Higher Education Goals: –championed and promoted Confucian values –trained Confucian...

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Transcript of Higher Education Goals: –championed and promoted Confucian values –trained Confucian...

  • Slide 1
  • Higher Education Goals: championed and promoted Confucian values trained Confucian scholars and made them ruling elites, and strengthened imperial power. Two forms of institutional Education: Religious Secular
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  • Religious: Temples or monasteries taught Buddhist and Daoist texts Recitation of sutras was primary task understanding sutras through exegesis was secondary Secular: Public schools: capital and provinces (prefectures) Confucian and Daoist classics Private: village schools Instructors choices, but primarily Confucian texts
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  • Public Schools National schools: Run by central government: Two types of capital colleges First type of capital college: the Colleges for Sons of State Grand Learning Four Gates Confucius and His Disciples
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  • These capital colleges were for sons whose fathers held offices from ranks (grades) 1-3, 4-5, and 6-7 respectively Four Gates later opened for sons of officials of 8 th and 9 th grades (ranks) And later opened for talented commoners Young men between the ages 14-19 were accepted The state provided stipend and housing They taught Confucian and Daoist classics, medicinal texts Curricula stressed lectures, memorization, and examinations
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  • Second type of capital colleges: Schools for specialized fields Laws ( ): Tang Code, statutes Math ( ) : text math textbooks to master in 14 years Calligraphy ( ): three styles and two dictionaries to be completed in 6 years Other special schools in the capital Astronomy Calendrical science, Divination Ritual
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  • Hand-copied Buddhist Scripture, Tang Dynasty
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  • Provincial schools Provincial Schools: prefectual and county schools Senior officials selected students between 18 and 25 for admission to these schools Confucian and Daoist classics were the major curriculum Requirements included the study of marriage and funeral rites The masters gave an exam every ten days On materials covered during the week
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  • Format of exams One fill-in question for every 1,000 words of text memorized Students had to supply from memory a passage of which they received only the beginning sentence One interpretive question for every 2,000 words of text covered in lectures A year-end exam consisting of 10 oral questions was given to determine whether a student could pass the class A student would be dismissed and sent home if he failed that exam three years in a row or had been in school for nine years incapable of graduating
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  • Paths to Official Career One could become an official through these channels: Recommended by schools Recommend by village head of gentry, if the candidate was not in school Recommended oneself without going through the authorities and could sign up for special imperial examinations
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  • Benefits of official career provided one with opportunities to secure power and wealth, Could hold a high office in Changan, Could become a prestigious ranking official
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  • Hand-copied Buddhist Scritpture, Tang Dynasty
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  • Schools and Students Tang government encountered difficulties running public schools Tang government encountered difficulties running public schools Couldn t supply enough qualified teachers Couldn t supply enough qualified teachers Couldn t support teachers and students financially Couldn t support teachers and students financially students numbered from 63,570 to130,000 in two different time periods students numbered from 63,570 to130,000 in two different time periods Performance of students in capital colleges was less than desirable Performance of students in capital colleges was less than desirable Some hired substitutes to take their exams Some hired substitutes to take their exams Many were shiftless: they gambled, drank too much, quarreled, and showed no respect for authority. Many were shiftless: they gambled, drank too much, quarreled, and showed no respect for authority. They became more and more slack in class work, vilified teachers, and thrashed them in the streets They became more and more slack in class work, vilified teachers, and thrashed them in the streets
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  • Public schools lost its appeal Public schools lost its appeal Youths from privileged families had priority to enroll in schools Youths from privileged families had priority to enroll in schools Good teachers went to private schools Good teachers went to private schools Students from schools outperformed by those from private schools in the civil services examinations Students from schools outperformed by those from private schools in the civil services examinations Schools discontinued in later Tang Schools discontinued in later Tang
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  • The Civil Service Examinations A meritocratic system aimed to embody Confucian ideal of selecting men of talent and ability to help rule the state . A meritocratic system aimed to embody Confucian ideal of selecting men of talent and ability to help rule the state . Talented men, after passing examinations, became public officials Talented men, after passing examinations, became public officials Major examinations: Major examinations: Law, math, history, classical masters, advanced scholars, elevated warriors Law, math, history, classical masters, advanced scholars, elevated warriors
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  • Most Important Examinations Classical masters (Mingjing): 3 tests Classical masters (Mingjing): 3 tests 1st test: On classical knowledge 1st test: On classical knowledge Major (large) classics: Rites, Spring & Autumn Annals Major (large) classics: Rites, Spring & Autumn Annals Middle classics: Poetry, Rites of Zhou, Middle classics: Poetry, Rites of Zhou, Lesser classics: Changes, History Lesser classics: Changes, History Other classics: Filial Piety, the Analects Other classics: Filial Piety, the Analects 2nd test: On commentaries on classics 2nd test: On commentaries on classics 3rd test: On policy discussion/essays 3 questions (A 3/3; B 2/3) 3rd test: On policy discussion/essays 3 questions (A 3/3; B 2/3) Advanced scholars (Jinshi): 3 tests Advanced scholars (Jinshi): 3 tests On classical knowledge major, middle, lesser classics On classical knowledge major, middle, lesser classics On belles lettres: poetry in shi and fu forms On belles lettres: poetry in shi and fu forms On policy discussion/essays 5 questions (A 5/5; B 4/5) On policy discussion/essays 5 questions (A 5/5; B 4/5)
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  • Classical Master emphasized memorization: candidate passed the first text if he could answer 5 out of 10 fill-in questions
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  • Jinshi (Chin-shih) Examination Advanced Scholars: 10 fill-in questions on one major (large) classics with a commentary, five essays on policy discussion, and compositions of poetry and prose-poems Degree holders were more respected and prestigious than scholars passing other examinations Became the most reliable route to upward mobility within government Influences: Poets highly admired; ability to write poetry and prose much emphasized
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  • Before and After the Examinations Before: Scroll presentation Candidate presented his works in scrolls to examiners In spring, candidates congregated in the capital to take the examinations
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  • After: Successful candidates Given a reception by examiners Toured the scenic parts of the capital Waiting for selection examination to receive appointments The Night Revels of Han XizaiThe Night Revels of Han Xizai
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  • --20 to 30 passed exams and received appointments per year --Degree holders and examiners formed a permanent master-disciple bond of union and fellowship
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  • Buddhist Art
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  • Song reproduction of Tang painting, Songzi Tianwang, Originally done by Wu Daozi, now preserved in Japan Tang Art
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  • Wei Yan, A Hundred Horses, Tang, National Palace Museum in Beijing
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  • Han Gan, Night-shinning White, High Tang, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
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  • Han Gan, Herding Horse, High Tang, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY