Cultivation of Button Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus)

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    CULTIVATION OF BUTTON MUSH(Agaricus bisporus)

    BY

    A.BHARANIDEEPAN

    13-513-301

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    SYSTEMIC POSITION

    KINGDOM : Fungi

    PHYLUM : Basidiomycota

    SUBPHYLUM :Agaricomycotina

    CLASS :Agaricomycetes

    ORDER :Agaricales

    FAMILY :Agaricaceae

    GENUS :Agaricus

    SPECIES : bisporus

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    PRINCIPLECHARACTERISTICS OF

    BUTTON MUSHROOMIt is a temperate mushroom, 24oC is optimum for cultivation.It produces a basidiocarp with a white to brown or grey- brown cap, fgills, an annulus but no volva and a stalk that readily separates from t

    Gill may light in colour but turns chocolate brown on maturity.

    It derives carbon by decomposing lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosemicrobial protein is chief source of organic nitrogen for its assimilation

    Requires 20-280C for vegetative growth (spawn run) and 12-180C foreproductive growth.

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    Compost FormulationsSuggested For Button

    Mushroom Cultivation1) Wheat straw

    Wheat bran

    Chicken manure

    Urea

    GypsumBHC (10%)

    300 kg

    15 kg

    125 kg

    5.5 kg

    20 kg125 kg

    2) Wheat and paddy straw

    Calcium ammonium nitrate

    Urea

    Wheat bran

    GypsumBHC (10%)

    Formula given by N

    Solan

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    COMPOST PREPARATION

    Long method of composting (LMC)

    Short method of composting (SMC)

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    LONG METHOD OFCOMPOSTING

    It takes about 26 days and 7 to 8 turnings are given at varying intervawithout pasteurization.

    The long method of composting reduces the nutritional value of com

    It may be easily attacked by weed moulds, pathogens, insects, mitesnematodes. However, this method is more popular with small growers

    cannot afford boiler for pasteurization.

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    (Long method)

    Wheat straw

    Calcium ammonium nitrate

    Super phosphate

    UreaSulphate of potash

    Chicken manure

    Brewersmanure

    Gypsum

    Calcium Carbonate

    1 ton

    30 kg

    25 kg

    12 kg10 kg

    400 kg

    72 kg

    30 kg

    10 kg

    Formulae given by Mushroom Research Lab

    Solan.

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    PREPARATION OF STRAW

    The straw is stacked and watered in layers making a heap, 48 hours the start of compost making.

    The mixture of straw and fertilizers is watered separately in a small hhours in advance of composting day (0 day).

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    0 day:

    Mix the wet mixture of fertilizers and straw with straw thoroughly

    Moisture content of straw should be 75-77%.

    Wooden mould should be used and pressing should be given from to

    Increase in height may cause anaerobic fermentation and low heighresult in loss of heat.

    The temperature of the heap will rise to 65- 70oC on second day.

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    6thday: The first turning is given.

    10thday: Second turning is given. Chalk powder (calcium carbonate) isadded during turning. Do watering if required. Pressing of heap should breduced.

    13thday: Third turning is given and gypsum is added.

    16thday: Fourth turning is given

    19thday: Fifth turning is given and care should be taken to avoid lumpsPressing is not required.

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    22ndday: Sixth turning is given. By now ammonia smell should disappeit should be very low. Water if required.

    25thday: Seventh turning is given. Spread the compost on platform, brelumps if any and stack. Do watering if moisture is less.

    26thday: Compost is mixed with BHC (5%) dust and filled in trays. In caammonia smell is still noticed, one more turning should be given before the trays.

    At the proper filling stage compost will be dark brown in colour. It must bfree from ammonia and moisture content should be 68-72% and pH 7.2

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    SHORT METHOD OFCOMPOSTING

    This is the most popular method for commercial production of Europemushroom.

    It is completed in two phases,

    Phase I called out-door composting takes 7-12 days

    Phase II called indoor pasteurization has 3-7 days duration.

    In this method filling is more and yield performances is high withefficient disease control

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    PHASE I0 day: At this stage moisture content should be 75-77%.

    2ndday: First turning and do watering if required.

    4thday: Second turning, add gypsum and do watering if needed.

    6thday: Third turning

    8thday: Fourth turning

    10thday: Fifth turning

    12thday: Compost is filled in trays for phase II. At this stage compost will be dark brown with strong smell of ammonia. Moisture content sho70-72%.

    Mushroom

    Laboratory,

    Wheat bra

    Molasses

    Gypsum

    Nemagon

    Wheat stra

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    PHASE II

    It help in complete fermentation of the compost.

    Uniform layers of compost in trays enables proper aeration andtemperature control during the fermentation.

    Pasteurization at 60oC during this phase eliminates unwantedmicrobes, nematodes, mites and insects.

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    Once temperature is about 252oC spawning is done. The moisture cocompost should be 67-70%.

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    SPAWNING

    Spawning means putting spawn i.e. mushroom mycelium coated onsterilized substrate or grain in the compost. Spawn run temperature is2 c.

    Six methods of spawning are employed.

    1. Surface spawning

    2. Layer spawning3. Through spawning

    4. Spot spawning

    5. Active mycelium spawning

    6. Shake up spawning

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    SURFACE SPAWNINGThe top compost in the tray is lifted to a depth of 1-2 inches and spaw

    broadcasted and ruffled with fingers into 1-2 inches of compost. Whenruffling is completed it is covered with lifted compost and pressed unifIn this method one spawn bottle (500ml) will cover three trays.

    LAYER SPAWNINGIn this method spawning is done in layers. First layer is spawned at ab3 down from the top and next layer is spawned as done in surfacespawning. One spawn bottle is sufficient for two trays.

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    THROUGH SPAWNINGThis is done by mixing grain spawn evenly and throughout the compo

    spawn bottle is used for one to two trays.

    SPOT SPAWNINGThe grain spawn is put in the holes at a certain distance with a pointedor fingers. The hole is covered with compost. The inoculum should be

    close contact with the compost for quick and better development.

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    ACTIVE MYCELIUMSPAWNINGThe compost after the completion of spawn running is used for spawnfurther trays. Thus one such tray is used for several trays.

    SHAKE UP SPAWNINGAfter one week of spawning the compost is thoroughly shaken up and

    replaced in the shelves or in trays. After spawning, compost should becovered with newspapers, sterilized by dipping in 2% formalin solution

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    CASING

    The term casing means covering the compost with a layer of soil or omaterials which may retain moisture and help in gaseous exchange.

    The following materials have been used

    oSoil and sand(1:1)

    oRotten cow dung and light soil (3:1)

    o

    Farm yard manure and gravel (4:1)oFarm yard manure and loam (1:1)

    oSpent compost, sand and lime (4:1:1)

    oPeat and soil (1:2)

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    Characteristics Of A GoodCasing Material

    1) It should have good water holding capacity and should release it sl

    2) It should possess good aeration capacity so that it removes unwangases during cropping.

    3) It should be free from insects, micro-organisms heavy metals and i

    4) Its texture should not be altered by watering.

    5) It should be neutral or slightly alkaline in reaction.

    6) pH should range between 7-7.5.

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