Behrendt, The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara

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Transcript of Behrendt, The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara

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    This book is printed on acid-free paper. '

    Library of Con!P'ess Cataloging-in-Publication Data '

    Bchrendt, Kurt A., I 964- J The Buddhist architecture of Gandhara I by Kurt A. Behrendt. ,

    p. cm. - (Handbook of oriental studies. Section two. India. ISSN 0 I 69-93 77 ; v. I 7 = ' Handbuch der Orientalistik, Indien) '

    Includes bibl.iograpbical references and index. ISBN 90-04-1 1595-2 (hardback : alk. paper) I. Architecture, Buddhist-Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) 2. Sculpture,

    Gandhara-Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) 3. Sculpture, Buddhist- Gandbara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) I. T itle. U. Handbuch der Ol'icntali~tik. Zwcite Abteilung. Indien ; I 7. Bd.

    NA6010.72.G36B44 2003 722'.4-dc22

    ISSN 0169-9377 ISBN 90 04 13595 2

    IQ Coj!)lrig!Lt 2003 by KoninJdijke .Brill NV, L.eiden, V.e Netherlmzds

    2003045 119

    A/J. rights rest>ved. No part '!lthis publicalionml!)' be reproduced, trwzslaled, stored in a rtlrieua.L fYSiern, or transmitted in a1zy form or by a'!Y means, electronic,

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    mechanical, photocopying, recording or othm.vise, wilhout prior writJm , pmnissum from the publisher. .

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    The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Roso.uoodDri-e, Suite 910 Danvers .NLA 01923, USA.

    Fees are sui!jtct to change.

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  • CONTENTS

    I .i!(t o( l'lh JStrations . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,, ..... , ................ ,. >;;V Acknowled men ts ................. ........... .... ..................... ......... ........ .. " x:xvu

    In trod! Jction " "" """" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. I Chapter One: O verview of Greater Gandha.ra .... .. .. ............ .. 12

    I. I Historic Smvey of Archaeology in Gandhara .......... .. 16 I .2 Geography of Greater Gandhara and the

    Distribution of Buddhist Sites ..................................... . 22 I .2. I Major Buddhist. Sites in the Peshawar

    Basin Ancient Gandbara 24 I .2.2 T he Buddhist Complexes of Taxila ................ 25 I .2.3 Buddhjst Remains in the Swat Valley:

    Ancient Udayana .............................................. 26 I .3 Charact"eristic Architectural Featmes of Gandharan

    Buddbj st Cen ters .................... , .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2 7 1.3. I The Main Stapa ................................................ 28 1 .3.2 Small St1ipas ........................................................ 29 I .3.3 Swpa Shrines and Direct-Access

    R elic- Shrines 30 I .3.4 Direct-Access Main Stii as ................................ 31 I .3.5 Distribution of Sculpture in the

    Sacred A rea .. .................................... , ............. . , 3 I I .3.6 M'onasteries ......... ... ................................. ........... 33

    Qyadrangular Monasteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 'M'cumtain Viharos 37

    Chapter Two: Architecture and Sculpture from Phase I ...... 39 2. l T he MaUJyan Peiod in Gandhara ............................ 39 2.2 Pbasr I Architectura l Evidence .................... ................ 4 1

    2.2. 1 Dharmara,jika Complex in Taxila: Phase I .... 41 2.2.2 Buddhist Structures in the Taxila City

    of Sirkap: Phase I .. .. .. .. ...................................... 45 2.2.3 Butkara. I in Swat: Phase I .. ..,,,,,,,,,,,, ... 47

    2.3 Architectural Links to the Indian Buddhist T radition During Phase I .................... ........... ............. 50

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    2 0 3 0 I The Phase I Stupa. 00 00 00 00 00 .... 0 ............ ...... 00 ...... 00 51 20302 Use of Columns During Phase I .................. 00 55 20303 Phase I Sculpture 0000.......................................... 56

    204 Conclusions About the Nature of Phase I Material from Northwest India .. 00 00 00 .......... 00 ................ 59

    Chapter T hree: The Development of Relic Shrines: Phases I and Il .......... ....... oooooooooooOoooo . oooooo ............ ooooooo""'""" 61 301 Chinese Pilgrims' Accounts of Direct-Access

    Relic Shrines in Gandhara 00 ....................................... 0 61 302 Architecmral FNidence for Direei'-Access Relic

    Shrines in and around Sirkap: Phases I and 11 oooo.... 65 303 Two-Celled Stztptt Shrines and Direct-Access

    Shrines: Phas'S I and II 00 ................... 00 00 . 00 . 00 00 . 00 00 0 7 3 Chapter Four: The Phase IT Sacred Area .... 000000 .................. 00 77

    401 Taxila: Phase IT Architectural Evidence oooooooooooooo ooooo o 79 40101 Kalawan: Phase IT ArchitecOJre ...................... 81 40102 The Dharmariijika Complex: Phase I1

    Architecture and the Relic Shrine 84 . 40103 Dharmara,jika Satellite Monastic

    Complexes: Phase Il Architecture .. OOoO ...... 00 00 .... 40 1.4 Mohra Morii.du: Phase IT Architecrme oo oooo oo 00 4. 105 Pippala: Phase 11 Architecture ............ oo .. oooooOoo

    402 Peshawar Basin: Phase II Architectural Evidence ...... 40201 Ranigat: Phase IT Architecture .................. 0 .... 0

    4.3 Swat: Phase U Arcbitecn,ral Evidence 4 ,3, I Butkara I: Phase II Architecture 00 00 00 000000 00 00 00 00 00 40302 Piinr: Phase IT Architecture ............................ ..

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    4.3.3 Saidu; Phase IT Archi tecn1re 4,3.4 Butkara ill: Phase U Architecture oooo oooooooo oo .. oo 40305 Marjanai: Phase li Architecture .... 0000 00 ...... ... 000

    404 Architectural Organization and Development of the Sacred Area in TaKila, the Peshawar Basin, and Swat During Phase rr ..... OOOOoOOOOOO OOOO OO oOoO .. OOOO

    Chapter Five: The Phase 11 Distribution and Function

    93 94 95 96 97 : 99 0 99 '

    101 0 I

    102 ' 0 104 (

    105 ' I

    107 .

    of Sculpture .. 00 00 ................ ooO .. 00 ..... oo .. 00 .. . 00 00000000000000 00 0 00 00 00 oOOOOOO 0 l 09 5, I The Issue of Provenance': Late 19th and

    Early 20th Century Photo Documentation of Ganclharan Sculpture 0 ...... 0 ............ 000 00 00 00 00 00 00 .. 00 .... 00 0 J 12

    502 Narrative R eliefs from Phase TT: In Sitn Evidence .... 114 5020 1 Sculpture from Phase IT Main Snipas:

    T akht-i-biibf and Saidu .. .............................. .... 115 I '

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    CONTENTS 1X

    5.3 Evidence of Phase II Original Sculptural Placement .. .... ... .. . . . . . . . . . ................... .......... .... ................. 116 5.3.1 Upper Nathou Sacred Area: Original

    Sculptural Placement . . . . . . . . . . . .......... .... .. . . . . . . . . ..... 116 5.3.2 Lower Nathou Sacred Area: Original

    Sculptural Placement .............. ...... ........ .. .......... ll 7 5.3.3 Sikri: O riginal Sculptural Placement .............. 11 8 5.3.4 Karkai: Original Sculptural Placement ............ I 19 5.3.5 Marjanai: Original Sculptural Placement ........ 120

    5.4 T he Phase II Small Stiipa: Sculptural Embellishment and a Proposed Reconstruction .................... .... .. .. .. .. .. 121 5.4. 1 T he Base ............. ........ ................................... .... 124 5.4.2 The Drum: Developments in the Narrative

    T radition .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .... . , ............ .. .... 127 5 4 3 The Fa lse Gable: The Focal Narrative .......... 132 5.4.4 The Dome, Hcmnika, and Clzattravali ........ .. ...... 133

    Chapter Six: Phase IIl Architecture and Sculpture from 1'axila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... .. ............ ... . . .. . . . . . . . .. ......... 135 6.1 Introduction to the Phase Ill Developments in

    the Sacred Areas and Monasteries of T alcila and the Peshawar Basin .... ............ ................................ 135

    6.2 The Phase Ill Increase in Patronage .......................... 137 6.3 Taxila: Phase Ill Architectural and Sculptural

    Evidence .. .. .. .. .. .............................. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. 141 6.3.1 The Dharmarajika Complex: Possible

    Late Phase II Image Shrines ...................... .. .... 142 6.3.2 T he Dharmarajika Complex: Early Phase Ill

    Slilpas with AJcial Image Shrines .. .. . .. ........ ....... 144 6.3.3 The Dharmarajika Complex: Phase III

    Monasteries ................................................. .. ..... 145 6.3.4 The Dharmarajika Complex: Phase ill Image

    Shrines Along the Northern Avenue .............. 146 6.3.5 The Dharrnarajika Complex: Phase UI

    Additions to the Prad(l}qirzapatha and Main Stil a .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 149

    6.3.6 The Dharmarajika Complex: Late Phase JII Architecture ........................... ,,,.,,,,,............ 150

    6.3.7 Kalawan: Phase fll Architectur e and the Relic Shrine .. ................ .... .. ........................ .... .. 154

    6.3.8 J auliaii: Phase III Architecture and the Image Shrine ...................................................... 156

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    6.3.9 Mohra Moradu: Phase III Archi tecture and Additive Imagery . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

    6.4 Phase Ill Taxila: Site Typo1ogies and Religious Affiliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

    6.5 The Phase Ill Small Stiipa ...... ................. ..................... 163 6.6 Phase Ill Use of Images and R elics in

    Quadrangular Monasteries ............ .. .. ... ..