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INDORE SWACHHATA SANGRAM INDORE DISTRICT’S BATTLE TO END OPEN DEFECATION
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  • INDORE SWACHHATA SANGRAMINDORE DISTRICTS BATTLE TO END OPEN DEFECATION

  • 2 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

  • 3 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Indore Swachhata SangramIndore Districts Battle to End Open Defecation

    Zid Karo campaign by school children in Indore district, Madhya PradeshPhoto courtesy @ District Administration Indore

  • 4 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    While a lot of effort has been invested in the area of sanitation over the years, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has brought with it a fresh approach and renewed impetus to the sanitation agenda. The Mission has two sub-components, Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (SBM-G) and the Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban (SBM-U). In line with the guidelines of the SBM-G, the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) is reshaping its sanitation initiative by emphasizing on bringing about sustainable behaviour change to promote the importance of toilets in rural communities using Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS). Presently, the GoMP has scaled up CATS to over 30 districts. As a strategic partner, UNICEF is providing technical support to the government in this regard.

    Indore was one such district which leveraged the conducive environment created by the State and adopted CATS to improve the status of rural sanitation, with the aim to achieve Open Defecation Free (ODF) status within a time-bound manner. To this effect the Indore Swachhata Sangram was launched on 1st September, 2015. By January 2016 all the rural communities of the district became ODF. 25th January 2016 was a milestone for the district; the day when Mr. Shivraj Singh Chouhan, Honourable Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, acknowledged and announced Indore to be the first ODF district in the State.

    The success behind the Indore model has been strongly influenced and spearheaded by the dedicated administrative support, particularly the strong leadership by the District Collector, District CEO and President of the District Panchayat along with proactive engagement of a multitude of stakeholders across all levels. Synchronised efforts of the district and block administration, effective leadership by the district and block level political leaders, involvement of all front line workers (FLWs) and officials from other government line departments as well as engagement of stakeholders at the community level through innovative community mobilization activities, has resulted in this remarkable achievement.

    This document aims to capture the sequence of events in Indore prior to the launch of the entire movement (Swachhata Sangram) as well as those initiated throughout the implementation, attainment and sustainability of the ODF status. More specifically, it elaborates the Indore model, the enabling environment, its key stakeholders, the process involved and implementation strategies, the experience of the implementers, the story of the motivators and the involvement of community.

    This document is expected to act as an advocacy and guiding tool to potentially replicate successful strategies of the Indore model in other districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) Additionally, it would enable the sharing of successful outcomes of the model across the State.

    About the Document

  • 5 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Contents1. List of Figures

    2. List of Acronyms

    3. Evolution of the sanitation situation in rural Madhya Pradesh

    Background: Agents and processes that shaped the rural sanitation movement in Madhya Pradesh

    Inception of Maryada Guidelines: Madhya Pradesh formally adopted and initiated action on a community based approach

    Demand creation for Community Approaches to Sanitation (CATS) among the districts

    Enabling environment at the State level

    4. The story of Indore achieving the ODF status within a short span of time

    District Profile

    Introduction of Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) in Indore district

    Planning phase: Launch of the programme

    Resource Mobilization: Manpower

    Implementation phase: Rolling out the activities to trigger communities

    5. Way Forward: Ensuring Sustainability

    6. Stories from the field

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  • 6 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    List of FiguresFigure 1: Five-day CATS training at Ujjain

    Figure 2: Demand creation at District level for CATS

    Figure 3: Support provided by the State SBM

    Figure 4: SBM implementing team structure

    Figure 5: Step by step depiction of events during attaining ODF status

    Figure 6: Selection process of motivators

    Figure 7: Capacity building workshop

    Figure 8: Five-day village triggering

    Figure 9: Follow-up and monitoring process at the village level

    Figure 10: Communication framework across various levels (to ensure smooth monitoring)

    Figure 11: Activities carried out during verification visit by the district level

    Figure 12: Verification process

    Figure 13: Fund disbursement to beneficiaries

    Figure 14: Measures to ensure sustainability

  • 7 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    List of AcronymsAccredited Social Health Activist ASHA

    Assistant Development Extension Officer ADEO

    Child Development Project Officer CDPO

    Community Approaches to Total Sanitation CATS

    Department of Panchayat and Rural Development DoPRD

    Feedback Foundation FF

    Frontline Workers FLWs

    Government Of Madhya Pradesh GoMP

    Gram Panchayat GP

    Gram Rozgar Sahaayak GRS

    Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation MDWS

    National Family and Health Survey NFHS

    Open Defecation Free ODF

    Panchayat Coordination Officer PCO

    Panchayati Raj Institutions PRI

    Public Health and Engineering Department PHED

    Real Time Gross Settlement RTGS

    Scheduled Castes SC

    Scheduled Tribes ST

    Social and Liquid Waste Management SLWM

    Swachh Bharat Mission SBM

    Total Sanitation Campaign TSC

    United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF

  • 8 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Madhya Pradesh (MP), located in the central part of India, is the second largest state in terms of geographic area, covering 308,000 square kilometres. The State has more than 73 million inhabitants of which the majority reside in the rural areas.1 Madhya Pradesh comprises of 51 districts and 313 administrative blocks2 with a significant proportion of tribal populations across 89 blocks3. Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Scheduled Castes (SC) represent 21.1 per cent and 15.6 per cent of the population respectively.

    The MP government adopted the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in 2000 and gradually expanded it to 48 districts by 2003 which indicated a shift from toilet construction to a more demand-driven and people-centric strategy. However, until 2006, the implementation of the TSC was very slow and the State experienced limited success. The launch of the Nirmal Gram Puruskar (2003) gave the State an impetus to revive its focus on rural sanitation programmes. In 2006 Madhya Pradesh drafted the State sanitation policy4, ensuring that it is closely aligned with the National TSC guidelines.

    Despite such initiatives, the findings of the National Family and Health Survey 2015 (NFHS-4), noted limited progress in the State towards ensuring toilet usage among the rural communities; from 13 per cent, as noted by Census 2011, to 19.4 per cent5 as noted by NFHS-4. In 2014, the state adopted the national flagship programme Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) and committed to achieve Open Defecation Free (ODF) status before 2019.

    The MP government adopted a mission-mode approach to attain the desired goal in a time bound manner. It initiated the implementation of Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS)6 in over 30 districts of the state. By the end of January 2016, Indore was able to achieve an ODF status across its rural communities, and was acknowledged to be the first ODF district in MP.

    Evolution of the Sanitation Situation in rural Madhya Pradesh

    1Census of India, 20112Districts of Madhya Pradesh. http://www.mpdistricts.nic.in/3List of Tribal Blocks ; Department of Tribal Development, Government of Madhya Pradesh http://www.tribalportal.mp.nic.in/Payrolls/Public/List_of_TribalBlocks.aspx4Godfrey A (2008) Situation Assessment of supply market for rural sanitation in Himachal Pradesh and Madhya pradesh5National Family Health Survey 4 (2015-16) State Fact Sheet; Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 6The CATS approach aims at ensuring that the entire community, including all families, schools, Anganwadis and other institutions reach a consensus to adopt toilet use and key hygiene practice all the time through a process of community self-analysis. Key components of the approach include community systems for triggering collective demand for toilets and subsequently achieving, monitoring and sustaining an Open Defecation Free (ODF) environment as an accepted norm, where nobody defecates in open.

    It must be noted that simultaneously Chanwarpatha block in Narsinghpur district, Timarni block in Harda district and Budhni block in Sehore district.

  • 9 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Photo courtesy @ District Administration Indore

  • 10 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Background: Agents and processes that shaped the rural sanitation movement in Madhya PradeshSince 2007, there have been various efforts by different districts to establish Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) in a piecemeal manner, across various districts of Madhya Pradesh. CATS was initiated on an experimental basis in Khandwa district in 2007, under the framework and budgetary provisions of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), the then existing government sanitation programme. The Khandwa experience established the success of providing ownership to the community while having a component of financial incentives. Internalizing these learnings from the experiment at Khandwa, CATS was initiated on a pilot basis in Budni block of Sehore district in 2011. During the process, both block administrative officials as well as Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) stakeholders such as elected head of Gram Panchayats (GPs) i.e. Sarpanch and GP secretaries were trained as CATS motivators, who started implementing CATS in the block. In contrast to the Khandwa model, the trained motivators were paid a nominal stipend after the first few months of implementation. Consequently, with these efforts, 47 GPs of Budni block achieved Open Defecation Free (ODF) status by the end of 2012. In 2015, intensive efforts to achieve an ODF environment had started in Budni by the district and block administration and by February 2016 the entire block (132 villages of 62 GPs) became ODF.

    The adoption of CATS in Budni successfully demonstrated the potential of a community based, demand driven approach in eradicating open defecation, among the administrative and political leadership. This created the foundation for accepting Community Approaches to Total Sanitation by the Government of Madhya Pradesh.

    From my experience at Budni, I realised that the community-led process is something which takes its own course and path during implementation. Just like a river, if one creates any hurdle during the process, achievement of outcomes becomes difficult.- Ajit Tiwari, Deputy Commissioner, Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin

    Inception of Maryada Guidelines: Madhya Pradesh formally adopted and initiated action on a community based approach

    The learnings from Khandwa and Budni established the effectiveness of CATS and this experience culminated in the development of the Maryada Guidelines in 2012 by the State Water and Sanitation Mission, Department of Panchayat and Rural Development (DoPRD), Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP). The Maryada Guidelines were the first of their kind in Madhya Pradesh and exhibited the acceptance and confidence of the government functionaries towards the CATS approach. Later in April 2014, a strategic decision was taken at the State level to conduct a five-day CATS training in select districts of MP, which was to be followed by supportive supervision for one year.

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  • 11 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    In the meantime, the District CEO in Harda had expressed an interest to implement CATS and had submitted a proposal to the State for the same. Subsequently, CATS was implemented in Harda district in May 2014, with the intent to institutionalize the process.

    Key differentiators of CATS implementation in Harda versus that in that six districts are presented below:

    Harda Six districts

    Capacity building Individual training of one district; training of adequate number of motivators as well as all other stakeholders for creating an enabling environment

    Collective training of six districts; less number of motivators trained from each district. No other stakeholders could be oriented on CATS

    Ownership Close involvement of District Administration Limited involvement of District Administration

    Engagement of motivators

    Motivators were given incentives A proper mechanism for incentivising motivators was not established

    Adoption of CATS Holistic adoption Partial adoption

    Results Greater number of ODF villages Lesser number of ODF villages per district

    Key LearningOwnership and close involvement of the District CEO and District Collector is essential for the

    success of implementing CATS.

    State ExperimentThe five-days CATS training at Ujjain was followed by two district level handholding workshops supported by the resource agency.

    To sensitize the participants on the CATS process and gauge their response

    To implement the CATS process in six districts, and use these learnings to scale up the process across the state

    Purpose

    5day residential training

    Held in August 2014

    at Ujjain

    Drivers and Implementers for CATS

    from 6 districts90-100 Participants District Coordinator | Block Coordinator | Motivators

    Figure 1: Five-day CATS training at Ujjain

  • 12 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Demand creation for Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) among the districts

    The learnings from the previous interventions and experiments across the State led to the decision to conduct capacity building on CATS at the individual district level from 2015-16. Support from UNICEF was sought by the State government to conduct trainings across approximately 17 districts. These five-day trainings were followed by day-long orientations for the select District CEOs and Presidents of various District Panchayats (Adhyaksh) on 23rd May 2015 at Bhopal. The motivation behind these trainings was to induce a demand for CATS by stakeholders at the District level. During this workshop, experiences from Harda, as well as successful and impactful examples of CATS implementation in Bikaner district in Rajasthan and Nadia district in West Bengal were shared with the participants. This meeting attracted various champions from across the state. The workshop was followed by exposure visits of the District CEOs to Angul district in Odisha and Bikaner district in Rajasthan, in August 2015. The visit was able to generate interest amongst some of the districts leadership, especially the District CEO of Indore, Mr Asheesh Singh. He was greatly influenced by the potential of the CATS process and adopted the model in Indore.

    Orientation Workshop

    Exposure Visits

    These contributed to instill ownership among the District

    CEOs

    Which led to Inculcation of demand from various districts

    for CATS training

    State effectively tapped this demand for introducing CATS in Indore

    An important milestone at this point was the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin on 2nd October 2014 by the Honourable Prime Minister. Madhya Pradesh State level sanitation team strategically leveraged the national level fervour created by Honourable Prime Minister to provide a stimulus to CATS in Madhya Pradesh. The Chief Minister, Minister of Department of Panchayat and Rural Development and the Chief Secretary were directly involved and this was the first time that the State also recognised CATS as the key approach for accelerating rural sanitation. Another notable event at this time was a State directive to respective districts for formulation of block mobilization teams; this notice was formally communicated through a circular on 22nd September 2014.

    Figure 2: Demand creation at district level for CATS

  • 13 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Enabling environment at the State level

    The State SBM-G cell was regularly emphasising the adoption and prioritization of systematic community mobilization efforts (especially CATS) by districts to eradicate open defecation. Repeated communication, in the form of circulars and letters to the district administration, was carried out at regular intervals. Moreover, orientation meetings and trainings were

    planned and executed at the State level. The State was very forthcoming in recognising the efforts and achievements of the distict leaders. Success stories and achievements were showcased at State level meetings. In this way, the State built a congenial environment for various districts to flourish.

    Moreover, extensive capacity building on CATS was carried out across the State. UNICEF engaged a national level resource agency, Feedback Foundation (FF), to build the capacity to implement CATS in 15 districts through district and block level trainings and supportive supervision, wherever required. This has been a crucial

    element in scaling-up CATS in the State. As part of this support, the workshop conducted on 6th August 2015, which involved the District Collectors and District CEOs from 11 districts, was pivotal in motivating the leadership and providing inputs on the essential components to implement CATS.

    Demonstrative1

    Policy2

    Institutional3

    Implementation4

    Activities

    1. State level workshop

    2. Exposure visits

    3. 5 day CATS workshop at Ujjain (for 6 districts)

    1. Providing guidelines on engagement of motivators:

    a. Selectionb. Trainingc. Payment

    1. District-wise CATS training

    2. Ensuring smooth fund flow

    1. Continuous intensive communication on highlighting the role of motivators and importance of behavior change

    2. Periodic visits by state officials

    3. Divisional workshop with district leaders, with District Collectors and CEOs

    1. Experiential learning

    2. Demand generation of CATS

    1. Incentive to field staff

    1. Capacity building

    2. Created trust among the beneficiaries that he/she will get their due entitlements in a timely manner

    3. Negate negative forces at the community level

    1. Reinforces the message

    2. Builds confidence among District CEO/ DistrictCollector and instills confidence and recognition oftheir work

    OutcomeDomain

    Figure 3: Support provided by state SBM-G

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  • 14 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    The story of Indore achieving the ODF status within a short span of time

    District Profile

    Indore district is located in the Western region of the State of Madhya Pradesh, on the Southern edge of Malwa plateau, approximately 200 kilometres from the state capital of Bhopal. It is bound by Ujjain district in the north, Dewas to the east, Khargone to the south and Dhar to the west. Indore is one of the most populous districts in Madhya Pradesh with a population of 3,276,697 out of which 25.9 per cent reside in the rural areas. Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) represent 16.6 per cent and 3.2 per cent of the population respectively7. The literacy rate of the District stands at 80.87 per cent. The entire District is spread across an area of 3,898 square kilometres divided into four administrative blocks namely Depalpur, Indore, Mhow and Sanwer, 312 Gram Panchayats (GPs) and 610 villages.

    At the start of the initiative, approximately 74 per cent of a total of 162,963 rural households in Indore, already had toilets. The number of toilets to be constructed across the district were estimated at approximately 40,0008. Out of this 32,000 new toilets were to be constructed and with an additional 8,000 toilets, that were defunct at the time. However, in spite of a substantial coverage of individual household latrines, there were no ODF GPs across the district at the start of the programme.

    The responsibility of implementing the sanitation programme in the district lies with the SBM-G team at the District Panchayat. The Indore Swachhata Sangram was led by the District Collector and District CEO with a dedicated team of officers and field level workers. As the State had been constantly raising focus to the sanitation agenda, Indore decided to take it up as a priority task. There was also a baseline assessment done in Indore which revealed that the target of constructing toilets was not very high. Hence, Indore decided to take up this initiative in a mission mode.

    The following illustrative (figure 4) depicts the implementation structure for the rural sanitation programme across Indore district.

    While the favourable environment in terms of technical training and supportive supervision was provided to various districts, Indore adopted the process effectively and accelerated to emerge as the first ODF district in Madhya Pradesh.- Hymavathi Varman (IFS) , State Programme Officer, Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin, Madhya Pradesh

    7Census 20118based on a household survey conducted by the district in August 2015

  • 15 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

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  • 16 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    At District Level

    Block Level

    At Cluster Level

    At Gram Panchayat Level

    District Collector

    Chief Executive Officer

    District Panchayat

    Strategic lead and mentoring

    Quality control

    Assuring state support

    Overall programme lead

    Deputy Commissioner (Depalpur)

    Assistant Superintendent (Sanwer)

    Additional CEO (Mhow)

    District Co-ordinator (Indore, rural)

    Blocks Weekly meeting at Block

    MIS monitoring

    Monitoring Block progress

    Support motivators and mitigating operational hurdles

    Weekly random field verification

    MIS monitoring

    Ensuring progress of toilet construction

    Monitor and supportive supervision to motivators

    MIS verification (10%)

    Support all field level activities

    Coordinate with PCOs

    Morning follow-ups

    Training of masons

    Technical guidance for toilet construction

    Quality control

    Coordinate with Sarpanch and Panchayat Secretary, AWW, motivators

    100% construction verification

    Support block co-ordinators

    Compile cluster MIS

    Monitor cluster progress

    Beneficiary verification

    Ensure construction progress Ensure supply of raw materials Verify beneficiaries Testify construction completion report Motivate people/resolve conflicts Beneficiary verification

    Monitoring open defecators Monitoring toilet usage Support implementation of village ODF

    action plan

    Mobilize community for collective demand generation

    Motivate villagers Strengthen the vigilance committee

    through follow ups

    4 Blocks

    35 Clusters

    312 Gram Panchayats

    84 Motivators

    610 Village Vigilance Committees

    Chief Executive Officers (4)

    Block Panchayat

    Block Co-ordinators (4)

    Sub-engineers (28)

    Clusters

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    SarpanchPanchayat Secretary

    Gram Rozgar Sahayak

    Motivators

    Vigilance Committee

    Depalpur (10 Clusters)

    Sanwer (09 Clusters)

    Indore (07 Clusters)

    Mhow (09 clusters)

    Figure 4: SBM implementing team structure

  • 17 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

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  • 19 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Early morning vigilance by members of Vanar Sena to stop open defecators

  • 20 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Launch of Indore Swachhata Sangram on 1st September 2015, by district officials and public representatives

    Photo [email protected] district administration Indore

  • 21 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Introduction of Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) in Indore District

    The baseline survey, conducted by the district administration as per the instructions from the Ministry of Water and Sanitation, GoI in 2012 revealed that approximately 36 per cent9 of the households in Indore district did not have access to sanitary toilets. At the time of the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in 2014, interactions with the Additional Chief Executive Officer, District Panchayat, Assistant Development Extension Officer (ADEO), Panchayat Coordination Officers (PCOs), Sub-engineers of the PHED, other field level workers as well as the community revealed that many households having access to toilet facilities in the past were resorting to open defecation. With this background, the district initiated implementation work in Mhow block from November 2014. Mhow was chosen as it was a block with 80 tribal villages. The districts approach under the SBM-G focussed on construction of toilets; this approach continued till March 2015. Following this, implementation work started in the remaining three blocks; Sanwer, Depalpur and Indore. Through a mid-term assessment done ain May 2015, it was revealed that almost half of the toilets constructed were unused. More specifically, it was found that approximately 40,000 toilets were required to be constructed across the district to achieve an ODF status. These grave statistics, particularly reversal to open defecation, propelled a review of the existing strategy as the existing construction-led approach was found to be unsuccessful. A key learning at this stage was that the supply-side intervention must be accompanied by a demand-side intervention such as collective behaviour change. At this point the SBM-G team at the state level was aggressively advocating for community approaches to eliminate the practice of open defecation. Consequently, the Indore District Administration had their first exposure to the CATS process during an orientation session in Bhopal in May 2015. This was attended by the Indore District CEO, District Deputy Commissioner and President of the District Panchayat.

    During the workshop at Bhopal, we were engaged in an impactful exercise where we had to write our names and designations on two separate pieces of paper, we were then asked to throw the paper slip with the designation in the dustbin. This made us realise that in addition to giving the necessary direction and leadership, successful implementation of CATS would require us to give away our bureaucratic attitude and reach out to the community to understand their problems as one of them.

    - Mr Rajesh Dixit, Deputy Commissioner, Indore

    Prior experience of conducting CATS in other districts, as described in the first chapter, provided the learning that a dedicated cadre of motivators is required to implement this model at the community level. To this effect, the state disseminated a set of guidelines to various districts, including Indore, on the process of engaging these motivators.

    Key learnings from the workshop at Bhopal:

    Behavior change of the government officials is critical for achieving ODF at scale

    Key Learnings

    9Document shared by District Panchayat

    Photo courtesy @ District Administration Indore

  • 22 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Planning phase: Launch of the programme1.

    After the workshops conducted in May and August 2015, and field exposure to understand the Bikaner model, the senior leadership at the District Panchayat took direct ownership of the entire programme and decided to immediately take it on as a battle to end open defecation. Along with the district officials, the elected representatives at the District Panchayat were also involved in the planning process. Therefore, the planning phase saw a holistic involvement of and coordination among a diverse set of stakeholders, bound by a common cause of achieving an ODF district.

    A noteworthy cause of success in Indore has been a change in strategy; instead of building toilets we shifted our focus to the open defecation sites. We aimed at sending people from open defecation sites back to their homes, by convincing them to build toilets on their own and use them.

    - P Narhari Collector and District Magistrate, Indore

    Time bound battle for four months

    Close involvement of sarpanches in the entire process is of utmost importance. Success would be elusive without this.

    Strategy

    Key learningInteractions with the community during sanitation implementation work carried out in the first half of 2015 revealed the findings of the 2012 baseline survey to be unreliable. This was perhaps due to the significant gap since the time of the survey which made some of its findings outdated. Therefore, in August 2015 a survey was undertaken across the district to assess the sanitation situation and capture updated statistics related to households with functional toilets, households with defunct toilets, details of available masons in the

    community, among others. Based on the findings of this survey and the available manpower, it was assessed that approximately four months would be required to make Indore district ODF.

    At this stage, none of the 312 GPs were ODF. Foremost, it was decided to give this movement an identity, by way of a logo and the name of Indore Swachhata Sangram. It was believed, such kind of branding would increase the recognition of the CATS movement at a mass level. The Indore Swachhata Sangram was launched on 1st September 2015, and it was collectively decided to make the entire district open defecation free by 31st December 2015. It was consciously decided to complete the triggering phase within four months, followed by one year of ensuring sustainability. A brochure was also prepared to spread the message of the Indore Swachhata Sangram across various government stakeholders as well as among the general community at a mass level.

    In order to effectively involve the sarpanches, secretaries and other community level stakeholders in this battle, it was strategically decided to create a sense of competition by way of an award for villages called the Ahiliya Gram Puruskar, which provided a financial incentive to the frontrunners. A part of the Performance Incentive Grant10 was utilised for this purpose. This award gave the movement a necessary momentum at the initial phase.

    10Performance Grant is a fund provided to the District Panchayat to use for development work at the village level

  • 23 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Salient features at the planning phase:

    Change in focus from toilets to open defecation sites

    Time bound mission mode adopted: Only district in the country to achieve ODF status within a short span of four months, which indicated the thorough planning process

    Assessing the quantum of work and developing a micro plan accordingly

    High focus on sustainability

    Ownership and close involvement of senior government officials

    Engaging peoples (elected) representatives

    Right from the planning phase itself, we decentralised the ownership of the entire programme. At the block level, we mobilized the block CEOs, took their commitment towards this mission and indirectly made them accountable to successfully implement the task. Similarly, we involved the sarpanches and frontline workers of various government line departments at the community level. Team building in this manner helped to effectively create an enabling environment across various levels and played a significant role towards the success of the entire programme.

    Success achieved in Indore is evidence of the unity among various administrative officials, elected representatives and stakeholders at the community level, to collectively channelize their efforts towards the mission of achieving ODF for the entire district.

    - Asheesh Singh former District CEO, Indore

    - Kavita Patidar President of District Panchayat Indore (Zila Panchayat Adhyksha)

    The initial calculation on the number of toilets to be constructed revealed that there were some households who were not entitled to the financial incentive under the SBM-G. These included families with defunct toilets, who had received government support in the past and impoverished families whose name did not appear in the entitlement list. Involvement and sensitization of various stakeholders helped mobilize funds to support toilet construction in such households, as follows:

    All members of the District Panchayat voluntarily contributed their one months salary

    Many MLAs (Member of Legislative Assembly), MPs (Members of Parliament) and other influential persons provided donations

    The sarpanches of various GPs contributed a portion of their funds allocated under the 14th Finance Commission as well as funds collected through taxation in their respective villages

    Challenges Mitigation Measures

    Unreliable and outdated baseline survey

    Another baseline survey carried out to gauge the current situation

    Problem of defunct toilets

    Funds were mobilized at the District Panchayat

    As a conclusion to the planning phase, the salient features of this phase and case studies of key individuals involved are presented below:

  • 24 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Champions at the District LevelThe success of the Indore ODF model has been driven by senior officials and public representatives in the district administration. They mutually decided to take up the issue of open defecation as a priority and planned to address the problem through a community driven approach. While the District Collector, Mr P Narhari, provided the required leadership and made the ODF initiative a priority for the district, the District CEO, Mr Asheesh Singh, acted as the backbone of the programme. Additionally, Ms Kavita Patidar, as the President of District Panchayat Indore (Zila Panchayat Adhyksha), involved the political stakeholders and public figures in the initiatve. Indore was fortunate to have these leaders who understood the importance of prioritizing the issue.

    Mr. P Narhari (IAS) is the District Collector in Madhya Pradesh with more than nine years of experience. He supported the District CEO in all aspects to make the programme successful. He circulated various official directives to all district officials

    to support the initiative. He also played a critical role in coordination with the state SBM office to ensure smooth fund flow. His focus was on eliminating open defecation sites (OD). Thus, many OD sites were transformed into play grounds and holy trees were also planted at many sites. He also played an active role in the early morning verification visits and set an example by frequently visiting villages during these follow-up visits. According to him, transparent communication with the community and the involvement of all senior officials was crucial towards attainment of success.

    Mr. Asheesh Singh (IAS) was the District CEO during the implementation of the Indore Swachhata Sangram. His extraordinary leadership was instrumental in making the programme successful. With initiation of the Swachh Bharat Mission, Mr. Singh started focussing on the rural

    sanitation sector and introduced CATS to eradicate open defecation. The entire planning process, human resource mobilization and monitoring plan was developed by him. Mr. Singh ensured a holistic day-to-day plan for the whole district at the beginning of the programme. At the start of the programme, a baseline assessment was conducted to understand the prevailing situation, the quantum of work and the attitude of the stakeholders at the grassroots level to set an accurate target of the toilets to be constructed. Simultaneously, several community meetings were conducted to understand the notion among the community representatives (Public representatives, Panchayat members, Sarpanch, Panchayat secretaries) to support the initiative. Mr. Singh also ensured a pre-designed structure of supportive supervision and involvement of officials

  • 25 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    across various departments, especially for morning follow-up visits. Thus, he ensured a micro-plan for every stakeholder in the project. During the implementation, Mr. Singh was proactively engaged in community mobilization and intensive field visits. He also deployed a district-level task force to deal with key issues arising during implementation on a fast-track basis, as well as ensured timely disbursement of funds. He was also instrumental in enforcing team spirit in all stakeholders through regular communication through WhatsApp. With his meticulous effort and leadership the district became ODF within four months. According to him, the detailed planning undertaken for all stakeholders at each step contributed significantly to the success of the Indore Swachhata Sangram.

    Ms Kavita Patidar, the President of District Panchayat Indore (Zila Panchayat Adhyksha), played a pivotal role by involving the political stakeholders and public figures in the districts ODF initiative. In her words the success of the programme depends on selfless involvement of the administration, the community and the public representatives. Motivated to do something innovative,

    she did not restrict herself only to regular responsibilities of a public representative. Instead, she acted as a driving force to involve political leaders in the Indore Swachhata Sangram. She motivated the political leaders (Members of Parliament, Members of Legislative Assembly) who provided their financial contribution to the initiative. The contribution helped the district to construct toilets in 8,000 households who were not entitled to avail incentives under the SBM-G. This further helped the district to deal with the problem of defunct toilets. Further, to provide an initial momentum and encouragement within the community, she introduced the Ahilya Nirmal Gram Puraskar11 to reward the 1st four ODF GPs in the district. She mobilized a total of 50 lakh from the award amount of the Panchayat Raj Sashaktikaran Puruskar11 for this purpose. As a result, a competitive environment was created throughout the district and with-in the first 15 days of initiation of the programme, 35 GPs became ODF. Besides the political leaders, she also motivated and mobilized public representatives in all 610 villages and ensured their participation. She went beyond the so called political agenda and set an example of true leadership by contributing to the common good.

    11This award is given to best performing Panchayats (District, Intermediate and Gram Panchayat) across the States/Union Territories in recognition of the good work that is done by PRIs at each level for improving delivery of services and public goods.

  • 26 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Resource Mobilization:Manpower

    2.Past experiences of the state SBM had recognized that engagement of effective motivators to conduct behaviour change and execute the CATS tools at the community level is imperative for creating demand for elimination of open defecation. As per the initial planning on the number of GPs to be targeted, it was estimated that an average of 20 motivators were required for each block.

    A. Identification and selection of motivators:

    This process was carried out in August 2015, jointly by the block and district administration. The district guided the block functionaries to engage the sarpanches, secretaries and PCOs to identify relevant individuals from the community level. Subsequently, an initial screening was conducted at the block level through individual interviews. This was followed by one-to-one interviews at the district level and a test of their commitment by asking them to report at early hours of the morning12. In all, 74 motivators were selected at this stage.

    B. Capacity building of motivators:

    The selected motivators were required to attend a five-day residential training which was conducted by Feedback Foundation, a resource agency engaged by UNICEF for capacity building on CATS and handholding support. The training was attended by the selected 74 motivators, block CEOs, block coordinators and 25 PCOs from all four blocks. The motivators and PCOs were trained to use various tools to mobilize the demand for sanitation and facilitated the collective decision in the community for elimination of open defecation as well as to support the GPs to match the supply with the emerging demand. The focus was on creating a social norm of toilet use by everyone all the time for creating an open defecation free environment.

    Key learning

    Orientation sessions which comprehensively covered multi-level officials established strong linkages which further helped in smooth implementation

    Additionally, during these five days, approximately 1,200 individuals including office bearers from various government line departments, elected public representatives (from the district and block and village levels), religious leaders, sarpanches and Panchayat Secretaries were also sensitized on the CATS method. This was deliberately done to orient and involve all relevant stakeholders in a mass mobilization mode and thereby creating an enabling environment for the ODF movement. Effective engagement of a diverse set of stakeholders helped in rapid achievement of results. The officials, who were now oriented on the CATS process, were later used to conduct ODF verification of households.

    Sachiv, Sarpanch, Sub-engineer, PCO identified individuals at the community level with the following characteristics: Interest in sanitation Background of doing social

    work Good communication skills

    Identification of Motivators :

    The selection of motivatorstook place at two levels:1. Preliminary screening at

    the block level2. One-on-one interviews

    at the district level

    Selection of candidates:

    Post the rigorous selection process, A total of 74 motivators were selected.

    Motivators selected:Figure 6: Selection process of motivators

    12The job required individuals who could dedicatedly report for work at 4 a.m.

  • 27 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    Strategy

    Motivators mobilized into teams of 3 to 4 people, as individual motivators are less effective.

    C. Preparation of field plan:

    The 74 trained motivators along with PCOs were organized into teams of three to four people and were allocated 15 to 20 Gram Panchayats (GPs) per team. In this way, 20 teams of motivators were formed across the district.

    Based on their understanding of the community and PRI members, the district administration classified all the GPs of the district into three categories based on the effort required to implement CATS and attain ODF status. Category A included 85 Gram Panchayats where it was the easiest to implement CATS, category B included 138 Gram Panchayats which presented some difficulty in terms of implementation and category C included 89 Gram Panchayats which required significant behaviour change and where it was the most difficult to work. The district administration consulted the PRI members, Sarpanch(s), the public representatives and the PCOs to identify and categorize the villages as mentioned above.

    A baseline assessment was also conducted to identify the villages where a lesser number of toilets were to be constructed; consequently, such villages were classified under category A. This classification was considered while preparing the field plan for the motivators to conduct triggering sessions.

    5 day residential training

    Held from 9th to 13th

    September 2015 atIndore

    Morning slot

    Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Day 4 |

    Assembly time: 3 a.m.

    Rigorous training for motivators: in-house as well as field exposure

    Afternoon slot

    Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Day 4 |

    3- hour orientation for:

    Preparation of implementation calendar in the block by motivators and block officials

    The residential training played an important role in building an environment of discipline and helped in fostering a sense of dedication and motivation of the trainees towards their work.

    District and block officials from the WCD, PHED, education, health and agriculture department

    Sarpanches Sachivs District and block

    coordinators SBM-G School teachers Religious leaders Anganwadi workers

    Day 5 |

    Figure 7: Capacity building workshop

  • 28 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    D. Incentive to motivators:

    Some of the significant learnings which emerged from past experience of the state in implementing CATS were that effective supportive supervision and a mechanism for incentivising the motivators, are of prime importance for this model to succeed. Therefore, in this respect, Indore district decided to compensate the motivators with an allowance of INR 1,000 per motivator, for conducting triggering and follow-up activities at each

    GP. Additionally, an outcome based incentive amount of INR 6,000 was given to each motivator upon attainment of ODF status of his/her allocated village. The amount was disbursed in two installments; 50 per cent upon attainment of ODF and 50 per cent upon sustenance of ODF, given after two months of attaining ODF status.

    Table 1: Remuneration of Motivators: Payment linked to progress of activities

    Payment Slot Milestones Key Activities Incentive Amount

    1Completion of village triggering

    Community triggering meeting

    Five-day follow-up in the village

    INR 1000/ village

    2

    Village attains ODF status Supporting morning follow-up to ensure eradication of open defecation

    Encourage toilet construction in every household and ensuring 100 percent toilet usage

    INR 3000/ village, after successful verification by district team

    3Village sustains ODF status

    Continuously conduct morning and evening follow-up to ensure zero open defecation for a period of two months

    INR 3000/ village after two months of sustaining ODF

    Total payment for each ODF village INR 7000/ village

    To summarize, some of the challenges faced at the resource mobilization stage and the mitigation measures adopted are mentioned below:

    Challenges Mitigation Measures

    Identifying dedicated motivators

    Involvement of sarpanch, PCOs to identify interested and motivated individuals

    Salient features at the resource planning phase:

    Residential training, which helped in sustaining the motivation of the trainees and filtering the dedicated personnel

    Mass involvement of various stakeholders, including senior administrative officials, officials from various government line departments, PRI representatives at all levels, among others

    Continuous engagement of motivators and use of an effective outcome based incentive plan

    As a conclusion to the resource mobilization phase, the salient features of this phase presented below:

  • 29 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

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  • 30 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Implementation phase: Rolling out activities to trigger communities

    3.A. Micro planning:

    There was a detailed planning process which was carried out to engage the 74 motivators and approximately 40 PCOs in implementation activities. The last day of the five-day residential training entailed a planning exercise, where the officials of each of the four blocks, along with their motivators, prepared a detailed day-to-day implementation plan for each team of motivators and PCOs, for their respective blocks across four months

    from September to December 2015. Within each block, clusters of GPs were formed. It was strategically decided to initially target villages which were easier to approach, in terms of supportive and proactive PRI members. Establishing success at the beginning made it easier to approach villages which were foreseen as relatively difficult in terms of community mobilization.

    Scanned document: A copy of Implementation calendar for a team of motivators of Sanwer block for the month of November 2015

  • 31 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    B. Implementation process:

    At the commencement of implementation work from 15th September 2015, there were about 74 motivators across the district. Each team of motivators was required to spend five days in each village (including two night halts and Gram Choupal). It is important to understand that the immediate outcome of the five-day village intervention by the motivators was not to achieve ODF status within this short span of time. The primary purpose was to

    create a cohesive environment within the village and infuse the necessary passion within the villagers which would in turn foster the need for a toilet and eventually lead to an ODF community. A key task of the motivators was to form a Vigilance Committee in each village, comprising of men, women and children, who would help to sustain the initiative after the motivators exit the village.

    Support in constructing toilets Support vigilance committee in early morning follow-up at

    OD site and community monitoring Triggering children covering all institutions including

    Anganwadi Centers (AWC), School, Health Centers (HC) House to house contact

    Day 1

    Day 2

    Day 3

    Day 4

    Day 5

    Pre-triggering with interaction with key persons in the village Decision about date, time and venue for the triggering session

    Triggering session Formation of Vigilance Committee,

    comprising of men, women and children Declaration ODF date collectively

    decided

    Night Halt Evening meeting with Vigilance

    Committee to develop personal rapport with community members

    Morning follow-up visits Monitoring Supportive supervision Village ODF action plan

    developed

    Night Halt to understand the communities response and obstacles faced, if any

    Morning follow-up visits Empowerment of the Vigilance Committee so that they

    ensure sustained behavior change and continued use of toilets in the village

    Village ODF action plan (VAP) implementation started

    1 Panchayat | Motivators team of 3-4 member | 5 Days

    Continuation of regular follow-up till GP becomes ODF

    Figure 8: Five-day village triggering

  • 32 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Formation of Women Vigilance Committees (Mahila Nigrani Dal) at the village/GP level played an important role in promoting womens participation as well as ensuring effective community mobilization. These Committees were led by ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) and AWW (Anganwadi workers) and saw the participation of educated young girls which further helped to accelerate the programme.

    These frontline health workers (AWW & ASHAs) are not just foot soldiers of the Government of India in delivering crucial maternal and child health services to communities and villages in the country, but they are also perceived as agents of change. Since they work at the grassroots level engaging directly with communities, they are crucial in disseminating information promoting healthy behaviours, in the context of sanitation, health and hygiene. Engaging them in the Indore initiative with the right interpersonal communication skills helped to bridge the existing gap between the knowledge and practice of sanitation.

    For the engagement of these frontline health workers, orientation programmes were held at the district and block level. Orientation of the ICDS supervisors, Child Development Project Officers and selected Anganwadi Workers was done at the district level during the five-day CATS training whereas all the ASHA and AWWs were

    orientated at the block level. Discussion with ASHA/AWW on topics such as faecal-oral route and its impact on health successfully developed their understanding on how the practice of open defecation impacts community health and how sanitation leads to better health and nutrition.

    In the ODF journey of Indore (rural) approximately 300 ASHAs and 610 AWWs were actively involved and played a crucial role in term of creating a positive environment for womens engagement, connecting the community and uniting them to achieve a single goal. AWWs and ASHAs provided a focussed energy to the Mahila Nigrani Dal for morning follow-ups (Monitoring) and acted as a common thread between the community and other sanitation workers.

    Following are the key benefits of the womens engagement in sanitation programmes through AWWs & ASHAs:

    Enthusiastic involvement of women from the communities for monitoring

    Increased participation of women from the local communities

    Development of ownership among the women

    Finally, over regular and sustained periods of engagement and discussions, the community understood and perceived the benefits of maintaining good sanitation behaviours. ODF status of villages is not the end of the journey. Frontline health workers are still active and are working to sustain the behaviour of using toilets and promoting hand washing with soap at critical times, safe disposal of child excreta and safe handling of drinking water.

    Women Vigilance Committees

    Photo courtesy @ Sabir Iqbal

  • 33 Indore Swachhata Sangram |

    A PCO (Panchayat Coordination Officer) was strategically made a part of each motivators team. Inclusion of PCOs in this process helped to ensure smooth facilitation at the village level as PCOs were acquainted with the influential people in the village. This rapport helped to generate an effective response and manage any challenge faced.

    During implementation, a significant role was played by the senior officials of the District Panchayat. The District Collector, District CEO, District Panchayat President and officials from various line departments (Education, Health, DoPRD, Women and Child Development, Agriculture, Revenue) actively participated in the morning follow-up visits to various villages, starting at 4 a.m. Such enthusiastic involvement of these officials was very impactful as it restored the belief among the field level workforce to the success of the programme.

    In my opinion, there are three key tools of creating behaviour change to eradicate open defecation: creating disgust (by indirectly inducing the realisation of ingesting faeces), inculcating shame and talking about dignity (self-respect of female members of the community).

    Some of the triggering tools were so vivid that people used to vomit during these sessions. This was effective in creating the feeling of disgust among the community members. Consequently, the community became the key drivers that led to the success of this social movement.

    - Rajesh Dixit Deputy Commissioner, District Indore

    - Varad Murti Mishra, District Panchayat CEO, Indore

    In this way, within the first month of implementation 35 GPs had attained ODF status. Most of these GPs included the ones where the initial target of toilet construction was relatively low. Initial success created a favourable environment to scale up the implementation of CATS.

    Strategy

    Covering all institutional set-ups including schools, Anganwadi, Health Centre, with sanitation facilities is critical for achieving ODF

    Concurrent triggering activities in various GPs revealed that the sarpanches of a few GPs were not actively interested in this cause, and this was hindering the attainment of ODF. Therefore, the District CEO and District Collector intervened and held a meeting with about 50 sarpanches from across the district.

    Sanwer was the first block to attain ODF status. This was followed by Depalpur, Mhow and Indore. Once the CATS process was streamlined and implementation work was smoothly underway, the district adopted some innovative community engagement initiatives which helped to further boost the Indore Swacchata Sangram. It was realised that the involvement of all stakeholders through different channels could bring the desired success within a stipulated timeframe. Thus, community mobilization was restricted to triggering and follow-up, it was extended further through three community mobilization activities - Zid Karo Abhiyan, Garv Yatra and Sharm Yatra. While Zid Karo Abhiyan motivated the school children, Garv Yatra and Sharm Yatra involved the villagers and were meant to instil a sense of pride amongst ODF communities and a sense of shame among non-ODF communities, respectively. The idea behind these mobilization activities was to encourage the involvement of all community stakeholders in a continuous manner and to inculcate a sense of ownership for the programme.

  • 34 | Indore Swachhata Sangram

    Zid Karo AbhiyanIn Hindi, Zid karo means to repeatedly insist for something until the demand gets fulfilled. The guiding strategy of the Zid Karo Abhiyan is to recognise children as one of the primary channels to reach out to the community and households. The children are tactfully influenced to motivate their parents for constructing and utilizing a household toilet. The Zid Karo Abhiyan was not a sporadic initiative that was carried out in a few select GPs, rather the district administration ensured structured operational modalities through micro-planning which covered almost all schools in the district in a time bound manner. The planning involved piloting of the idea, identification and estimation of available human resources, capacity building of implementers and mobilization of students to influence their families.

    It was essential to plan the school triggering along with the community triggering. Usually in the village, school triggering was conducted on the same day or the day after the community triggering. This helped us to convince the community effectively. We used three tools to sensitize children at Magadkhera; explaining the oral faecal route through flies, economic burden due to open defecation and talking about the compromised privacy and self-respect of women. We asked children how they felt when their sisters and mothers used to go out to defecate in the open. This highly impacted them and motivated them to insist for a toilet in their house.

    - Himanshu Awasthi CATS resource person

    Observing the impact of the Magarkhera experiment, it was realised that the engagement of children could fetch results more efficiently. The District CEO took a personal interest in the school intervention and a subsequent demonstration of school triggering was conducted in Paliya GP of Sanwer block. A group of motivators, district level officers, including the District CEO, administered the process. Subsequently, a district level implementation plan of school triggering was developed to carry out this activity across the all schools of the district in a time bound manner. The term Zid Karo Abhiyan was coined. To implement the activity, a pool of 50 Academic Cluster Coordinators (Jan Shikshak) was selected. In November 2015, a five-day CATS training was imparted to all Jan Shikshaks at the District Panchayat and a detailed plan for school triggering was shared for their respective areas. Within a span of two months, more than 250 GPs were covered under school triggering. The Zid Karo Abhiyan was simultaneously implemented with community triggering to accelerate the impact at the GP level.

    Champion of Zid Karo AbhiyanHimanshu Awathi took a personal interest and provided leadership at the community level to make Zid Karo Abhiyan a successful initiative. He is an expert trainer on CATS and has extensive experience of implementing CATS in eleven states across India. In 2015, on initiation of the Indore Swachhata Sangram, Himanshu was entrusted with the task of providing handholding support to the motivators. Besides conducting triggering in more than 50 GPs, he took the lead role to conceptualise the Zid Karo Abhiyan. A trainer, Himanshu was well-versed with the institutional context, student behaviour and the intricacies of teacherstudent interaction. He was one of the key stakeholders for micro-planning of the Zid Karo Abhiyan. It was his extensive experience and devotion that made a difference towards successfully motivating children to actively participate in the programme.

    In November 2015, first school triggering was organized in the primary school of Magarkhera GP in Sanwer block. As the result of the triggering, a large number of young boys and girls took active part in the ODF initiative in the GP. For the first time Indore witnessed a large participation of children in the Village Vigilance Committee. They enthusiastically participated in vigilance visits during the early hours of the day and thus played a pivotal role towards convincing their parents to construct toilets and stop defecating in open.

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    Formation of Vanar Senas

    I and my group of friends would go around the village shouting slogans and imploring people to stop defecating in the open. We would stop in front of our houses during the rally and publicly request our parents with folded hands to construct a toilet.

    - Suman 10 years, member of village Vanar Sena

    School triggering through Zid Karo Abhiyan successfully engaged a large pool of young children who contributed significantly to make their village open defecation free. These children were popularly known as Vanar Sena (Monkey Soldiers). The members of the Vanar Sena nagged, insisted and pleaded with their parents for a household toilet. They also took active participation in early morning vigilance to stop open defecation. They carried a bag of ashes and followed open defecators to cover their faeces. In many places they had whistles to alert the villagers whenever they spotted individuals defecating in the open. They would often pester the open defecators to the extent that at times they would overturn the dabbas13 carried by the villagers. In every village, the Vanar Sena conducted rallies shouting slogans to create awareness amongst the villagers. They became very popular throughout the district and were identified as a key motivator to inculcate behaviour change. They also received special appreciation from the CM and a cash incentive during the ODF declaration ceremony.

    Picture: Members of the Vanar Sena

    13Plastic or metal pot used to carry water by people when they go for open defecation

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    Garv Yatra and Sharm Yatra

    Garv Yatra (walk of pride) and Sharm Yatra (walk of shame) were two unique activities planned under the Indore Swacchata Sangram to engage communities across villages and infuse a sense of awareness and involvement at the grassroots level. At the beginning it was realized that it would be more effective if the community itself highlights its achievements and acknowledges the gaps. Garv Yatra and Sharm Yatra were nothing but a mass public acknowledgment of pride and shame by the community itself.

    Indore successfully achieved 35 ODF villages within one month of the campaign. By that time, the administration identified many villages that were less cooperative and where the public opinion was not congenial to accept the initiative. The administration thus decided to showcase ODF villages and encourage the community at large. The first Garv Yatra was organized in Galonda GP and people from the neighbouring ODF villages also participated in the rally. Senior government officials took part in the event and acknowledged the achievement by the community. The event not only inculcated a sense of achievement, but the villagers also felt a

    sense of ownership and pride in their success. At the same time the event generated some enthusiasm and competitiveness amongst the villages who were not ODF by that time. Following the event, each ODF GP carried out a Garv Yatra on the first day of every month to showcase their success and also encourage other GPs.

    Similarly, to create a momentum in the villages which were yet to achieve ODF status, a Sharm Yatra was organized at the first day of every month until they became ODF. This walk of shame was able to generate a sense of discomfort amongst the community. During the walk, participants would plead to the villagers to construct and use a toilet at their home and publicly request them to stop defecating in the open. At the end of rally, participants would burn the water containers which were used for open defecation. The activity was popularly termed as Lota Jalao Abhiyan which symbolically represented the communitys conviction to become open defecation free.

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    C. Monitoring and reporting process:

    It is important to understand that two parallel processes were taking place at the GP level: demand-side and supply-side. The triggering activities to generate demand were carried out by the motivators and PCOs. Simultaneously, this demand was met by ensuring smooth supply leading to the construction of toilets. Indore district adopted an intensive monitoring mechanism across various levels to monitor both these processes, which contributed to the successful implementation of the entire programme.

    Monitoring demand generation

    All the motivators were required to fill-up a detailed 13 page reporting format during their five-day triggering session in a particular village. This format is provided by the District Panchayat and is divided into four components capturing the following details:

    Form A: Details of the pre-triggering activity in the community

    Form B: Details of the triggering activity in the community

    Form C: Details on the toilet construction activity in the community

    Form D: Details on the monitoring and follow-up activity in the community

    This report was submitted to their respective Block Coordinators on a weekly basis, who in turn would compile and submit to the District Panchayat where this information was analysed. In this way, the District Panchayat had consolidated information of the number of villages that have been triggered using the CATS approach at any point in time.

    Additionally, meetings of the motivators were conducted by their respective Block Coordinators on a fortnightly basis which helped to track progress as well as share the problems faced by the motivators during triggering activities.

    The Block Coordinators and PCOs provided continuous support to the motivators. Local support by the sarpanch was ensured by the PCOs as they have a good rapport with the PRI representatives of the villages for which they are responsible for. Moreover, through the social media platform WhatsApp, all stakeholders at the block and community level were directly linked to the district administration, which ensured regular monitoring of their activities. The motivators would often post pictures of successful triggering activities as well as raise any issues faced by them during the triggering sessions.

    Photo courtesy @ Sabir IqbalCommunity monitoring

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    Monitoring smooth supply: Construction of toilets

    The GP Secretaries were given the task of compiling information on the progress of construction work in their respective GP on a weekly basis. They captured information related to the number of pits dug, lining of pits, number of completed sub-structures and number of completed toilets. This was compiled by the PCO and submitted to the Block Panchayat, who in turn compiled it and shared it with the District Panchayat for its review.

    This format was shared with the GP Secretaries at the orientation workshop at Indore. Therefore, some of the information such as number of houses where toilets

    are to be constructed (bifurcated by APL/BPL), number of defunct toilets, number of households who are not eligible under SBM-G etc., was already captured before the triggering activity.

    Additionally, a weekly meeting was held with the GP Secretaries at the block level, where the SBM-G District Coordinator/In-charge and Additional Chief Executive Officer monitored the progress of the toilets constructed in their respective GPs.

    Activity Follow-up Mobilization Monitoring

    Toilet construction Supply of raw material VAP progress

    monitoring Availability of mason

    Individual mobilization through Inter Personal Communication

    Community mobilization Zid Karo Abhiyan Sharam Yatra Garv Yatra

    Toilet construction, completion and usage

    Reduction of open defecation

    Morning evening follow-up by vigilance committee

    Rozgar Sahayak Sarpanch Motivator Village Vigilance

    Committee

    Motivators SBM-G staff Teachers Natural Leaders

    Sarpanch Secretary Rozgar Sahayak

    Figure 9: Follow-up and monitoring process at the village level

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    Strategy to deal with the problem of defunct toilets: The baseline assessment revealed that there were approximately 8,000 defunct toilets across the district; these households were not entitled to avail incentives under the SBM-G. To address this problem, funds were raised through financial contributions by various political leaders. Moreover, defunct toilets were not prioritized at the beginning of the programme. It was thought that initially targeting the households who were entitled to SBM-G funds would positively influence some of the families with defunct toilets.

    Local masons from the community were engaged in construction of toilets; majority of these were leach-pit toilets. The Sub-engineer would carry out demonstration of a toilet construction at every village. All the masons of the area attended this demonstration and were, thus, trained on the technique of constructing a toilet. The Sub-engineers, Sarpanch and other Panchayat members were responsible to ensure the quality and progress of work done by the masons at the village level. Payments were ensured by individual households; however there was a

    special provision for economically weaker households at some places, where the Panchayat would provide them with loans to support the construction of toilets.

    At the community level, Sub-engineers, Assistant Engineers and PCOs were the nodal officers responsible for ensuring the quality of construction work. Supply of construction material was ensured by the Sarpanch and Secretary. Any issue in terms of supply of material was immediately escalated to the block administration for the required support. Additionally, the district administration provided a web-based portal enlisting suitable suppliers for providing construction material. Periodic monitoring and coordination by the district level functionaries ensured uninterrupted supply of construction material.

    A robust communication mechanism was in place across various levels of functionaries which helped to ensure smooth implementation, sharing of challenges faced and speedy mitigation of these challenges. The same has been illustrated in the figure below:

    Figure 10: Communication framework across various levels (to ensure smooth monitoring)

    CEO, District Panchayat

    Dy. Commissioner

    CEO, Block Panchayat

    Block Coordinator

    PCOs

    Motivators

    Seek report on Block wise PCO movement

    Ensure daily cluster wise PCO team involvement

    Ensure motivators movements

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    Issues Faced at village/ Absence of team member

    Daily Weekly

    Meeting at block levelDistrict Officials

    Panchayat Secretory, GRS, PCOs, ADEOs, Sub Engineer, Assistant

    Engineers

    Daily Update

    Daily Update

    District Level

    Block Level

    Cluster Level

    Gram Panchayat Level

    Daily Update

    Daily Update

    Reporting in-person

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    Using Social Media as a tool to monitor and to create a platform for open communication

    The social media platform WhatsApp, was very efficiently utilised for prompt communication among multiple levels of implementers. This helped in sharing progress, problems faced during implementation, concurrent monitoring and recognising achievement. A three tier monitoring mechanism was in place on WhatsApp (three levels of WhatsApp groups were in existence):

    Village cluster level: consisting of members of the Vigilance Committee and motivators of the respective village

    Block level: consisting of block level officials, respective block motivators and community members

    District level: consisting of all motivators and officials across all levels, district and block

    Challenges Mitigation Measures

    Challenges faced as a result of outsiders conducting triggering sessions in the village

    PCO would accompany each team of motivator during the five-day visit

    Some GPs were lagging behind due to less interest of their Sarpanch/s

    District CEO and District Collector held a meeting with about 50 sarpanches from across the district

    Monitoring progress at the village level on a daily basis Use of social media (WhatsApp) to instantaneously connect across all levels (district, block, GP)

    Construction of toilets in unauthorised settlements, encroached areas, dhabas and petrol pumps

    The Sub-Divisional Magistrate (SDM) was engaged and played a key role in this

    This close knit spectrum acted as a real time monitoring mechanism, where problems were immediately highlighted and consequently solutions were immediately identified. Regular communication through this medium eliminated the hesitation to approach senior officials at any time of the day, which was a significant achievement. Frequent communication was also actively encouraged by the officials themselves. This strengthened progress of the Indore Swachhata Sangram. WhatsApp was a convenient medium to circulate visual evidence of work progress, through photographs of triggering and follow-up sessions as well as construction activities.

    To summarize, some of the challenges faced at the implementation stage and the mitigation measures adopted are mentioned below:

    Salient features at the implementation phase

    Comprehensive and detailed implementation plan prepared for 120 days; four months

    Community targeted between 4 a.m. to 8 a.m. since the practice of open defecation is noted to be higher during the early hours of the day

    Frequent and persistent communication at all levels; with the community, motivators and various other stakeholders, to reinforce the importance of sanitation (through frequent and periodic meetings)

    Active involvement of women and children

    Dedicated cadre of motivators

    As a conclusion to the implementation phase, the salient features of this phase are presented below:

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    D. Verification process and declaration of ODF

    A robust multi-level verification process was employed which aided in the declaration of ODF status. This process involved officials from various government line departments, including Women and Child Development Department, Department of Agriculture, Public Health and Engineering Department, Sub-Divisional Magistrates, students from the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Indore, among others. Since most of these people were oriented on the CATS method during the training workshop at Indore, they could effectively carry out the verification process.

    The process started with a GP submitting a proposal to the Block Panchayat declaring itself to have achieved an ODF status. The Block Panchayat would conduct 100 percent verification of households through the Sub-engineers, ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme) Supervisors, PCOs (Panchayat Coordinating Officers) and ADEOs. The block level verification was conducted with-in two to three days of village-level declaration and within the subsequent two days, a report was sent to the District Panchayat office. Each file was scrutinized and 100 percent verification was carried out by the District

    Panchayat. The district level verification was conducted within 15 to 30 days of receiving the reports from the respective blocks.

    The verification team at the district level were provided with a file containing all the relevant information pertaining to the GP to be visited. This included a map of the GP marked with the prime open defecation sites, details on the date of triggering, date of ODF declaration, population of the GP, and a line list of all the households.

    A detailed six page format of a verification checklist was adopted based on government direction to support the verification teams observations during the verification visit. The officials assembled at the District Panchayat between 3:30 a.m. to 4 a.m., They were then divided into teams and were randomly assigned villages for verification. It was decided to spend the early morning hours (between 5 a.m. to 8 a.m.) in the village as this is the time when most people defecate in the open.

    A third level of verification was conducted under the administration of the State level officials of the SBM-G. The help of students from IIM Indore was taken to conduct the verification visits on a random basis. ODF validation in the year 2015 was built on the existing opportunity of a six day Rural Immersion programme of IIM students. Between 30th November 2015 to 5th December 2015, 580 Students of IIM Indore were engaged for validation of ODF status. The validation covered sanitation practices at households, schools, anganwadi centres. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected through designated questionnaires. As part of the process, 20 GPs of Indore were verified by the students.

    In this way, a stringent and systematic verification procedure helped to ensure speedy ODF declaration followed by smooth fund transfer.

    ChecklistActivities performed between 5 a.m. to 8 a.m.

    Physically check Open Defecation sites

    Interview few villagers on general scenario

    Visit to 10% sample households and fill the verification formats

    Verify school and AWC toilets

    Mention remarks and recommendations

    Declare village OD or ODF

    Figure 11: Activities carried out during verification by the district level

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    ODF Self declaration by Gram Panchayat

    Primary Verification visit (100%) at the block level

    Based on the findings, a report is sent to district level on a

    weekly basis

    Officials of various government departments are organized into teams

    Allocated villages for secondary independent verification, without prior intimation

    Re-verification required

    Village declared ODF

    1st level

    2nd level

    State level verification carried out by students of IIM Indore

    Allocated villages for independent verification

    3rd level

    Figure 12: Verification process

    E. Incentivising beneficiaries: Fund disbursement

    The GRS14 (Gram Rozgar Saahayak) and GP Secretaries were responsible for recording the status of completed toilets at the GP level. The process involved taking a photograph of the completed toilet, which was uploaded to the MIS database at the block level. Additionally, a pre-designed completion certificate was to be filled for each toilet constructed. This certificate was signed by the beneficiary, GP Sarpanch, GP Secretary and GRS, after which it would be verified by the PCO and sent to the Block Panchayat. The Block Panchayat would conduct physical verification of this (as mentioned in the previous section) and submit the list o