Mushrooms and Health 2014 - db.iseki-food.net · PDF file Cultivated mushrooms (e.g. Agaricus...

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Transcript of Mushrooms and Health 2014 - db.iseki-food.net · PDF file Cultivated mushrooms (e.g. Agaricus...

  • Mushrooms and Health 2014: Clinical and Nutritional Studies in Humans

    Report prepared by:

    Peter Roupas, Debra Krause and Pennie Taylor

    CSIRO Food and Health Flagship

    Australia

    Commercial in Confidence

    Report prepared for:

    Mushrooms and Health Global Initiative

    June 2014

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    Enquiries

    All enquiries should be addressed to:

    Dr Peter Roupas

    CSIRO Food and Health Flagship

    Private Bag 16, 671 Sneydes Road

    Werribee, Victoria, 3030

    Australia

    Tel: +61 (3) 9731 3283

    E-mail: peter.roupas@csiro.au

    Copyright and disclaimer

    © 2014 CSIRO To the extent permitted by law, all rights are reserved and no part of this publication

    covered by copyright may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means except with the

    written permission of CSIRO.

    Important disclaimer

    CSIRO advises that the information contained in this publication comprises general statements

    based on scientific research. The reader is advised and needs to be aware that such information may

    be incomplete or unable to be used in any specific situation. No reliance or actions must therefore

    be made on that information without seeking prior expert professional, scientific and technical

    advice. To the extent permitted by law, CSIRO (including its employees and consultants) excludes all

    liability to any person for any consequences, including but not limited to all losses, damages, costs,

    expenses and any other compensation, arising directly or indirectly from using this publication (in

    part or in whole) and any information or material contained in it.

    mailto:peter.roupas@csiro.au

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    CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 6

    NUTRITIONAL PROFILING .......................................................................................................................................... 6

    NEW APPLICATIONS IN HUMAN HEALTH ....................................................................................................................... 7

    Brain Health / Cognition ................................................................................................................................ 7

    Cancer Therapy Adjuvants ............................................................................................................................. 7

    Respiratory Tract Infections ........................................................................................................................... 8

    Vaccine Adjuvants .......................................................................................................................................... 9

    SCOPE .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

    METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................... 9

    CAPTURE AND EVALUATION OF MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION ........................................................................... 9

    CLINICAL TRIAL DATABASES ..................................................................................................................................... 10

    NUTRIENT PROFILING OF MUSHROOMS ........................................................................................................ 12

    DATABASE UPDATE AND OBSERVATIONS .................................................................................................................... 12

    MACRONUTRIENTS AND MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT..................................................................................................... 14

    BIOAVAILABILITY OF VITAMIN D IN HUMANS .............................................................................................................. 22

    EFFECTS OF MUSHROOMS AND MUSHROOM COMPONENTS ON HUMAN HEALTH ....................................... 24

    ADJUVANTS TO CANCER THERAPY ............................................................................................................................. 24

    Breast Cancer ............................................................................................................................................... 26

    Cervical, Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers ................................................................................................. 29

    Colorectal Cancer ......................................................................................................................................... 30

    Gastric Cancer .............................................................................................................................................. 31

    Pancreatic Cancer ........................................................................................................................................ 32

    Prostate Cancer ............................................................................................................................................ 32

    ANTI-MICROBIAL PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................................. 34

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    Summary of Anti-Microbial Properties ......................................................................................................... 35

    ANTI-VIRAL PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................................... 35

    Summary of Anti-Viral Properties ................................................................................................................ 36

    ASTHMA .............................................................................................................................................................. 37

    CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH ...................................................................................................................................... 38

    Summary of Cardiovascular Health ............................................................................................................. 39

    COGNITION / BRAIN HEALTH ................................................................................................................................... 39

    Summary of Cognition / Brain health........................................................................................................... 41

    CONSTIPATION...................................................................................................................................................... 41

    DIABETES ............................................................................................................................................................. 42

    Summary of Anti-Diabetogenic Properties ................................................................................................... 43

    DNA DAMAGE ..................................................................................................................................................... 43

    IMMUNE FUNCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 44

    Summary of Immune Function ..................................................................................................................... 47

    MUSCLE FUNCTION AND EXERCISE CAPACITY ............................................................................................................... 48

    OBESITY / BODY COMPOSITION ............................................................................................................................... 49

    ORAL HEALTH ....................................................................................................................................................... 50

    REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH .......................................................................................................................................... 51

    RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 51

    HYPERSENSITIVITY TO MUSHROOMS IN HUMANS ......................................................................................... 52

    Summary of Hypersensitivity Studies ........................................................................................................... 55

    FOOD SAFETY STUDIES ................................................................................................................................... 55

    HUMAN TRIALS IN PROGRESS ........................................................................................................................ 58

    BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND PROPOSED MECHANISMS OF ACTION ........................................................... 65

    ANTI-CANCER MECHANISMS ................................................................................................................................... 65

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    Breast Cancer .................