Motivation 2

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  • 1. What is motivation?Coming from the Greek word movere, which means to move, motivation involves the question of why people behave, think and feel the way they do.

2. What is motivation?Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something (e.g. becoming a professional; learning how to ride a bike) 3. What are the characteristicsof a motivated behavior?Energized to do or engage in an activity;Directed towards reaching a specific goal;Sustained and intensified feelings about reaching that goal. 4. What are the kindsof motives? Basic or Primary Motives 1. Need to adjust totemperature 2. Need to quench thirst Acquired or Secondary 3. Need to satisfy hunger 1. Need to belong 4. Avoidance of pain 2. Need for love 5. Need for sensorystimulation3. Need for achievement 6. Need for sex 4. Need to be nurtured 5. Need for safety 5. I. INSTINCT THEORYWilliam McDougall (1908): Humans are motivated by a number of different instincts (e.g. curiosity, self-assertion).Instinctsare innate tendencies orInstincts biological forces that determine behavior; they are assumed to be universal throughout species. 6. Instincts are now redefined as fixed action patternan innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition 7. II. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORYKey Components: Needa biological state in which the organism lacks something essential for survival (e.g. food, water, oxygen); a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation. Drivea state of tension produced by need that motivates the organism to act to reduce that tension. 8. Why would the organismwant to reduce the tension?To go back to a state of homeostasisoncethe need is satisfied, the body returns to amore balanced state or equilibrium. 9. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY: A need results in a drive, which is a state of tension, that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and return the body to homeostasis. 10. III. INCENTIVE THEORYIncentivesare environmental factors,Incentives such as external stimuli, reinforcers or rewards, that motivate our behavior. Examples: grades, recognition, money, fame 11. Because incentives are external, they are thought of as pulling us to obtain them; whereas drives are internal, they are thought of as pushing us to obtain them. Hence, incentives and drives are the pull and push of our behavior. 12. IV. COGNITIVE THEORYExtrinsic motivationinvolves motivation engaging in certain behaviors or activities because of incentives or external rewards 13. Intrinsic motivation involves engaging in certain behaviors or activities because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations. 14. In summary:The theory of fixed action patterns (instinct) explains the behavior of animals.The drive-reduction theory (a pushing forced) explains our actions to meet biological or physiological needs.The incentive theory (a pulling force) explains why we do things to obtain external rewards.The cognitive theory explains that we do things to satisfy personal beliefs or meet personal goals. 15. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believed that ourneeds are arranged in a hierarchy. We satisfy our biological needsfirst before we turn our attentionand energy to fulfilling personaland social needs. Maslows hierarchy of needs isrepresented by a pyramid andshows the order in satisfyingbiological and social needs. 16. Two Kinds of Needs: Biological needsare physiologicalrequirements that are critical to our survivaland physical well-being. Examples: food, water, oxygen, sleep, avoidance of pain and sex Social needsare needs that are acquiredthrough learning and experience. Examples: affiliation, nurturance, play, dominance, achievement 17. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 18. MaslowsHierarchy ofNeeds Self-actualization Higher Order Needs Esteem Social Needs Lower Order Needs Safety Needs Physiological 19. Level 1. Physiological needs Physiological needsincludes food,water, sleep, sex, etc. necessary forbasic survival. Examples: People who are homelesswould be especially concerned withsatisfying their physiological needs. 20. Level 2. Safety and security needs Safety and security needsthe needfor protection from harm. Examples: People who live in dangerouscommunities will be concerned aboutsatisfying their safety needs. 21. Level 3. Love and belongingness needs Love and belongingness needstheneed for affiliation and acceptance byothers. Examples: Adolescents and young adultswho are beginning to form seriousrelationships would be interested insatisfying their need for love andbelongingness. 22. Level 4. Esteem needs Esteem needsthe need for achievement,competency, gaining approval andrecognition. Examples: During early and middle adulthood,people are concerned with achieving theirgoals and establishing their careers. 23. Level 5. Self-actualization needs Self-actualizationneedsthe need tofulfill ones uniquepotential as a humanbeing; this is thehighest and mostelusive kind of needand because it isdifficult andchallenging, only afew individuals areable to reach thislevel. 24. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Applied in Work SettingSelf Actualization Challenging work Participation in decision makingEsteem Promotions to higher status quo Recognition from bosses Friendly co-workersSocial Needs Interaction with customers Job securitySafety Safe working conditionsPhysiologicalReasonable work hours Physical comfort on the job 25. REFLECTION:What motivates me most? Write a short reflection paper on the things thatmotivate you most: To achieve To love To go on with your life Rank the following list of values in terms of howimportant are they as your guiding principles : A comfortable lifeAn exciting life A sense of accomplishment A world at peace A world of beauty Equality Family security Freedom Happiness Inner harmony Mature love National security PleasureSalvation Self-respectSocial recognition True friendship Wisdom