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  • Abstract

    This research work is an attempt to show the importance of the use of the

    first person pronoun as a narrator when writing. In order to proceed into the

    work, I have chosen to divide it into three chapters in addition to the

    introduction (which is the part that puts us in the context of the novel and that of

    the present research work) and the conclusion. In the chapters, we have analysed

    the novel under study (The Great Gatsby) from a stylistic perspective. This

    analysis may help teachers of literature in the investigation of the novel.

    Key words: I-narrator, narration, stylistic device, narration techniques,

    pragmatics.

    Rsum

    Ce travail a pour but de montrer limportance de lutilisation du je narratif

    dans une histoire fictive. Afin de procder lanalyse de la narration dans The

    Great Gatsby (Gatsby le Magnifique), on a investi le cot stylistique du roman

    travers les trois chapitres qui composent ce travail. Il sagit dune tude des

    diffrentes techniques de narration quutilise le narrateur Nick Carraway dans

    The Great Gatsby.

    Mots cls : je-narratif, narration, outil stylistique, techniques narratives,

    pragmatique.

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  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    1

    Contents

    Abbreviations

    List of Tables

    Introduction

    Chapter The Theoretical Framework

    1. Rules of Projection in M .A. K. Halliday (1985)

    1.1 Types of Projection

    1.2 Types of Projection used in The Great Gatsby

    1.3 Quotes

    1.4 Reports

    1.5 Projection of Proposals

    1.6 Embedding

    1.7 Facts

    2. Presentation of Speech in Leech and Short (1981)

    2.1 Direct and Indirect Speech

    2.2 Degrees of Interference of the Narrator

    2.2.1 The Narrator in Total Control

    2.2.2 The Narrator in Partial Control

    2.2.3 The Narrator not in Control

    2.3 Conversational Implicature

    3. Pragmatics and the Speech Act Theory

    3.1 Definitions

    3.1.1 Pragmatics

    3.1.2 Semantics

    3.1.3 The Speech Act Theory

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  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    2

    3.2 Locution, Illocutionary Force, Perlocutionary Effect

    4. Literary Criticism Analysis

    4.1 Point of View/ Focalization

    4.2 Narrative Levels

    Chapter Analysis of Narration in The Great Gatsby

    1. The Structure of the Narrative

    1.1 Abstract

    1.2 Orientation

    1.2 Complicating Action

    1.3 Resolution

    1.4 Evaluation

    1.5 Coda

    2. Types of Projection Used in The Great Gatsby

    2.1 The Paratactic Projection of Locutions

    2.1.1 Free Direct Speech (F D S)

    2.1.2 Direct Speech (D S)

    2.1.3 Free Indirect Speech (F I S)

    2.2 The Hypota2ctic Projection of Locutions

    . Indirect Speech (I S)

    3. Varieties of Speech Presentation in The Great Gatsby

    3.1 The Cline of Interference

    3.2 Narrative Report of Action (N R A)

    3.3 Narrative Report of Speech Acts (N R S A)

    4. Statistics of Projections/ Reports used in The Great Gatsby

    5. Teaching the Narration Techniques of The Great Gatsby

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  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    3

    Chapter Effects of the Narrative on the Reader

    Interpretation of the Narration Techniques

    in The Great Gatsby

    1. Grices Maxims

    2. Speech Acts

    3. Interpretation of the Use of Different Narration Techniques

    3.1 Direct Speech (DS)

    3.2 Free Direct Speech (FDS)

    3.3 Indirect Speech (IS)

    3.4 Free Indirect Speech (FIS)

    3.5 The Narrative Report

    3.6 Description in The Great Gatsby

    3.7 Functions of Description

    4. Writer/ Narrator/ Reader Relation

    4.1 Writer/ Narrator Relation

    4.2 Narrator / Reader Relation

    4.3 Writer/ Reader Relation

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Bibliography

    Network Sources

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  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    4

    Abbreviations

    DS Direct Speech

    FDS Free Direct Speech

    FIS Free Indirect Speech

    IS Indirect Speech

    NRA Narrative Report of Action

    NRSA Narrative Report of Speech Acts

    SAT Speech Act Theory

    Words and expressions used interchangeably

    First person narrator: I-narrator

    Narrative: story, plot

    Point of view: Focalization (Genette)

    Projected clause (Halliday): reported clause (Leech & Short)

    Projecting clause or quoting clause (Halliday): introductory reporting clause

    (Leech & Short)

    Projection (Halliday): Report (Leech & Short)

  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    5

    List of Tables

    Table

    Page

    Table 1: Types of Projection, Halliday :1985 Table 2: Types of Projection Used in The Great Gatsby Table 3: Narrative Levels, Genette: 1972 Table 4: Statistics of the varieties used in The Great Gatsby Table 5: Speech Acts, Speech Events Table 6: Constatives, Performatives

    18 19 40 63 77 78

    List of Diagrams

    Diagram

    Page

    Primary and final words : Indirect Speech The global structure of narrative, Polanyi: 1986 The Cline of interference, Leech and Short: 1981 Writer/ Narrator/ Reader Communication

    25 49 57 94

  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    6

    INTRODUCTION

  • Narration in The Great Gatsby A Stylistic Study

    7

    Introduction

    Literary works have always been a matter of study. A novel, for instance, can

    be investigated from different perspectives such as characterization, themes, setting,

    plot or style which is a key that opens the gate to various devices. Amongst those

    devices, we have chosen to shed some light on narration techniques as used in a

    literary corpus. The corpus is based on the twentieth century American novel

    entitled The Great Gatsby, written in 1925 by Francis Scott Fitzgerald.

    The changes that occurred in the United States during the 1920s affected the

    society of that time and represent the first remarkable upset that happened after

    World War (1914-1918). It was the reason for which the United States got out of

    its isolation from the rest of the world. The United States became a world power and

    the emergence of American imperialism began. The years following World War

    were called the Roaring Twenties during which women obtained the right to vote

    and their emancipation was finally agreed. Meanwhile, a new Afro-American

    culture appeared and brought up what is known as Jazz music.