4 ,3, I Butkara I: Phase II Architecture 00 00 00 000000 00 00 00 00 00 40302 Piinr: Phase IT Architecture ............................ ..

    '

    4.3.3 Saidu; Phase IT Archi tecn1re 4,3.4 Butkara ill: Phase U Architecture oooo oooooooo oo .. oo 40305 Marjanai: Phase li Architecture .... 0000 00 ...... ... 000

    404 Architectural Organization and Development of the Sacred Area in TaKila, the Peshawar Basin, and Swat During Phase rr ..... OOOOoOOOOOO OOOO OO oOoO .. OOOO

    Chapter Five: The Phase 11 Distribution and Function

    93 94 95 96 97 : 99 0 99 '

    101 0 I

    102 ' 0 104 (

    105 ' I

    107 .

    of Sculpture .. 00 00 ................ ooO .. 00 ..... oo .. 00 .. . 00 00000000000000 00 0 00 00 00 oOOOOOO 0 l 09 5, I The Issue of Provenance': Late 19th and

    Early 20th Century Photo Documentation of Ganclharan Sculpture 0 ...... 0 ............ 000 00 00 00 00 00 00 .. 00 .... 00 0 J 12

    502 Narrative R eliefs from Phase TT: In Sitn Evidence .... 114 5020 1 Sculpture from Phase IT Main Snipas:

    T akht-i-biibf and Saidu .. .............................. .... 115 I '

    Copyrighted mate i .

    I

  • .

    CONTENTS 1X

    5.3 Evidence of Phase II Original Sculptural Placement .. .... ... .. . . . . . . . . . ................... .......... .... ................. 116 5.3.1 Upper Nathou Sacred Area: Original

    Sculptural Placement . . . . . . . . . . . .......... .... .. . . . . . . . . ..... 116 5.3.2 Lower Nathou Sacred Area: Original

    Sculptural Placement .............. ...... ........ .. .......... ll 7 5.3.3 Sikri: O riginal Sculptural Placement .............. 11 8 5.3.4 Karkai: Original Sculptural Placement ............ I 19 5.3.5 Marjanai: Original Sculptural Placement ........ 120

    5.4 T he Phase II Small Stiipa: Sculptural Embellishment and a Proposed Reconstruction .................... .... .. .. .. .. .. 121 5.4. 1 T he Base ............. ........ ................................... .... 124 5.4.2 The Drum: Developments in the Narrative

    T radition .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .... . , ............ .. .... 127 5 4 3 The Fa lse Gable: The Focal Narrative .......... 132 5.4.4 The Dome, Hcmnika, and Clzattravali ........ .. ...... 133

    Chapter Six: Phase IIl Architecture and Sculpture from 1'axila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... .. ............ ... . . .. . . . . . . . .. ......... 135 6.1 Introduction to the Phase Ill Developments in

    the Sacred Areas and Monasteries of T alcila and the Peshawar Basin .... ............ ................................ 135

    6.2 The Phase Ill Increase in Patronage .......................... 137 6.3 Taxila: Phase Ill Architectural and Sculptural

    Evidence .. .. .. .. .. .............................. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. 141 6.3.1 The Dharmarajika Complex: Possible

    Late Phase II Image Shrines ...................... .. .... 142 6.3.2 T he Dharmarajika Complex: Early Phase Ill

    Slilpas with AJcial Image Shrines .. .. . .. ........ ....... 144 6.3.3 The Dharmarajika Complex: Phase III

    Monasteries ................................................. .. ..... 145 6.3.4 The Dharmarajika Complex: Phase ill Image

    Shrines Along the Northern Avenue .............. 146 6.3.5 The Dharrnarajika Complex: Phase UI

    Additions to the Prad(l}qirzapatha and Main Stil a .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 149

    6.3.6 The Dharmarajika Complex: Late Phase JII Architecture ........................... ,,,.,,,,,............ 150

    6.3.7 Kalawan: Phase fll Architectur e and the Relic Shrine .. ................ .... .. ........................ .... .. 154

    6.3.8 J auliaii: Phase III Architecture and the Image Shrine ...................................................... 156

    Copyrighted material

  • X CONTENTS

    6.3.9 Mohra Moradu: Phase III Archi tecture and Additive Imagery . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

    6.4 Phase Ill Taxila: Site Typo1ogies and Religious Affiliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

    6.5 The Phase Ill Small Stiipa ...... ................. ..................... 163 6.6 Phase Ill Use of Images and R elics in

    Quadrangular Monasteries ............ .. .. ... ..... ........ .... ....... 166 6.6.1 Pha$e rn l Jse o f Personal Devotional

    Images in Monasteries . . . ... .. .. .. .. ... . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 16 7 6.6.2 Monastic Images: Phase Ill Pedestal

    Images and Image Shrines Built in Pre-existing Residential Cells .. .. .. . .. .. ..... .. . .. .. .. .. . 169

    6.6.3 Monastic Images: Late Phase Ill Gandhaku# Image Niches . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . ..... 1 7l

    Chapter Seven: Phase m and IV Architecture in the Peshawa1 Basin ........................................ ............... .... ...... ... .. 1 75 7. I Mekhasanda: Phase II and TU Architecmre .. ... .. ..... ... . 177 7.2 Takht-i-bahi: Architecture ............ ......... ....................... 18 1

    7 .2.1 Takht-i-babl: Phase JI Remains ...................... 182 7 .2.2 Takht-i-bahi: The Earliest Pha~e Ill

    Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 83 7.2.3 T akht-i-bahi: The Second Period of

    Phase ill Construction .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .... 185 7 .2.4 Takht-i-bahi: Late Phase ill Construction ...... 186 7 .2.5 Takht-i-bahi: A Summary of Its

    Development ........................ .............................. 188 7 .2.6 Takht-i-bahr Patronage and the Phase Ill

    Multiplication of Sacred Areas .. . . . . ... .. .. .. .. ....... 189 7.3 Thareli: Phase JI and ill Architecture . . .. .. .... ..... .. ....... 191

    7. 3. I Thareli: Mountain Viharas . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . 194 7,3,2 Thareli: Monastic Sma ll Sacred Areas 1 Q5

    7.4 .Jamal G

  • .

    CONTENTS XI

    8.2.2 T akbt-i-biibi: Sacred Area XX Loose Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .............. .. ... .. ............... ...... 218

    8.2.3 Takht-i-babi: T wo-Celled Shrine XXIII: Loose Sculpture . ....... ......... .. ....... ....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

    8.2.4 Takht-i-bahl Small Sacred Area XIV: Loose and In Situ Sculpture . ... ........................ 220

    8.3 Loose Sculptural Finds from the Sahrr-Bah.lol Sites I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 I I I 0 I I I I I 0 I I ettttt00 0 ,. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , ! ! ! 0! 0 0 0 0 0 0 f 0 f f f!!!!!! 221 8.3.1 Sahri-Balu ol B: Loose Sculpture ... ................... 222 8.3.2 Sahrr-Bahl61 C: Loose Sculpture ........ .. . .. ......... 222 8.3.3 Sahrr-BahJ61 D: Loose Sculpture .................... 223

    8. 4 Thareli: Loose Sculpture .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ... 224 8.5 M ekhasanda: Loose Sculpture ....... ... ............................ 226 8.6 Ranigat: Loose Sculpture ...... .. .... . ............................ .. ... 226 8. 7 In Situ Imagery from Sites in the Peshawar

    Bas in and Swii.t .................... .......................................... 228 8. 7.1 Sikri: In Situ Sculpture and the

    Architectural Organization of the Site . . . .. . . . .. . . 228 8. 7.2 Sahn-Balllol: Some Possible In Situ

    Sculpture .. . . . . . . . .. ....... ................................... .. .. ... 230 8. 7.3 Mekhasanda: In Situ Sculpture ........................ 231 8. 7.4 T hardi: In Situ Sculpture ........ ...................... .. 232 8. 7.5 Saidu: In Situ Sculpture ............................. ... .. 233

    Chapter ine: Buddhist Architecture and Sculpture of Gandhiira: Conclusions .............. .. .. ........................ .. .. .. .. .. .. 234 9,1 Phase l ......................... ,,,,,,,,,.,,............................ 23:'> 9.2 Phase n .................................................................... .... .. 237 9.3 Phase m ...... .. .. .......... .......... ........ ........................ .......... 244 9.4 Late Phase IJI and Phase IV .................................... .. 2.53

    Appendix A: The Four-Phase Chronological System ............. . 255 A I Phase I .............................. ...... .................................. .. .. .. 256

    A I . I Phase I Dating Evidence from Sirkap ........... . 256 A 1.2 Phase I Character of Masomy in T axila .. .... . . 258 A 1.3 Phase I Structural T es ................... .............. . 259

    A2 Phase II .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . 259 A2.1 Phase H Dating Evidence .......................... .. .... 259 A2.2 Phase II Character of Masomy in T axiJa ..... . 260 A2.3 Phase li Struc tural T ypes .......................... ...... 261

    A3 Phase m . . ?62 A3. I Phase Ill Dating Evidence ............... .. ... .. .... .... 262

    Copyrighted material

  • ..

    Xll CONTENTS

    A3.2 Phase ill Character of Masonrv in Taxila 264 A3.3 Phase m Strucrw-al Types .............................. 265

    A4 Late Phase Ill ..... ................... .. ...................... ................ 266 A4.1 Late Phase Ill- Phase IV Character of

    Masonry in Taxila . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 A4.2 Late Phase ill Structural T ypes .......... ............ 267

    AS Phase IV A5.l Phase IV Dating Evidence .............................. 267 A5.2 Phase IV Structural Types .............................. 267

    Appendix B: Dating Gandharan Sculpture .. ............................ 268 B l Relative Chronological D evelopment from

    Narrative Sculpture to Iconic Images and the Development of Mudriis: Phase IT to Late Phase ill """"'"""""""""""'"'""""'"''''''"''''''''''''''"'' 274

    B2 Dating Gandharan Sculpture on the Basi~ of Stucco Evidence: Phases ill and TV ................ "'"""' 277

    B3 Dating Monumental Schist Devotional Icons of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas: Late Phase III . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. 281

    B4 Schist Images with Inscribed Dates .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 281 B5 The Sravasti D evotional Icons: Phases ITI and IV .... 284

    Appendix C: R euse of Ima.ges and It~ Bearing on the Dating of Gandharan Sculpture .... ............ ...... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... 288 C 1 First Period of R euse: Phase III .......... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... 290 C2 Second Period of Reuse: Late Phase III and

    Phase IV ............................... .. ..... .................................. 292 Appendix D: Numeric Count of Sculpnne T ypes from

    Some Peshawar Basin Sites .. ............... .. .... .. .. .. ...... .. .. ........ .. . 296 D 1 Loriyan Tangai ............................... .... ... ....................... . 296 D 2 Takht-i-bahi ...................... .. ..... .................................... . 297

    D2.1 Takht-i-bahi' Upper and Lower Sacred Areas lV- V ............................... .. .. .. .. ... ............. . 297

    D2.2 T akht-i-bahf Sacred Area XX ...................... .. 298 D2.3 T akht-i-biihi Two-Gelled Shrine XXill ........ .. 299 D 2.4 T akht-i-bah i Small Sacred Area XlV .......... .. 299

    0 3 Sahrf -Bahlol Sites ..................................... ..... ............ ... . 300 D3.l Sahr!-Bahlol A ......................... ..... ... .. .............. . 300 D3.2 Sahrr-Bah161 B ................................................. . 300 D33 Sabrf-Babli\1 C 301 D 3.4 Sahrf-Bahlol D

    !I 301

    '

    I

    I

    Copyrighted materi I

  • D4 D5 D6

    Glossar Biblio.

    CONTENTS

    o o o o 0 0 0 o o 0 0 o o o I o I o o o o 0 o o o o o o + o o o o o + o 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o + o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Thareli Me khasanda t' t t t' 't I t 0 ID" , ' ' ' ' t I t 0 Rani at 0 0

    ......................................................................................

    Index I 0 0 I 01 I I 0 I 0" 100 I DO I 0 I I I 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'P' I I ft I I I I I I I I I I I ft00e0tt0fttt0t00000! f , 0 f 0 0 0 0 f 0

    XJ]]

    302 303 303 305 31 1 323

    Copyrighted material

  • UST OF ILLUSTRATIO NS

    I. Plan of Dharmarajika complex, Taxila (modified from Marshall, 195 I, pl. 45 ).

    2. Plan of Takht-i-bahl (Peshawar basin) main sacred areas and quadrangular monastery, showing all periods of construction (modified from Hargreaves, 1914, pl. XVII).

    3. Map of Greater Gandhfu-a (modified from Foucher, 1905, 627). 4. Map of major Taxila sites (modified from Marshall, 1951 , pi. 1). 5. Chart of the phase chronological system in relation to architec-

    twal types, sculptural development, and T axila masonry. 6. Major Buddhist sites in Taxila, the Peshawar Basin, and Swat

    and their approximate occupation phases. 7. Numismatic chronology for the coins mentioned in this work

    (alter Errington, 2000). 8. Reconstructed phase U small stupa. A- conjectural base with

    atlantes, lions, and elephants; B- base with pilasters; C- circu-lar step with lotus ba.nd; D- band of narrative reliefs; E- band with pseudo-uedika relief; F- band with figu res under arches; (}-false gable relief; H-garland band; 1- dome with lotus motif; j - fow- faced harmika with narrative reliefs; K- upper steps of lzarmikii.; L-chaltravali and support rods (Behrendt, l.ine drawing by W. Hipsman).

    Architecture, Pla11s, and Sculplure from Taxi/a

    9. Sketch showing main Taxila masonry types; phase I rubble masonry, pha~e ll diaper masonry, phase Ill semi-ashlar masonry, and late phase Ill double-course semi-asWar masonry. Note the thin flat pieces of wa~te rock (herein referred to as interstitial chips) (modified from M

  • .

    XVI LLST OF "lLLUSTRA"riONS

    11. Double-eagle stii.pa, block F, Sirkap, T axila (after tvlarshall, 1916, pi. 27).

    12. Insctibed garland holder from Sirkap Block J, square 148.51, Stratum II, Taxi.la. A: 3/ .. view, B: side view (line drawings by W. Hipsman after Marshall, 195 1, pl. 213, no. 11, l'vlarshall ' 1960, pi. 19).

    lvfohrii lvfaliii.rii.fi 13. Plan of Mohra Maliarail A temple, Taxila. A- front porch, B-

    side rooms, C---rear cella, D-circumambulatory path, P plat-form (modified from Marshall, 1951, pi. 120 A).

    ]wuf.iiil Sites 14. Plan ofj aJ)t;lial C temple, Tax.ila (modified from Marshal!, 1951,

    pl. 44). 15. Plan of j aQt;lial B sacred area, Taxila. Note the plinth and shrine

    in court T (modified from Marsh all, 1951 , pl. 91 ).

    Dlzarmariijikii Complex 16. Plan of Dharmarajika monastic area, Taxila (modified from

    Marsh all, 1951, pl. 61 ). I 7. Elevation of Dharmarajika main stii.pa from east, Tax.ila. ote

    the east image shrine. Inset shows the tr.ilobe trapezoidal niches (modified from Marshall, 1951, pi. 46b, c).

    18. K l stii.pa, Dharmarajika complex, Taxila, detail showing a seated Buddha on the east facade in an axial trilobed niche. The

    ma~onty of tlus stupa was produced during the transitional period from diaper to semi-ashlar (Marsha.U, 1916, pl. 12b).

    19. Dharmarajika complex, T axila, N 18 shrine. This double-semi-ashlar image shrine contains the feet of a monumental stucco Buddha.. as well as an added seated Buddha to the left and an

    added standing Buddha to the right (MarshaU, 1918, pL 2).

    Kii.lawiin 20. Plan of Kala wan sacred area and monasteries, Truci1a, wid1 phase

    ll and phase ill construction indicated (modified from Marshall, 1951 ' pl. 72).

    Akho.uri and Khiider Mohra Siies 21. Plan of Akhaurr A (Chir tope A) sacred area and monastery,

    Taxila (modified from MarshaU, 1951, pl. 67a).

    I

    ~

    I

    I

    I I I I .

    '

  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ..

    xvu

    22. Plan of Akhauri B (Chir tope B), sacred area and monastery, Taxila (modified from Marshall, 195 1, pl. 67b).

    23. Small copper seated bodhisattva, found in cell 18 of the Akhaurf B monastery, Taxila (ASIDGS 1921- 22 no. 74, courtesy of the British Library).

    24. Plan of Akhauri C (Chir tope C), sacred area and monastel)', Taxila (modified from Marshal!, 195 1, pl. 68a).

    25. Plan of K hader Mohra D l , sacred area and monastery, Tax1Ja (modified from Marshall 1951, pl. 68b).

    26. Plan of Khader Mo~a D2, sacred area and monastery, Tax:ila (modified from Marshall 195 1, pi. 69a).

    }auliiiii 27 . J auliaf\ plan of sacred area and monastery, T axila, showing all

    period~ of construction (modified from Marshall, 1951 , pl. 1 0 I). 28. J aulian D I stfipa, Tax:ila, west face showing phase ill stepped

    format with rows of stucco figures including atlantes, lions, ele-phants, and Buddhas exhibiting dharmacakra mudrii and dhyiina mudrii (photo by K. Behrendt).

    29. E l gandhakuti niche in the entranceway to the J auliaii monastery, Taxila ("Warburg Institute).

    30. In situ schist plaque showing the Buddha flanked by worship-pers, J aulian monastery niche in cell 2, Taxila ('.Varburg Institute).

    31. Trapezoidal doorway in thejauliafi monastery, T ax:ila (ASIDGS 1917- 18 no. 158, courtesy of the British Libral)1) .

    Mohrii. Moradu 32. Plan of Mohra Moradu sacred area and monastery, Taxila

    (modified from Marshall, 195 1, pi. 93). 33. General view of Mohra Moradu main stupa and uihii.ra, T axila

    (photo by K. Behrendt). 34. Over-life-size stucco seated Buddha that was added to the plinth

    of the Mohra Moradu main stupa, Taxila; note the depiction of the alms bowl (the Alkazi Collection of Photography).

    35. Multiple additive stucco sculptures attached to the side of the stair-way of the main stupa of Mollpl Moradu, T axila (Warburg Institute).

    36. Two over-life-size stucco seated Buddha images on pedestal B2 in fiont of Mohra Moradu monastery cell 2, Taxila (Warburg Institute).

    37. Gandhaku# image niche S7, from the entranceway of the Mohra Moradu monastery, Taxila (Warburg Institute).

    Marep1-1an. 3allll-1llleHHbl~ asropCKI-1M npasoM

  • XVlll LIST OF ll .. LUSTRA'nONS

    38. Standing schist bodhisauva from cell 8 of the Mo~a Moradu monastery, T axila (Warburg Institute).

    Pippala 39. Plan of the Pippala sacred area and monastery, Taxila, with .

    phase II and m structures indicated (modified from MarshaU, . 1951 , pi. 98a).

    40. Small stiipa in cell 31 of the Pippala monaste1y, Taxi la (ASIDGS 1921- 22, no. 79, courtesy of the British Library).

    Kuniila 41. Plan of Kunala stiipa and monastety, TaJ::iJa (modified from

    MarshaU, 1951, pi. 86).

    Bhamiila 42. Plan of Bhamala sacred area and monastery, Taxila (modi11ed

    from Marsh all, 1951, pi. 114). 43. Stucco Paranirvii1.w image found in situ, southeast corner of base .

    plinth of Bhamilla main stiipa, Tax.iJa; length is approximately 1.3 m (line drawing by W . Hipsman after Marshall, 1951, pl. 118b).

    Arckilecture arui Sculpture ftom the Peshawar Basin

    T akltt-i-biihi 44. Plan of Takht-i-bahr main sacred area and outlying mountain

    vhiiras, Peshawar basin (modified from Hargreaves, 1914, pi. XVTI and Bulletin qf the Research. Center for Silk Roadology, 2000: 41 ).

    45. General view of main sacred area of T akht-i-bfLhl, Peshawar basin, seen from southwest. Note the massive foundation of the extended court and a~sembly hall (H argreaves, 19 14, pi. X VIIIa).

    46. Takht-i-bahr, looking east, showing construction in the lower sacred area (court V). Note the PI main stiipa, stucco decora-tion of many of the small stiipas, and the reuse of phase m devo-tional icons (ASIFC 190, courtesy of the British Libray).

    47. Nlonwnent

  • .

    LIST OF LLLUSTRATIONS XlX

    (11.2 m tall). The PI main stupa and some small stilpas are vis-ible in the foreground (photo by K. Behrendt).

    48. Small stilpa P37 in court XX, Ta.kht-i-bahi, Peshawar basin. Note the row of in situ stucco images of standing Buddhas under trapezoidal arches, some of which display the varada mudrii (ASIFC 857, courtesy of the British Library).

    49. Two heads and four sets of in situ feet of monumental Buddha images against the south ""'

  • XX LL'IT OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    58. Reused sculptures from Sahri-BahJ61 site C, Peshawar basin, found around stupa base iii as seen from the southwest (ASIFC 11 0 I , courtesy of the British Library).

    59. Plan of Sahn-Bahlol Site D, Peshawar basin (modified from Stein, 1915, pl. XXXJJTh).

    60. Plan of Sahn-Bahl61 Site G, Peshawar basin (modified from Stein, 1915, pl. XXXV c).

    ]amal Garhi 61. Plan of J amal Garhr, Peshawar ba~in, showing sacred areas and

    mountain vil!iiras (modified from Cunningham, 1872; Hargreaves, 1921- 22).

    62. Stair risers from J amal Garhl, Peshawm basin (Warburg Institute). 63. Reliefs from J amal GarbJ, Peshawar basin (ASIM 1015, cour-

    tesy of the British Library). A- Stacked relief showing in the lowest register Buddhas with attendants separated by boxed pilasters, a pseudo-vedika in the middle register, and standing figures under arches in the top register. B- Row of seated Buddhas under arches. C and D- Row of naked putti under arches; they venerate a central Buddl1a, also under an arch. -Relics under arches, including the alms bowl, a cremation flame, a11d a reliquary under a cloth.

    Mekhasandcl 64. General plan of Mekhasanda, Peshawar basin, showing sacred

    area and outlying mountain mhiiras (modified from Mizuno, 1969, plan 1 ).

    65. Plan of Mekhasanda sacred area, Peshawar basin (modified from Mizuno, 1969, plan 2).

    66. Schi~t Buddha image found in situ in shrine 21, Mekhasanda, Peshawar basin (Mizuno, 1969, pi. 36 no. 2).

    67. Standing Buddha from annex room ix, Mekhasanda, Peshawar basin (Mizuno, 1969, pi. 35 fig. 2).

    17zareli 68. General plan of Thareli, Peshawar basin, showing sacred areas C

    and D, the outlying mountain uihiiras, and small monastic sacred areas (modified from Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, plan 1).

    69. Plan of sacred area D, Thareli, Peshawar basin (modified from Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, 30).

    .

    I I I

    Material com dir:itos autoraiJ

  • .

    LIST Of' ILLUSTRA'MONS XXl

    70. Single-celled stftpa shrine D 6 and single-celled shrine D5, Thareli, Peshawar basin. Note the form of the trabeated dome structure (photo by K. Behrendt).

    71. In situ seated Buddha adjacent to image shrine on the north face of D 26, T hareli, Peshawar basin. This image shrine sits on an earlier stupa base (Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, pi. 67 nos. 2, 3, 4; pl. 92 no. 3).

    72. In situ stucco narrative depiction of the first sermon, base of small stupa St2 in sacred area D, Thareli, Peshawar basin (Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, pi. 69 no. 3).

    73. Row of stucco Buddhas on the base of image shrine D7, Thareli, Peshawar basin (Mizuno and Hjguchi, 1978, pi. 52 no. l).

    74. Plan of T hareli sacred area C, Peshawar basin (modified from Mjzuno and Higuchi, 1978, plans 8 and 9).

    75. Plan of monastic small sacred area C 1 06, Thareli, Peshawar basin (modified from Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, plan 13).

    76. Plan of mountain vilzara D60, Thareli, Peshawar basin (modified from Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, plan 30).

    77. In situ stucco door guardian with halo, holding a mace and spear and sitting on a lion, T hareli, Peshawar basin (line draw-ing by W. Hipsman after Mizuno and Higuchi, 1978, pi. 78, no. 4).

    Ranigat 78. Plan of R anigat sacred areas, Peshawar basin (modified from

    Nishikawa, 1994, plans I, 5, 6). 79. Core stripa LOO in east sacred area, R anigat, Peshawar basin

    (after Nishikawa et al., 1988, pl. 1). 80. Early small str1pa 134 from pha~e II in east sacred area, Ranigat,

    Peshawar basin (after Nish.ikawa et al. , 1988, pi. 4, no. l ). 8 1. Pavement stones and bodhisattva at base of stairs of the mrun

    stiipa in the east sacred area, Ranigat, Peshawar basin (line draw-ing by W. Hipsman after Odani, 2000, fig. 6).

    82. VedikDs from the double-headed eagle stupa, block F, Sirkap TaxiJa; the east sacred area of Ranigat, Peshawar basin; and from the main stiipa of Butkara I (GSt3), Swat (line drawing by W. Hipsman after Marsh all, 1951, pi. 34c; Nish.ikawa, et al., 1986, pi. 23 nos. 7- l 0, I 3-14; Faccenna, 1980, vol. 3, no. 5.1 plate 68a).

    Material com direitos autorais

  • ..

    xxu LIST OF U.LUSTRATIONS

    Slziih1'i-kf -rj.heri 83. Shah~jl-kr-

  • LlST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxm

    Ali M~id 96. Medium-sized stiipa with phase Ill stucco decoration from Ali

    Masjid, Peshawar basin (Warburg Institute).

    Architecture and Sculpture )Tom Swat

    Butkara I 97. Plan of Burkara I sacred area, Swat (modified from Faccenna,

    1980, vol. 3, no. 1, pi. VI). 98. Reconstructions of Butkara I main stiipa (GSt 1- 5) and two-

    ceUed shrine (Great Building), Swat (modified from Faccenna, 1980, vol. 3, no. I, pi. 5, figs. 6, 18, 30, 56; vol. 3, no. 3, pi. XII).

    99. Relief depicting a round-based small stupa in a shrine from Butkara I, Swat (Faccenna, 1995, vol. 2, pl. 267 , l nv. no. 920).

    Butlwra Ill 100. Plan of Butkara Ill, Swat (modified from Khan, 1993, pl. 2). I 01. Relief depicting a stiifJa with four pillars surmounted by lion

    capitals, Butkara ill, Swat, height 24 cm, width 30 cm (Rahman, 1987, fig. 10).

    I 02. Stii,fJas in two-celled shrines D aeft) and C (right), Butkara Ill, Swat (Rahman 1987, fig. 3).

    Plinr 103. Plan of Panr showing all phases of construction and axone-

    metric reconstruction of Stiipa 1 and surrounding monuments, Sw~H (modified from Faccenna et al., 1993, figs. 87, 139).

    Saidu I 04. Plan of Saidu sacred area and monastety, Swat (modified from

    Faccenna, 1995, figs. 22, 23). I 05. Reconstruclion of main stujJa, Saidu, SwfLt (Faccenna, I 995, fig.

    282).

    Mmjanai I 06. Plan of Marjanai sacred area, Swat (modified lrom K han, 1995,

    pl. 33).

    Bahan dengan hak cipta

  • .

    :lC'

  • 11

    11 11

    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XXV

    117. Detail of plan of Tapa-i-kafruiha sacred area, H ac;!

  • ' j

    l I .

    I

    i

    ' l I I

    r

    ' '

    ' I

    l ' I

    I

    I

    I '

    ' '

    I

    ' f I

    I

    i

    k ctpta

  • 11

    11

    11

    ,,

    ACK!~Ov\'lJEDGME TS

    There are many people without whose help tllis book would never have become a reality. I thank my Ph.D. advisor Robert Brown for shaping me as a scholar and for his guidance in this project. My brother Marc Behrendt deserves special thanks for spending a year with me doing fieldwork in South Asia and for critically debating many of the issues presented herein. My editor, Faith Rogers, helped me to present my data and thoughts clearly. Research for and shap-ing of this work would not have been possible without the support, patience, and insights of my wife and coUeague Pia Brancaccio.

    l am indebted to the giants in the field of Gandharan archaeol-ogy, Maurizio Taddei, Shoshin Kuwayama, Domenico Faccenna, and Elizabeth Errington, scholars who suggested new tines of inqillry and whose work provided me with tJ1e foundation for tJus book. I also e"'J)ress my gratitude to Ronald Bernier, Pierfrancesco CaUieri, Susan Downey, Anna Filigenzi, Phyllis Granoff; Wayne Hibschman, Donald McCallum, Michael Meister, David Nelson, Anna Maria Quagliotti, Koichi Shinohara, Waiter Spink, and Michael Willis.

    Scholars all over tJ1e world who share an interest in Gandhara provided great help to me. My work in Pakistan was facilitated by many scholars, an1ong whom Abdur R.1.man and Ashraf Khan deserve special recognition. I also thank tJ1e many people working in the museums in Lahore, Pesh.awar, Swat, and Ta.xila, as well as the many chokidars who were so kind to me and who brought to my attention many features of tJ1ese sites.

    1 received institutional support from T emple University, wluch gTanted me an academic leave, and from the University of Califonua Los Angeles for two Dickson Support fellowships. The University of Kyoto (Zinbun Institute) supported me while I completed work in their outstanding arcluves. Paul Taylor, at the Warburg Institute, Sophie Gordon, who made the AJkazi Collection of Photography accessible, the British Libraty's unsut'J)assed holdings, the British Museum, Istituto Italiano per !'Africa e l'Oriente Roma, lstituto Universitario Orientale Napoli, tl1e American Institute of Pakistan Studies, and the American Institute of Indian Studies all were invalu-able sources. Many other people contributed in various ways to this venture; I appreciate their help, and I thank tl1em all.

    Bahan dengan hak cipta

  • f

    1 I

    I 1 l

    l I I

    I !

  • 11

    11

    INTRODUCTION

    Although the architectural tradition of ancient Gandhara, in the northwest area of the Indian subcontinent, has been studied for more than 150 years, it has only slowly come into focus. It is not a lack of evidence that has hindered progress, but rather an overabundance. Considerable documentation exists, even from the mid-19th century, when sites were being cleared ostensibly in an effort to collect sculp-ture. The late 19th and early 20th century work of the Archaeological Survey of India uncovered such a wealth of archaeological and sculp-tural remains that the two provincial museums in Peshawar and Lahort: were filled to capacity and there was still ample material to form major collections in England and throughout its colonial empire: Gandharan sculpture was housed in Calcutta, Bombay, A!Jahabad, Madras, and Rangoon. Although the reports produced by the Archaeological Survey of India tend to lack some important infor-mation (the T axila reports being the notable exception), the thou-sands of labeled photographs taken at the sites have proven to be invaluable. Later 20th centu.ry archaeology in Greater Gandhara, undertaken by teams from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Italy, France, and J apan, have produced data that have gready expanded our knowl-edge, especially of the Swat valley and Afghanistan. However, the Peshawar basin (proper ancient Gandhara), which was the focus of the earliest archaeological work and which produced most of the recovered sculpture, remained poorly understood. The goal of this book is to characterize the Buddhist tradition of ancient Gandhara, using all of the data sources mentioned above as well as the exten-sive e..xtant architectural remains themselves, which constitute a vast untapped primary source of evidence.

    T he focus of this book is the region of ancient Gandhara, a geo-graphic designation that appears in early texts and inscriptiom and that was used by the Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang.1 Ancient Gandhara can be identified a~ the agricultural plains of the Peshawar

    1 Fa-hian, Si-Tu-/G. Buddhist &cords qf lite Wesum World, x:xxi; Hsiian-tsang, Si-:Yu-Ki. B11ddhist Records qf the Wrtern World, 97.

    Bahan dengan hak cipta

  • '

    2 IJ\'TRODUCTION

    basin, in northwest Pakistan (fig. 3), that are bounded by low moun-tains to the north and west, by the Indus river to the cast, and by arid land to the south. In this book I refer t:O this specific geograpl1ic area as the Peshawar basin or as ancient Gandha ra. The tenn Greater. GandhfLTa is used here for the larger culturaJ sphere that includes. parts of Afghanistan, Kashmir, and the Swat valley, as well as the , Pes ha war basin. However, "Gandhira" has been used rather loosely . in 20th century scholarship to refer to an area that includes the Swftt valley and Ta.xila as well as to a style of sculpture found in these regions. To avoid potential confusion, I use aucien.t Gandhlira or the Peshawar basin in this work to indicate this geographic entity (see sec-tion 1.2 Geography of Greater Gandhara and the Distribution of Buddhist Sites).

    Greater Gandhara has been of interest historically because it was . the Buddhism of tlus region that spread to Cllina and other parts of east Asia. Moreover, only in ancient Gandhara can we observe an uninterrupted pattern of religious development starting in the 2nd century B.C.E. and continuing to the 6th centu1' C..; a fragmen-tary record extends the pattern to the 8th century C.E. International trade indirectJy fimded continuous construction of new centers of worship and expansion of existing sites in ancient Gandhara, whereas in other parts of south Asia gaps in patronage resulted in an incom-plete record of BuddJlist arch.itecturaJ and sculptural development-two key sources for understanding ideologicaJ change. Until recently, only a few inscriptions and text fragments were known from Greater Gandhara, so the architectural and sculptural remains were the best sources of evidence concerning tllis early culture. The recovery of thousands of manuscript fragments (ea. 1st century-8tJ1 century C.E.) will w1doubtedly transform the way ve understand this active Buddhist community.

    This book characterizes the organization and function of the . Buddhist religious architecture in the public sacred areas as well as . in the monasteries. While the main focus is on structural features, ' sculpture is also addressed in terms of its integration and use in these : devotional settings. In this sense, the sculpture provides evidence for ; interpreting how various suuctures functioned, and it provides insight into how people moved within these sites. Reciprocally, the archi-tectural evidence contributes greatly to our understanding of how sculpture was used, and it provides clues as to why these pattems

    ' ' ' '

    <

    '

    Bahan dengan hak cip, a ... - ~

  • INTRODUCTION 3

    changed through time. The two variables taken into consideration are the radical transformations Buddhism underwent between the 2nd century B.C.E. and the 8th century C.E. and the considerable regional variation that seems to have occurred.

    vVhile many attempts have been made to establish a chronology for Gandharan art and, to a lesser extent, its architecture, only Lim-ited progress has been made. In particular, chronologic systems based on analysis of style or motif have failed to gain acceptance by schol-ars. For these reasons, in this book a relative phase chronology based on the most secure forms of evidence is used. Although this allows only a broad grouping of archaeologically ordered material (some phases span centuries) such categories can provide an accurate, if general, picture of Gandharan material culture. As iurther evidence comes to light, the phase structure used here can be expanded or compressed like an accordion without disrupting the relative order.

    The foundations of the phase chronological .rystem are in the archi-tectural evidence, which can be broadly dated by using numismatic data, masonry systems, and structural superimposition. Because build-ings were constructed on top of or against one another, it is possi-ble to document recurrent patterns and to determine a clear sequence f(>r structural types used in Gandharan sacred areas and monaster-ies. The establishment of a chronologic framework based on archi-tecture also provides a means of understancling Gandharan art in its original context. While it is usually impossible to say where a given sculpture might have been located, it is feasible to establish patterns of image placement and to group images into common types. This c.:""Ltegorization of the imagery into units that fall into a relative sequence is vital for interpreting architectural data at sites where sculpture was recovered, but numismatic or masonry evidence is not available.

    For exan1ple, this methodology can help us understand the dev-elopment of iconic Buddhist images generally located in shrines facing the main sl!l.pas in the sacred areas. Careful study of the architectural evidence indicates a relative series f()r shrine construc-tion, both at single sites and across groups of related sites, and there-fore a recurrent broad chronological pattern. This archaeological sequence in turn offers a framework for organizing the body of prove-nanced images of Buddhas and bodhisattvas that can be related to the shrines on the basis of scale, mate,;al, and means of attachment.

    Copyrighted material

  • 4 lNTRODUCTION

    The result is a flexible sequence of image production that does not rely on subjective methodologies like stylistic analysis.2

    The Phase Chronological Sequence

    The analysis of Buddhist architecture of Gandhara in this book relies on a lour-phase chronological system (fig. 5) (see Appendix A). A study of the development of the architecture must begin with analy-sis of the numismatic data (fig. 7), which furnish the most widespread' and secure chronological indicators. The many coim found at urban. and Buddhist sites, especially in stilpa relic deposits, help us to deter-mine a sequence. Even though the date of a coin's production does not directly correspond to the time of its deposition, a reliable suc-cession emerges.3

    Currently, a fairly definite numismatic sequence has been estab-lished for the Greater Gandharan region, a cultural area that extends, beyond the borders of the Peshawar basin to include Taxila (fig. 4):, and the Swat valley of Pakistan as weiJ as parts of Afghanistan, from the 3rd century B.C.E. to the 8th century C.E. However, an absolute chronology for the early Buddhist period depends on the date of the Kushan king Kani~ka l's ascension to the throne. Vigorous debate

    2 The analysis of sculptwal remains is restricted here to objects recovered in , scientific excavations and those collected and placed in museums in the 19th and;. early 20th cenl11ries. Thus, the problem of forgeries can be largely avoided. Whil~ little has been published on the issue of Gandhliran forger1es, the an rna.rket is cur- . rently overwhelmed with such spurious production. See K. Tanabe, " lconographicaJ.r and Typological lovestigations of t11e Gandha.ran Fake Bodhisattva Image Exhibitccll by rhe Cleveland Museum of Art and Na.-a ational Museum," Orienl. 24 ( 1988).

    ' M. AJram, "Jndo-Panhian and Eady Kushan Chronology: The Numismatic Evidence," in Coins, Art, all(l Cltrorwlu!J)I: Essqys on the Pre-ls/amic Hist.ory qf !he lndo-franian Borderlands, ed. M. Al.-am and D. Klimburg-Salter (Vienna: Verlag der Osteneichischen Akadcmic der Wisscnschafteo, J 999); J. Cribb, "l11c Eady Kushan Kings: New Evidence for Chronology-Evidence from the Rabatak Inscription or Kanishka 1," in Coins, Art and Cltrorwlo!J)I: Essqys 011 the Pre-lslmmc Hirtory qf dre lndo-Jraniall Bordcrla11d.r, ed. M. Alram and D. Klimburg-Salter (Vien.oa: Verlag der Osterreich.ischen Akademie der Wissenscharten, 1999); E. Errinbrton, "Numismatic Evidence for Dating the Buddhi.st Remains of Ganclha.t

  • INTRODUCTION 5

    has led to proposed dates for that ascension ranging from 78 C.E. to 144 C.E. or later.4 Without taking a stand on this complex issue, I accept the date 120 C.E. simply as a convention until new evi-dence surfaces.

    Sir J ohn MarshaU proposed an architectural chronology based on stratigraphic relationships among the distinct masonry patterns pre-sent in his excavations at the sites of Taxil.a, which he dated using

    coins.~ The dating system he developed at the beginning of the 20th century was a major breakthrough. He recognized four major types of masomy: rubble, diaper, semi-ashlar, and a variety of late semi-ashlar (for a full description and discussion of these masomy types, see Appendix A) (figs. 5, 9). This relative sequence of masonry types can be applied to at least 15 different sites at Taxila excavated between 1912 and 193 7 (fig. 6). Because the superimposition of masomy is still pteserved at many of his excavation sites, this sequence can be corroborated.6 Al though :rvla.rshall 's broad sequence is fairly wel.l determined, his identifications of chronologic sub-units based on the quality of the fabric in a single masonry type cannot always be accepted. Different workshops and the amount of money invested are variables that are not chronologically dependent, yet they alfected the quality of the masonry fabric. 7 Since Marshall's excavations at

    See D. KJimburg-Salter, "From an AJt H.istorical Perspective: Problems of C hronology in rhe KWiar:ta Period," in Coi11s, Art, tmd Chronolog,.- Es.sqys on lhe Pre-Islamic History if the lndtJ-lra11ia11 Borderlmul.s, 5-6.

    ' Marshall refined this chronological schema r.broughout his reports on Ta.xiJa; his final conclusions appeared in his fmal site report of 195 1 (Marshall, Taxila: A11 fllustrated Account if Ard1awlogiwl ExCIJ.vatums Cam"ed out at Ta.~ila. utuler lhe Orders of the Govemmcnl if /11(/ill between IM Years 1913 011d 1931, 3 vols. (Cambridge: University Press, 1951). For analysis or MarshaU's rmsonry chronology, see T. FitzSimmons, Stupa. Designs at Taxila (Kyoto: Institute for Researcl1 in Humanities, Kyoto University, 2001). Kuwa)'ilma, " [n the T ime of Late Sirkap and Early Oham1arajika: How Taxila lntroduced Stt1pa Architenu.re," paper presented a t the conference "On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kushan World," Nov. 8- 12, 2000, Kansas City.

    6 Afier neruly a year ( 1993-94} surveying the sites in Taxila, Swat, and the Peshawa.r basin, I cross-checked my results with the maoy unpublished Archaeological Survey of [ndia photos in the India Office collections in d1e Btitish Libra ry, because modern "conservation has in many places obliterated the original rnasomy fabric. Fortunately, it is possible to distinguish the more recent reconstnJction on ihe basis of lichen growth, because the growth on unrestorcd masonry exposed since d1e early 20th century is, of course, much more developed than that in unexposed material. For a discussion of lichen growth rates, see E. Larson and P. Birkcland, Put11am's (JeQiog)!, 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 25-26.

    ' Throughout his reportS MarsbaU created subdivisions within the diaper masonry category, such as la rge 0 1 smaU diaper masonry, to which he then assigned dates.

    Copyrighted material

  • 6 INTRODUCTION

    Taxila., considerable progress has been made toward a better Lmder-stancting of the dynastic history of Ga.ndhara. The result is a clearer nmnisma6c chronology and a more precise ar ch.itecwral sequence.

    The fo ur-phase relative chronological system used in this book conservatively uaces tJ1e appearance, popularization, and disappear-ance of various types of Buddhist architectural structures between circa tile 2nd century B.C.E. and tJ1e 8th century C.E. The basis : of the system is the characterization of certain strucwral types from Taxila that can be assi&rned a relative sequence on the basis of masoruy. This broad developmental fran1ework is then used to char-acterize other Gandharan sites in the Peshawar basin and to a much lesser extent Swat, when similar structural patterns can be observed. While this methodological approach might not anS'Aer all of the ques-tions or provide an absolute resolution, it does highlight the cultural unity witJnn tile cliversity of Greater GancU1ara.

    In what ways does Taxila become the model to interpret other Buddhist sites in ancient GancU1ara? lt would seem impossible to apply tile sophisticated masoruy-type succession initially developed in T axila by Marshal! to otiler sites in the Peshawar basin, Swat, and Afgha11istan, because local schist, which is ve1y friable and there-fore difticul.t to cut into blocks, was used as building stone.8 However the architectural typology securely established at Taxila on the basis of limestone masomy l)1Jes i~ useful for establishing a sequence of structural forms in tile Greater Gandharan region.

    The four-phase architectural sequence establishes a datable con-text imo which certain categories of scul.pnue can be placed (see

    Noc only was he inconsistent with Utis intetvretacion, but he did not present solid criteria for his relative dating. Recent study does u1dicate U1at some chronologic subdivisions can be made within the cliaper sequence; however, for the purposes of this book, all of the diaper stTuctures are grouped together. See Fitzsimmons, Stupa Designs at Taxi/a, 5-14, 53--9; Kuwayama, "ln the Time of Late Sirkap and Early Dbarmarajika: How Ta.xila Introduced Stfijill. Architecture."

    8 The Buddhist structures of Swat and the 'Peshawar basin were fabticated from schist, a britrle rock with strong internal nonplanar bedding, which flakes irregu-larly. These characteri~tics caused the builders tO use less systematized masotU)' techniques, which varied from site to site, depencling on Ute available J.ocaJ stone. T he Peshawa.r basin and Swat construction techniques were obviously refined over time, but a da.tftble pattern does nol emerge. At the Peshawar basin site of Takbt-i-bllhi, fo r example, walls of image silrines made in the late periods stand as higb as l3 m. TI1ese walls are lbinner, more flexible, and appitrently more durable than those erected in eadier ]>eriods a t this same site, }'et a chronologic masonry pro-gression ClliUlOl be determined.

    Copyrighted mater ... .

  • lNTRODUG'TJON 7

    Appendjx B). lt provides a general sequence that seems more reli-able than a chronology based on supposed Greco-Roman stylistic influences on Gandharan art. Establish.iJ1g an architectural frame-work for Gandhar

  • 8 INTRODUC'li'ON

    fabricated, it is possible to characterize trends in patronage and rec-ognize ideological interests, observ

  • I I

    I

    INTRODUCTION 9

    shift to iconic imagery is a reflection of changing ideology. However, because the sequence of the sculpture is not easily determined , only the architectural evidence tells us about popular and monastic prac-tices. This structural evidence indicates how these religious changes might have occw-red through time.

    Phase Ill is the period in which narratives gave way to devotional images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas (figs. 123, 38). T he begin-ning of phase nr marks the introduction of the practice of placing small image shrines suitable for housing iconic images ~ess than life-sized) around the main stupa in the sacred areas (fig. 2). T he small stupas, formerly covered with narrative panels, also came to be embell-ished with rows of Buddhas and bodhisattvas (figs. 27, 28, 96). It is Likely that during the middle and late parts of phase III, complex devoti.onal images probably depicting Buddhist miracles or heavens acquired importance (fig. L 27).10 Although schist remained an impor-tant medium for creating images, sculptors began in phase Ill to use stucco, clay, and terracotta (fig. 34);11 many of these images have survived in situ. During the late part of phase m, monumental image shrines and massive images of the Buddha, some more th

  • 10 LVfRODUCTJON

    in Swat were created, 13 this was generally a time when large parts of the sacred areas were abandoned. Evidence for the nature of Buddhist practice is thus sparse, although we can assume that Buddhism was still being practiced, as indicated by the addition of late coins to pre-e,.::isting relic deposits of main sltipas. 14 The decline in patron-age is most evident in the Peshawar basin; a limited patronage base in Swat still existed, and extensive construction in Afghanistan and the Sind is evident.

    Previously, it was thought that the invasion of the H ephthalites in . 450 C .E. resulted in the persecution and eventual destruction of the Buddhist community in ancient Gandhara. However, recent work has shown that Buddhist pilgrimage sites in the Peshawar basin, such as the one that housed the alms bowl of d1e Buddha, remained vital until the middle of the 6th century C.E.; these fmdings suggest d1at the period of major Buddhist decline coincided with me collapse of the H ephthalite power.15 While it is difficult to link mese numismatic finds with tl1e archaeological data, it is obvious that building of new structwes halted suddenly at many sites in the Peshawar basin and TaxiJa.'6

    Extensive reuse of sculpture occurred in the Peshawar basin at many sites during phase IV (see Appendix C). I t appears that moved sculptures were placed 11ext to me few devotional relic structures that were still in use at this time of disruption. Patterns of recontextual-ization can thus help us to underst

  • INTRODUC'l10N 11

    and bodhisattvas were created,17 but this body of evidence remains one of the least understood aspects of the Greater Gandharan tra-dition. ln Afghanistan many clay and stucco sculptures were pro-duced during this phase, d1e most well known being the monumental Buddhas at Bamiyan, the largest of which stood more than 53 m tall (fig. 1 J 5).

    T he monumentality and iconographic complexity characteristic of late Gandharan sculpture have counterparts in other regions of the subcontinent. At the end of the 5th century C.., monumental images were erected at the sites of M.irpurkhas in Sind, at Ajal)ta, Kal)heri, and EUora on the Deccan plateau, and at K usinagara in the Ganges basin. This type of image use and corresponding religious practice apparently spread from what is now nmthwest Pakistan and Afghanistan to other parts of the Inclian subcontinent.

    17 A. filigenzi, " Marginal Notes on the Buddhist Rock Sculptures of Swat," in South A.tian Arclweolo~- 1997, ed. M. Taddei and G. de Marco {Rome: lslAO, 2000).

    Copyrighted material

  • '

    CHAPTf:.R ONE

    OVERVIE"W OF GREATER GANDHARA

    The region of ancient Gandhara, located in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, was the center of a flowishing Buddhist tradi-tion between the 2nd century B.C.E. and the 6th century C.E. Inhabitants of this area, today pmt of Pakistan, became affluent . tluough international trade, as objects were exchanged among India, China, and the Mediterranean. Traffic in luxury goods brought streams of foreign traders into this already culturally diverse region, and it is tllis mix of different people and ideas that makes the study of Gandhara both complex and intriguing. In this prosperous milieu, many large Buddhist complexes were bui.lt at the beginning of the common era. Works of art, also produced in great quantity, reflect soutl1 Asian tastes and religious ideolo&'Y imbued .,..,ith western char-acteristics. The people who lived in Gandhara embraced this mul-ticultural hybrid and over time creatively recontextualized outside forms and ideas to suit tlleir own needs and interests.

    The Buddhist architectural remains in Greater Gandhara (fig. 3) offer glimpses of tl1e religious life tllat tltrived in tltis region for nearly I ,000 years. The development of Gandharan art and arcrutecture, an extensive range of structures and figurative sculpture, also offers a paradigmatic model for tile study of the larger soutll Asian Buddhist tradition. I t was in Gandhara that some of the earliest antltropo-morpruc images of the Buddha were created as a complement to worship practices centered on relics . Only by considering how Gandharan Buddhists understood and used relics of the Teacher and why imagery became so ubiquitous does tJ1e Buddhist tradition of Gandhara come into focus.

    Around 330 B.C.E. Alexander tl1e Great conquered lmge parts of what are now Afghanistan and nortllern Pakistan. After Alexander's death, his generals divided tile empire, initiating a complex period of political hist01y known primarily tllrough scattered numismatic evidence recording rulers witl1 Greek names. The excavated ciry of Ai Khanoum, in Afghanistan, with its gymnasium, amphitlleater, and temples, indicates that for a time a Hellenistic colony existed in the

    .

    1 I

    Copyrighted mater 11 .. - .

  • OVERVlEW OF GREATER CANDHARA 13

    northwest of the subcontinent. ' The root~ of the Greater Gandharan taste for classical forms are apparent in the material culture pre-served in this polis. In the middle of the 3rd century B.C.E. King Asoka, a powerful Mauryan proponent of Buddhism, directed that several edicts stressing altiuisii and dlzarma (nonviolence and duty) be carved on boulders in northem Pakist.:m and Afghanistan. T his is generally understood as the beginning of Buddhism in the north-west, even though these isolated inscriptions do not explicitly refer to Buddhism, which would have been just one of many religions practiced in this area ..

    Over the following 200 years, Greater Gandhara was repeatedly invaded by different ethnic groups, which sought to control key passes through the Himalayas. In rapid succession the Parthians, Scythians, lndo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians, and others fought over this region before the powerful Yueh-chih began to move toward Afghanistan from the western Chinese borderlands. Bearing the dynastic title of K ushan, the Ytieh-chih gradually invaded Greater Gandhara in the lst centmy B.C.E. Their rule culminated under the kings Kani~a I and Huvi~ka in the 2nd century C.E., by which time the Kushans had established a large kingdom, e>..'tending beyond the Hindu Kush to northern India. They established political stability and unified the many cuJtures and religions within a single political system.2

    In the 2nd century B.C.E., while political turmoil was churning Gandhara, tl1e first Buddhist sites were established in the region (fig. 6). The two earliest centers, Butkara I in the Swat valley and the Dharmarajika complex in Taxila, share many characteristics with contemporary Buddhist sites in India. At this time, relics of the Buddha housed in massive hemispherical stupas were the focus of worship (figs. I , I 7).

    ot until the lst and 2nd centuries C.E., however, were a significant number of Buddhist centers founded in Gandhara.3 Beginning at tllat

    1 D. MacDowaU and M. Taddei, "The Eady Historic Period: Achaemenids and Greeks," in 17e Archaeology '!! Ajglumistan .from Earliest Times to tlte Timurid PerWd, ed. R. Allchin and N. Hammond (London: Academic Press, 1978), 2 18- 32.

    2 Ibid., 204- 12; D. MacDowall and M. Taddei, "The Pre-Muslirn Period," in 17e llrcluteOlogy '!/ Ajghani.rta11 .from Earliest Times to lite Timurid Period, ed. R. Allchin and N. Hammond {London: Academic Press, 1978), 233- 4, 245- 8.

    ' Eni.ngton, " 1umismatic Evidence for Daring the Buddhist Remains of Gandhara," 194; G. Fussman, "Numismatic and Epigraphic E'~dencc for" iJ1e Chronology of Early Gancllm-an Art," in h11Jesti.f50hllg Indian Art, Etoceedings if a ~ymposium on the

    Bahan dengan hak cipta

  • 14 CHAPTER ONE

    time, sculpture was used to embellish the relic structures. Narrative reliefS recounting the Buddha's life were attached to stupas, and they are invaluable to any study of early Gandharan Buddhism (figs. 8D, 1 08). In this early phase, great emphasis was pla.ced on the historic personage of the Buddha (Sa9'amuni); reliefs depicted his miraculous birth, childhood, rejection of life in the palace, path to enlighten-ment, and role as the teacher of the Buddhist dhamw. These depic-tions also stress his death, focusing on his cremation and how the relics came to be distributed. This emphasis on the Buddha's relics is also seen in the architectwal remains where stupas and relic shrines were predominant.

    Begiming sometime in the 3rd century C.E., the patronage of Buddhist sites dramatically increased- old sites were expanded and many new centers were founded. Relic monuments such as stUjJas and shrines, initially primary foci of devotion, were augmented with large Buddha and bodhisattva images, placed in chapels enclosing rhe sacred areas (fig. 5; see also figs. 38, 2, 46, 88, 123). By the 4th and 5th centuries, these iconic images were produced on a monu-mental scale (figs. 47, 49, 50), a trend cuhninating at the late 6th century site of Bamiyan in Afghanistan, where a Buddha image more than 53 m tall dominated the landscape (fig. 115).

    The emergence of iconic images marked a transition i.n Buddl1ist practices, in contrast to the narrative traditions that characteized the e;ulier art of Gandhara, central India, and Andhra Pradesh. Some scholars have seen this as an indication of the doctrinal shift , from Hrnayfma to Mahftyana Buddhism, although recently this has been questioned.'1 Although the "iconic" inutges became monumen-tal and the iconography acquired increas1ng complexity (fig. 127), relics remained the focal objects of veneration in Greater Gandhara.

    The rnost active period of Buddhist patronage was benveen the 3rd and 5th centuries C.E.; the mqjority of swvivi.ng architectural material dates to this period. The increase in panonage probably

    ----

    .Dwelj)pmu111 of .Eor{y Buddhist mu! Hind11. lconogropl!)', Held ot the Museum of lndi.aJz llrt Berlitz in Mqy 1986, ed. W. Lobo and M. Yaldiz (Berlin: Museum fu.r Indiscbe Kuost, 1987). See Chapter Four herein on phase n architectural evidence and Appendixes A and B for discussions of da.Jing.

    .For a full sunumuy of the issues sunouoding Hina)lfliJa and Mahliyana Buddhism sec W. Zwalf, A Cakdoguc if tile Cmu!Jwm Sculp111J"e in tile British. Museum., 2 vols. {London: British Museum Ptess, I 996), 30- 3.

    '

    Bahan dengan hak ci ) ..

  • OVERVIEW OF CREATF.R CAl'IDHARA 15

    was not dynastic; the great K ushan empire was losing power at this rime. Only a vague idea of the political landscape of this period can be formed from coins of the Kushans, Kushano-Sasanians, Sasanians, and Kidarites. The 5th to 8th century C.E. period is even more obscure, as Gandhiira feU under the control of the Hephthalites, Hunas, and Turki Shahis. By the time the Hindu Shahis attained power in the 9th century C.E., Buddhism in Gandhara was fu.lly eclipsed.5

    Between the 5th and 7th centuries C.E. , Chinese Buddhist pil-grims began to visit Greater Gandhara to see famous relics like the Buddha's alms bowl or his skull bone (u~f~). Short biographies of many of these Chinese monks survive. The extensive travel accouncs of f axian (40 I C.E.) and Xuanzang (630 C..)6 reveal much about the late Buddhist tradition of Greater Gandhara. AU of these sources suggest a dramatic decline in Buddhist patronage in the late 5th cen-tUJy. The archaeological evidence appears to support the written records; few post-5th centllly coins have been found in the religious areas, and new construction was abruptly stopped at most sites.

    Sparse evidence of Buddhist activity at some isolated sites in the Peshawar basin survives, and a few of these centers seem to have remained active until perhaps the 8th centUJy C.E. The collapse of patronage was not so severe in the Swat valley, and throughout this long period Buddhism continued to flourish in A(~hanistan.7

    ' Bnington, ''Num.i;1natk EvidenC'e for Dating tht' Buddhist Remains of Gandhara," 20 I 3; S. Kuwayama, "Th(' Hephthalites in Tokharistan and Gandhara; Pa11 1: Gandhara," Lalwre Museum Bulleti11 V, no. I ( 1992); S. Kuwa)arna, "The Hephthalites in Tokharistan and Gandhara; Part ll: Tokharist.an1" Lal!ort Museum Bulleti11. V, no. 2 ( 1992}; A. Rahrnan, Th Los/ Two Dynasties if the ::,ahis: An Analysis if 17wir Hiswry, Arrhaeology, OJinll!ie and Polorogmf>I!Y (lslamabad: Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Ctntral Asia. Quaid-i-Azam University, 1979).

    Fa-hian, Si-1'u-Ki. Buddhist R=rtls 'if flu 11-~tem World, tnms. S. Beal {London: Triibner & Co., 1906); Hsiian-tsang, Si-Yu-IG. Budilhist Records qf tlu Wtstem World, trans. S. Beal (London: Triibner & Co., 1906}; Kuwayama, "The Buddha's Bowl in Gandhara and Relevant Problems."

    ' Eningt.on, "Num.iSll'latir E'~dence for Dating the Buddhist Remains of Gandhar

  • J6 CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 Historic Survl!)' rif Archaeology in Gandhiira

    At the beginning of the l9th century, British colonialists occupied the northwest area of the Indian subcontinent, today Pakistan. After their first encounter with Buddhist art in the Peshawar basin, schol-ars correctly identified this area as tl1e ancient Gandhara mentioned in the epigraphic and literdl)' sources.8 When comparable Buddhist artworks from neighboring regions stufaced, they also came to be ; labeled as "Gandharan," thus creating a false perception of the area of this ancient region. "Greater Gandhara" as used herein includes the Peshawar basin, Taxila, Swat, Afghanistan, and Kashmir.9

    The British w1derstood the Gandharan sculptural style as a regional product of the Greco-Roman world and saw in the classically dressed i Buddha image the perfect emblem of the west giving shape to the east. The Buddhist sculpture from Gandhara appealed to the neo-classical interests of the Briti~h colonialists, and they preferred it to : art from other parts of soutl1 Asia.10

    Early collections, mainly of coins and reliqua ries, were put together by va1;ous members of the European mili tary, notably the officers : Ventura and Court, the deserter Masson in Afghanistan, and a mil- i itary unit called the Guides stationed in the town of Mardan in Pakistan.11 Aliliough some sculptwe was collected at iliis time, these early adventurers primarily collected coins. Often they cut open mas-sive slupas to recover precious reliqua.lies, which were known to

    8 Z walf, Crmdlwra Sculpture, 13. R. Salomon, R. Allcbin, and M . . Bamard, Ancieul Buddhist Scro/IJ from Gr111dhoro:

    17te British Libra')' Kharostlti Fragmmts (Seattle: University of Washi111,rt0n J>,ess, I 999), 3. The ancient lands Gandhara, Udliyana, Nagarahara, and Kashmir do corre- i spood to the modem regions of the Pesbawar basin, Swlit, central Al.gllaniWi.n, and Kashmir, but use of this terminology risks li.1rther conlusing the issue. N; a result, Buddhist sculpture 1.e1med Gandhliran has Lost its specific geographic associarion, j although this terminology doe.~ describe art that e.wbiL elements from the Greco-Roman wol'ld.

    10 S. Abarbi" (Ph.D. thesis, London University, 1987), 31- 2 14; C. Mas.~on, "Memoir on the Buildings Called Topes," in Ariana. A111iquo; a Descriptioe Account of tlte AJ1tiquities and Coi11s qf Afghanistan, ed. H. Wilson (Delhi: O riental Pubijshers, l 841; reprint, 197 1).

    1 ; 1 ' .

    .,

    I

    ' .

    i I

    llllllh!'hl1 IJ;lnrf' J a !

  • OVERVIEW OF GREATER GANDHA.RA 17

    contain coins. General Alexander Cunningham oversaw d1e first gov-ernmental archaeological excavations carried out under d1e auspices of the newly created Archaeological Survey of India. He dug at me sites of Mru:tikyala, Taxila, and Jarna! Garhi and produced reports that represent early attempts to create a scientific record. 12 [n 1864, H. W. Bellew pubtished a report, and in 1871 Sergeant R. E. Wilcher surveyed and excavated at the site of T akht-i-bahi. 13 The frrst exca-vations of Buddhist centers for which plans >vere drawn, and from which the recovered sculpture is still known today, were carried out in the 1880s. Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Deane excavated the site of Sikri (fig. 90), and Major H. H. Cole published plans, sketches, and photographs of sculpture from the sites of Sanghao, Tar:'gai, upper and lower . athou (figs. 92, 94), and Mian Khan. 1 '~ The pho-tographer Alexander Caddy subsequently documented much of the sculpture found by Deane and Cole (figs. 84, 85, 88, 89, 93, 95, 96, 114). These artworks, added to collections in Europe and India, laid the foundations for the loosely conceived notion of "Gandharan" art.

    At me beginning of the 20th century, the newly established Frontier Circle of me Archaeological Survey of India initiated a series of official excavations at the most important sites in the Peshawru basin of Pakistan. Excavations were undertaken and plans were drawn of d1e ma:jor Buddhist centers of T akht-i-bahi (figs. 2, 44, 45), J amal Garhi (fig. 61 ), Sahrr-Bah161 (figs. 54, 57, 59, 60), and Shah-jl-kf-c;lherT

    17 A. Cunningham, ':J ~m!il Garhi," Archaeological Survry '![ India 5 (1872- 73); " ManiltyaJa," Arclweologicai Survry rif India 2 (1863- 64); " Manikya.la," ArchMOlogical Surory '![India 5 ( 1872- 3}.

    u H. BeUew, A Gmeral Report 011 lhe Tust![

  • 18 CHAPTER. ONE

    (fig. 83).15 The prinuuy goal of this work was to gather antiqlllttes that could be displayed in the major colonial museums in Calcutta, Bombay, and London. T he recovery of several thousand schist and stucco sculptures led to the establislunent of tJ1e Pesbawar and Lahore regional museums to house this material. More than 2,000 unpublished photographs taken by the Archaeological Survey document the exca-vations and today represent an invaluable source of information for reconstructing the work done and the mace1ial recovered at that time; photographs from this period appe

  • I ~

    OVERVIEW OF GREATER CANDH.".RA 19

    Marshall used a much more scientific approach in his archaeologi-cal excavations and kept accurate records of his finds. While Marshall's archaeological methodology might seem inadequate when compared to modem practices, his activities mark a turning point for our under-standing of the Gandharan architectural tradition. His detailed exca-vation reports of the sites in Taxi!a remain i.mpona:nt for understanding the region.

    In the 1950s, after a break because of the pobtical turmoil that led to the partition of south Asia into the modern nations of Paki~tan and India, archaeological activities were resumed. Several foreign teams began to work in Pakistan. Giuseppi Tucci initiated an Italian archae-ological mission in the Swat valley; major excavations were carried out under Domenico Faccenna at Butkara I (see fig. 97), Panr (see fig. 1 03), and Saidu (see fig. 104).18 Pierfrancesco Callieri , who beg-dll the excavations at the urban site of Barikot in the 1980s, has con-tinued the work. 19 This research has proved to be fi.mdarnentally

    Superintendent Government Printing, 192 1); ''Exploralion at Taxila 1930- 34," in Annu11l Report '![the Archaeological Suroey if flulia for the rem:< 1930- 31, 1931- 32, 1.932- 33 & 1.933- 34 (Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1936); "Greeks and Sakas in India," Joumal if lhe Ruyal Asiatic Socie!)' if Great Bri1ai11 and lrelmul (1947); " 1o1them Circle: Taxila," in Annual RefJort if tlu: Archaeological S1m19 if lrulio 1923- 24 (Calcutta: Government of India Central Publication Branch, 1926); "Northern Ci,cle: T axila," in Ammai Report. qf tht ArclwoologictJi Swv9 qf India 1924- 25 (Calcutta: Govemmenl of India Cenu-al Ptiblicarion Branch, 1927); "Taxila," in Annual Reporl qfilze Archll1)[ogical Suroey qf l11dia 1926-27 (Ca.lcuW1: Government of lndia Central Publication Branch, 1930). See also: A. Foucher, "The Decoration of the Stuccoed Stiipas," u1 &caoati11n al Taxila: 111e Slupas mul klonasttlies at ]aulia11, Me11U1irs if lhe Arcltll1)/ogical Survey if India (Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, 1921); A. Siddique, "Exca,~Ition at Taxila," in A111111al Report qflhe Archaeological Suro~ if.lnduJ 1934- 35 (Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1937) and "Excavation at Taxila," in Aruuuzl Rtport qf the Archaeological Surmy if India 1.935-36 (DeU1i: Manager of Publications, l938).

    16 P. Callieri, Saidtl Sluuif I (SwaJ, Pakisla!!): 1?1e Buddhist Sacred A reo. 17te Morwste>), vol. >..'XIIJ. I (Rome: I.sMEO, 1989); D. Faccenna, Butknra 1 (Swtll, Pakistat~ 1956-1962, 5 vols. (Rome: lsM.EO, 1980) and Saidu Sltarif (Su;al, Pakistan), 2. 17u: Buddhist Sacred Areo .. 17te Sh1[Xl Ttnace, 2 vols. (Rome: lsMEO, 1995); D. FacceJUla, R . Gobl, and A. Kl1an, "A Report on cl1e Recent Discovery of a Deposit of Coins in the Sacred Area of Burkara I. (Swat, Pakistan), East and West 43, no. I- 4 (1993); D. Facccnna and G. Gullini, Reports 011 the Campaigns, 1.956-1958 -i11. Swat, PaJ:istall, Miugoro: Site qf Bulkara I (Rome: ls1iruto poligrafico dc.llo Stato Libreria, I 962); D. Faccenna, A. Khan,

  • 20 CHAPTER ONE

    important for om understanding of Buddhism in Swat and its role in the Greater Gandharan tradition.

    The J apanese archaeological mission started working in the Peshawar basin in the 1960s under the direction of Seiichi Mizuno, who exca-vated at Mekhasanda (fig. 64), T hareli (fig. 68) and Kashmir-Smast 20 In the .1 980s Koji N"LShikawa excavated Ranigat (fig. 78).21 Photographic documentation by the J apanese of sculpture found at these sites is fundamental for om understanding of the Peshawa.r basin tradition.

    The Archaeological Survey of Pakistan and Peshawar University also have conducted important excavations since the 1960s, partic-ularly in the Swat valley. This work has brought to light several important sites, the most significant being Andandheri, Butkara m (fig. l 00), Chatpat, Marjanai (fig. I 06), Nimogram (fig. l 09), Gumba-tuna, and Shnaisha.22

    In Afghanistan, French teams carried out much of the archaeo-logical work between the 1930s and 1978, when the Soviet Union took over the country. T he French archaeologists excavated major

    Buddhi~t complexes at H ac;lc;la, Gulda.ra, Bamiyan, and Fondukistan.23

    199Q-1992. A Prc!iminruy Report on the Excavations of the Italian Archaeological Mission, IsMEO," Arma/i de/J'/stituto Unwtrsitario On"enliJle di Napoli 52/4, Suppl. 73 (1992).

    20 S. Mizuno, eel ., Haibalc and KII.Jhmir-SmasL Buddhist Ced in 1963-67 (Kyoto: Doihoisha, 1978).

    11 K. Nishikawa, iUllligal: ;J Buddhist Sile in Gr11Jdhara Pakista11 Surot!jed 1983- 92 (Kyoto: Kyoto University Press, 1994); K Nishi.kawa et al. , Canrll1ara 2: Preliminlll) Report on the Ccmprehetlsive Sunr~ qf Candluun Buddltisl SilA< (Kyoto: Kyoto University Press, 1988); K. ishikawa, N. Odani, and Y. amba, Preliminary &port 011 the CcmpreJzensiue Sunr~ qf Candltara Buddhist Siw, 1983, 1984 (Kyoto: KyotO University Scienti6c Mission to Gaodhara, 1986).

    2'l A. Datli, " Excavation at Chatpat," AndeTII Pakistar~ IV (1968-9}; A. Dan.i, "Excava.tions at Andandheri," Ar~eient Pakistan IV (1968-9); M. A. Khan, .Buddhist Shrines iTI Sr.oot (Saidu Sharif: Archaeological Museum, 1993}; S. N . .Kban, ".Prelimin

  • OVERVIEW OF GREATER GANDHARA 21

    Teams from od1er countries were also active. Maurizio T addei led an Italian excavation of d1e late Buddhist complex of Tapa Sardar in the 1960s. 2'1 The Japanese archaeologists Mizuno and Shoshin Kuwayama worked at the urban site of Cha.qalaq T epe, the Buddhist cave sites of Haiba.k, Basawal, Hazar-sum , and Fil-Khana, and the stupa and sacred area at Lalma, and they conducted a major photo documentation project at Bamiyan.25

    T he ongoing destruction of evidence of the cultural heritage of Afghanistan has made the study of d1e Greater Gandharan tradition increasingly difficuJt. Following the Soviet invasion and the subse-quent civil war, the Kabul museum was looted mu16ple tinles, as were many smaller public and ptivate collections. Many archaeo-logical sites, in par6cular the complex at Ha

  • 22 CHAP'Tt:R OIII'E

    actiVIUes there in the foreseeable future. A particularly severe blow to further study was the Taliban miJjuas destruction of the monu-mental (53 and 38 m tall), 6th centwy Buddha image. at Barniyan in March 200 I (fig. I 15).

    Documentation of many excavatjons conducted in Afghanistan before the Soviet invasion is poor, because many of the archaeolo-gists have died, leaving excavation descriptions unpublished. In light of these problems, the material from Afghanistan is covered here only to a limjted extent.

    The western edge of Greater Gandhara includes the area of Ka!ih-mir, wllich is currently (2003) inaccessible because of civil war. The early Buddhjgt arcllitectural tradition from Kashmjr has been docu-mented only sparsely; it is not included here.

    l. 2 GeograjJI!)' qf Greater Gandhara (IIUi the Di.rtrihulum if Buddhist Sites

    The ancient region of Gandhara (not to be confused with tl1e Greater Candharan cultural sphere) was located in ilie rich agricultural plruns of the Peshawar basin in the low foothills of the Himalayas, in what is today nortl1west Pakistan (fig. 3). The name Gandhara appears in early texts and inscriptions and was used by the Chjnese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang.26 This ancient territory, so important to Lhe early Buddrust world, is clearly defined by natural boundaries: the Hindu Kush mountain range to the west, a set of rugh foothills to the north, and the Indus River to the t~a~t. In the south, the Pt~shuwar basin opens onto the plains, whjch become arid not far from tJ1e basin. The Indus and Landai rivers made the Peshawar basin agri-culturally rich, but the source for the region's economic prosperity was its key position along the major trade route connecting China, the ~ lediterranean world, and India.

    The Peshawar plain and the surrounding areas of Swat, Afghanistan. and Kashmir together formed Greater Gandhara, sharing strong cul-tural affiruties. Immediately to the north of the Peshawar basin was the ancient region of Udayana, having the high Swat v-al ley at its

    "' Fa-hian, Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist fiLcordJ qf lfze Wt.rtem World, x;"xi; Hsiian-tsang, Si-Yu-IG. Bwldhist Ruords qf /M f1!tt1/1'1?1 World, 97.

  • OVERVIEW 01' GREATER CANDH.A.RA 23

    core; it probably included prut~ of Dir and Buner. To the west, beyond the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanista n , lay the aJ1Cient region of r agarahara, with Bactria to the north and west.21 To the east of the Peshawar basin, beyond TtL'

  • 24 CHAPTER ONE

    suggest that this longer but easier route through ancient Nagarahar~ was favored after 520 C..29

    The decline of patronage in the Peshawar basin appears to have coincided with a period of economic prosperity in the Kabul valley and the construction of many new Buddhist centers in Afghanistan.~ It seems possible that the shift in txade routes might have been the cause of the economic and artistic coUapse of the Peshawar area.

    I. 2 .I Mqjor Buddhist Sites in the Pesh(!war Basin: Ancient Gandhiira In a mu1ticu1tural region like Gandhara, Buddhism was one of many religions practiced. However, most of the sacred ;uchitecture that survives in the region is of Buddhist character. The chronology of' the spread of Buddhism into the Peshawar basin is blurred. Although an Asokan inscription fiom Shabazgarhi records contact with north-ern India in the 3rd century B.C.E., it was not tmtil the 1st or 2nd centwy C.E. that significant Buddhist centers were established. II1 the Peshawar basin, the largest extant sites are T akht-i-biihi, J amal Garhr, Thareli, and Ranigat (figs. 5, 6, 44, 45, 61, 68, 78). T hese ' complexes have survived in good condition, as they were in low, iso- lated foothills above the fertile plains. Smaller excavated sites i11 the mountains include the upper and lower Nathou monasteries, Gangu Dhcr, and Mekhasanda (figs. 92, 94, 64).

    It seems likely that the most important Buddhist centers would have been located in the plains, near major ci6es. Howeve.r, mod-ern urban construction, reuse of the stone for building rna[eri.als, and farming destroyed most of this archaeological evidence. A good exam-ple is the village of Sahr1-Bahl61 on a massive foundation of ancient Gandharan masonry and surrounded by a consteUation of smaU Buddhist s1tes. The massive a.x:ial stttpa at Shiih-jl-ki-qherl, associated with the Kushan king Kani~ka (fig. 83), is another plains site that, although excavated, has been swallowed by modem human activi-ties.so Recent surveys in the Peshawar basin and to the north have

    2'.1 Kuwa.yanuo, "The Hephthali[CS ill Tokharismn and Gandhara; Part I: Oandhara"; "The Hepbthalites in Tokharistan and Gandhara; Part U: Tokharistan"; "Kapisi and Gandhara According to Chinese Buddhist Sources," 136.

    ,., Spooner, "Excavations at Sahri-Bahlol (1906- 07)"; "E.xcav-ations at Sahri-Bahl6J (I 909- 1 0)"; Stein, "Excavations at Sahri-BabJol"; f. Tissot, "SaJui-BabJ6l {Part IV)," in South Asiatz Archoeology 1993, eel A. Parpola and P. KoskikaJiio (Hclsiol..:i: t994); F. Tissot, ''The Site of Sahri-BabJol in Gandhara (Part ni)," in Soulh Asian Ardweo/og)>

    Material com direitos autorj:;

  • OVERVIEW OF GREATER OANDHARA 25

    revealed many unexcavated Buddhist sites, further confinning the area's primary role in the history of south Asian Buddhism.3 '

    1.2.2 77ze Buddhist Complexes of Taxila T he urban and Buddhist remains at Taxila lie just to the east of the Peshawar basin, beyond the Indus river and thus technically beyond d1e boundary of ancient Gandhara (figs. 3, 4, 5, 6). It seems likely that Taxila became a major center because of its posi6on at the juncture of two major uade routes: one through the Hunza val-ley leading over the Karakoram Pass into China and the other run-rung east-west from Afghanistan through the Peshawar plain to India. The earliest urban center in Taxila is known as Bhir mound, active between the 5th aeology under the direction of rarid Khan.

    " Saecd-ur-Rehman, cd., Ardweological .RwmnaissmUA in Gandlwra .1996 (Kara.du: Department of Archaeology & Museums, Ministry of Culture and Spot'tll, Govemmcnt of Pakismn, 1996).

    " G. Erdosy, ''Taxi.la : Political History and Urban Structure," in South Asian Ardweofbgp 1987, ed. M. Taddei (Rome: IsMEO, .1990), 662- 66.

    33 P. Ca.llie,;, "Buddhist Presence in the Urban Settlements of Swat, 2nd Cent. .B. C.- 4th Cent. A.D.," in Sourus of GandhllraJI Buddhism: Ardweology, Art and Texts, ed. K. Behrendt and P. Brancaccio (Vancouver: University of Bf'itish Colutnbia Pf'ess, in press).

    Material com direitos autorais

  • 26 CHAPTER ONE.

    Lalchak, Ballar, and many other uncxcavatecl sites (figs. 16, 20, 27, 32, 42, 15, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26). ear Taxila is also the large Mai)ikyala: stzipa, which has not been fully excavated. The concentrated archi-' tecturaJ evidence from T axila that can be dated between circa 2nd; century B.C.E. and 7th cenn.uy C.E. ~ fundamentally important for understanding the larger Buddhist tradition of Greater Ganclhara.

    Although the art and architecture from Taxila arc slightly different lrom those of the Peshawar basin, the dose proximity of lhe two areas and the common use of certain types of religious and monas-tic structures allow for productive comparisons.

    1.2.3 Buddllist Remains in the Swat I 'alltj: Ancient Uda;iina lmmecliately to the north of the Pt:~hawar basin is the high valley of Swat, which appears to be the core of the ancient dayana men-Lioned by the Chi11Csc travelers (figs. 3, 5, 6).34 The Swat valley is about 500 meters above the Peshawar plain, and even though the passes into Swat arc easily traversed, they are steep and seem to have insulated this region from the political and religious de,elop-ments of the plains. Thus, while Taxila and the Peshawar basin were intimately related, t.he art and architecture of Swat followed a different trajectory. As late as the 7th or 8th century C.., the Buddhist com-munities in Swat were still active, while onl y 40 miles to the south in the Peshawar basin, .Buddhism was no longer receiving patron-age and had declined dramatically.

    The most significant Buddhist center in Swat is Butkara I, located at the east end of the valley (fig. 97). This site was the hub of reli-gious activity, like lhc D harmarajika complex in Taxila or Sahn-Bahl61 in the Pe~hawar basin. f\ group or smaller satemte sites built near Butkara l include Saidu, Panr, Butkara Ill, Baligram, Rod other unexcavatecl sites in the J ambil valley (figs. 104, I 0:1, I 00). In a strategic posirion dominating the ccntcr of the Swat valley is the urban cenrer of Barikot, tentatively identified as the ancient city or Bazira of Alexander's time. 3~ Immediately LO the south or Barikot

    l Fa-hian, Si-Yu -Ki. Buddhist Rtcortfs ~/ tllr Wt.~ttm World, xxx; Hsi~-t>ang, Si-Yu-Ki. Buddlti.st &rortir rf lilt I Vtrlml World, I I 9.

    " Callieri, Filigenzi, and Stacul, 'Excavations at Bir-Kot-Gh"anda.i, Swat: 1987."

    M t nal com dire1tos aulor ..l

  • OVERVIEW OF GREATER GAl'IDHARA 27

    are several late Buddhist complexes, which include the sacred areas of Abba Sahib China and Tokar Dara (figs. l l 0, 112).36 In more remote valleys to the south of the Swat River are the massive stiipas at the sites of Shnaisha, Shingardar, and AmJukdara.37 The sacred areas and monasteries at these complexes have yet to be excavated. Other important sites in Swat located nord1 of the river and at me west end of it'l valley include Nimogram, Gumbatuna, Ma~anai, Andan Dheri, and Chatpat (figs. 109, I 06).38 A recent survey of Swat conducted by the Department of Archaeology in Pakistan has identified many other sites du-oughout d1e valley.39 The majority of the Swat Buddhist complexes were constructed along the southern edge of the valley, indicating that contacts with the religious communities of the Peshawar basin were important.

    I .3 Characleri.st:ic Architectural Fea/:ures qf Gandhiiran Bzuldhist Cenle~s

    In ancient Gandhara, Buddhist religious centers were usually built outside of urban centers. They were composed of a sacred area for public worship and a more private monastic section with vilziiras (monasteries) and small devotional structures. The public sacred area and private monastic space were built to serve the religious needs of at least three distinct communities: lay followers, resident monks, and local and long-distance pilgrims. To begin to understand how these complex religious centers functioned and to get a sense of the internal dynamics, ir is useful to survey the component parts of a characteristic Gandharan site. A typical sacred area is composed of a main stftpa surrounded by smal.l stupas and shrines eitl1er for relics or for ima.ges, as at the site of Jauliaii in Taxila (fig. 27).

    96 Khan, Buddhist. Shrines in SWIJt, 59- 62, 64- 66. 31 Ibid., 53- 55, 62-64; Rahman, "Slmaisha Gumbat: First Preliminary Excavation

    Report." An early general survey of Swat, which included the sites of Barikot, Amlukdara, and Abba Sahib China, was carried out by E. Barger Md P. Wright, "Excavations in Swat and Explorations in the 0:..-us Terrimries of Afghanistan: A Detailed Report of the 1938 Expedition," in Memairs qf the Archaeological Swvry qf bulia (Delhi and Calcutta: M.anager of Publications, 1941 ).

    38 A Dani, "Excavations at Andandheri," Ancient Pakistan IV { I 968-9); A. Dani, "Excavation at Char.pat." A11cient Pakistan TV (L968-9); Khan, Buddhist Slni11es in Swat; Khan, "Preliminary Report of Mrujanai."

    l'} Relunan, ed., Archaoological Reco1maissmrct i11 Cmuilwm.

    Material com direitos autorais

  • 28 CHAPTER ONE

    Consistently, in both India and Gandhara, a relic of the Buddha! was the central object of veneration, giving power to the site. The sacred area served the needs of the monks and th