MENG 411 - Capstone Team Project - EMU 2016... i MENG 411 - Capstone Team Project Eastern...

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  • i

    MENG 411 - Capstone Team Project

    Eastern Mediterranean University

    Faculty of Engineering

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Design and Fabrication of Solar UAV

    Course Coordinator

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Mostafa Ranjbar

    Supervisor

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Qasim Zeeshan

    Team Members

    David Dangana 127341

    Mazen Abdulrazik 127534

    Yehia Jamaoui 138037

    Group Name: Solarine

    Capstone Team Project Spring 2015-2016

    Date of Submission: 29-06-2016

  • ii

    Jury Members

    Names of jury members Signature

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Qasim Zeeshan (Supervisor)

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Davut Solyalı

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Murat Özdenefe

  • iii

    Abstract

    This report is about solar UAVs in general and the manufacturing of a small solar UAV as

    Capstone team project in Eastern Mediterranean University. Engineers design solar UAVs for

    many different purposes, and they have different classifications. The purpose of this report is to

    give information about solar UAVs and the method used to make the design intended for the

    project. There are three main sections in this report introduction, literature review including

    information about solar energy, UAVs, solar UAVs, history and classifications of UAVs, and the

    design and configuration of the solar UAV required for the project.

    Key words: Solar powered UAV, Solar Energy, Solar Airplane

  • iv

    Table of Content

    List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………...vii

    List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………x

    List of symbols……………………………………………………………………………..…..xi

    1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..1

    1.1 Importance of Solar UAVs…………………………………………………………….1

    1.2 Summary of the Problem………….………..………………………………………….1

    1.3 Objective…………………….….……………………..……………………………….2

    1.4 Report Organisation…………………………………..………………………………..2

    2 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………….3

    2.1 Solar Power…………………………………………………………………………......3

    2.2 Photovoltaic Cell………………………………………………………………………..3

    2.3 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)………..…………………………………………….5

    2.4 History of UAV and Timeline…………………………………………………………5

    2.5 Classification of UAV………………………………………………………………….7

    2.5.1 Micro and Mini UAVs………………………………………………............….8

    2.5.2 Tactical UAVs……………………………………………………………….….8

    2.5.3 Strategic UAVs…………………………………………………………………9

    2.6 Solar Flight……………………………………………………………………….……10

    2.6.1 Large and Medium Solar Aircraft……………………………………………….10

    2.6.2 Small Solar Aircrafts…………………………………………………………….12

    3 Design and Configuration…………………………………………………………………14

    3.1 Configuration…………………………………………………………………………..14

    3.1.1 Wing Configuration……………………………………………………………..14

    3.1.2 Tail Configuration………………………………………………………………15

    3.2 Solar Irradiation………………………………………………………………………..17

    3.3 System Breakdown Structure……….………………………………………………....19

    3.4 Power and Mass Estimates……………………..……………………………………...20

    3.4.1 The Power Available…………………………………………………………...20

    3.4.2 Fixed Mass……………………………………………………………………...20

  • v

    3.4.3 Mass of Airframe……………………………………………………………….20

    3.4.4 Mass of Solar Cells…………………………………………………………........21

    3.4.5 Mass of Batteries………………………………………………………………….21

    3.4.6 Mass of Propeller……….…………………………………………………..…….21

    3.5 Design Methodology and Application………………………………………...................22

    3.6 Air Frame Structure……………………………………………………….…………....23

    3.6.1 Structural Materials………………………………………………….…………....23

    3.6.2 Structural Mass………………………………………………………………..….23

    3.7 Airfoil Selection……………………………………………………………………….....24

    3.7.1 Airfoil Analysis with XFLR5…………………………………………....…….....24

    3.8 Empennage Configuration………………………………………………………….…....27

    3.8.1 Empennage Analysis with XFLR5…………………………………………….....28

    3.9 Fuselage Design………………………………………………………………….....…....30

    3.10 Electrical Components………………………………………………….…….....31

    3.10.1 The Propeller……………………………………………………………….…......31

    3.10.2 Motor……………………………………………………………………………...31

    3.10.3 Electric Speed Controllers (ESC)...…………………………………………….....31

    3.10.4 Servos……………………………………………………………………………..32

    3.10.5 Batteries……………………………………………………………………….….32

    3.10.6 Solar panels………………………………………………………………….…....33

    3.10.7 Transmitters……………………………………………………………………....33

    3.10.8 Cost analysis……………………………………………………………………...35

    4 Manufacturing and Testing…………………………....…………………………………....36

    4.1 Model 1 Manufacturing Process…………………………………………………………36

    4.1.1 The Wing……………………………………………………………………….…36

    4.1.2 The fuselage……………………………………………………………………....38

    4.1.3 The Tail………………………………………………………………………...…39

    4.2 Model 2 Manufacturing Process………………………………………………… ……...40

    4.3 Solar Cells……..…………………………………………………………………………41

    4.4 Assembly Process………………...………………………………………………………42

    4.5 Testing……………………………………………………………………………………44

    4.5.1 Electrical Components Testing…………………………………………………..44

    4.5.2 Flight Test for Model 1…………………………………………………………..46

    4.5.3 Flight Test for Model 2…………………………………………………………..47

  • vi

    5 Results and Discussion...……………………………………………………………………....48

    6 Conclusion…………………………………………….……...………………………………..50

    APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………..51

    APPENDIX A- Log Books (Individual Contribution…..…………………………………....51

    APPENDIX B- GANTT CHART………………………………………………………..…..57

    APPENDIX C- DESIGN………………………………………………………………….…58

    APPENDIX D…………………..............................................................................................64

    APPENDIX E – Equipment List and code...............................................................................65

    REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………….…80