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Wong Tai Sin District Council 75 / 2013 issue (10.9.2013)
Proposal for the Establishment of the Confucius Temple by
The Confucian Academy
Da Cheng Hall of The Confucius Temple, Front View
The Confucian Academy 29 August 2013
1. Objectives .... P.3
2. An Introduction to Confucianism ... P.3
3. Confucius, the Confucius Temple and the Confucian Academy .. P.4
4. Ideology of the Confucius Temple ... P.5
5. Social Values in the Construction of the Confucius Temple .. P.7 P.9
6. Religious Significance of the Confucius Temple... P.9 P.12
7. Cultural Significance of the Confucius Temple..P.12- P.18
8. Site Selection P.18
9. Gross Floor Area (GFA) of the Confucius Temple .P.18
10. Facilities . P.18 P.20
11. Construction, Management and Operation .. P.20 P.21
12. Design Considerations . P.21 P.24
13. District Consultation Forums .... P.24
14. Alignment with Land Use Development .. . P.24
15. The Budget P.24
Wong Tai Sin District and the Confucius Temple ..... P.25
Document Submission.. P.26
Appendix 1. Volume Drawing (I) of the Confucius Temple ...P.27
Appendix 2. Volume Drawing (II) of the Confucius Temple ..P.28
Appendix 3. Design Drawings of the Confucius Temple P.29 P.36
Proposal for the Establishment of the Confucius Temple
by the Confucian Academy 1. Objectives
This document serves as a proposal for the construction of a Confucius Temple in Hong
Kong by the Confucian Academy, an overview of the design and architecture of the
aforementioned Temple, as well as a way of soliciting the advice and support from the Wong Tai
Sin District Council and its District Councillors.
2. An Introduction to Confucianism
Confucianism is one of the thirteen religions recognised by the United Nations, and one of
the six major religions recognised in Hong Kong. Confucianism (the religion of Confucian scholars)
was founded by Confucius. Its fundamentals revolve around the concepts of "Ren (benevolence),
Yi (righteousness), Li (propriety, or the practice of rites), Zhi (wisdom) and Xin
(trustworthiness). Confucius propounded his interpretations of the ancient Five Classics, which
together with The Analects became the most important texts for Confucianism. Confucianism is
based on religious principles as well as humanitarian principles; it places great value on taking an
active part in human society.
Confucius was the principal teacher and sage of Confucianism, as well as one of the
greatest thinkers, politicians and educators the world has ever seen. Confucianism and the
philosophies of Confucian scholarship date back 2563 years; it is an embodiment of the most
essential Chinese traditions; it is a culture which serves as a continuation of almost 3000 years of
heritage, and a source of inspiration of the 2500 years that followed. Not only is it a central pillar
of Chinese culture, it also lies at the heart of Chinas soft power.
The value of Confucianism and its scholars philosophy has been acknowledged by the
United Nations for its contribution towards long-term social stability and the welfare and
happiness of people, and proven in many societies including those in Japan, Korea, Singapore,
Indonesia, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. In fact, the Asian Model of governance is largely
based on Confucianisms central principles - loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, kindness,
trustworthiness, righteousness and peace in combination with the principles of freedom,
democracy, the rule of law and human rights, the discussions of which were also found within
Confucian philosophy. The four East Asian Dragons were born out of this fortuitous blend.
(The bronze statue of Confucius in Qufu city, Shandong province [total height: 16.928 meters] )
3. Confucius, the Confucius Temple and the Confucian Academy
(Confucius, 551 479 BC)
Confucius is one of the worlds greatest philosophers, a teacher and role model of all ages.
His teaching has profoundly influenced Chinese culture in a remarkable range of areas, from
traditions, customs, politics, social hierarchy, the arts, academic studies, through to religious
beliefs. Confucian ideas and codes of conduct have had a lasting impact on interpersonal
relationships, personal values and ways of conducting oneself in society. Back in 478 AD (under
the rule of Duke Ai of the state of Lu), people had already begun building temples of Confucius in
the great sages hometown of Qufu in Shandong province. Since then, thousands of Confucius
Temples also known as Wen Temples, or Temples of civil studies, culture and literature have been
constructed both in China and across the rest of the world, where followers worship the great
sage and pay tribute to his enormous contributions to humanism and society.
A predominantly Chinese society, Hong Kong is a convergence point of East and West where the best of both cultures meet, yet there is not currently a well-established Confucius Temple in the city where people can experience and benefit from Confucius philosophies and culture. After spending many years in applying for planning and development permission from the government, the Confucius Academy has successfully gained the support of the Home Affairs Bureau for the construction of a Confucius Temple for the purpose of religious and cultural development in Hong Kong. Upon further investigation, the Confucian Academy learned that the Wong Tai Sin District Council has expressed concerns about the availability of religious, cultural and artistic facilities in the area. In response, the Academy is submitting an application for the construction of a Confucius Temple at the Diamond Hill Comprehensive Development Area . We are currently in the process of consulting with Wong Tai Sin District Council, and we hope the proposal will be supported by the Council and its Councillors.
Founded in Hong Kong by Dr. Chen Huanzhang in 1930, The Confucian Academy has
dedicated itself to the promotion and development of Confucius teachings for nearly a century.
Devoted to the nurturing of talents and the advancement of education whilst fostering the values
of integrity and righteousness in society, we follow the Confucian principles of establishing
ourselves by helping others become established, and nurturing future generations with long-term
vision. We consider it our goal and responsibility to contribute to the renaissance of Chinese
culture, to join hands with the wider community in a bid to achieve universal harmony, via a
harmonious Hong Kong society, prosperity and stability in China, as well as world peace at large.
4. Ideology of The Confucius Temple The Confucius Temple will serve as a
flagship religious institution and cultural
venue in Hong Kong, playing a vital role in
the promotion and development of
Confucius teachings and philosophies, as
well as the wealth of culture and art within
Confucianism. In addition to its role as a
venue of religious worship, the temple will
offer a range of world-class art and
cultural facilities for a wide variety of
events and activities. The Confucius Temple will serve as a platform to encourage greater social
cohesion across different sectors and organisations within the society, through the promotion of
the Eight Virtues (Filial Piety, Brotherhood, Loyalty, Trustworthiness, Propriety, Righteousness,
Honesty and Honour). Great emphasis will be placed on the education of the younger generation,
and the provision of guidance and support to help young people develop positive attitudes
towards interpersonal relationships, personal values and ways of conducting oneself in society, so
that in a long run, individuals, families and communities will feel a greater sense of care towards
their society and country.
1. Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong province
2. Confucius Temple in Beijing 3.Confucius Temple in Deyang, Sichuan 4. Confucius Temple in Quzhou, Zhejiang
13. Confucius Temple in Sanshui, Guangdong 5. Wen Temple (another name for a Confucius temple) in Zizhong, Sichuan
12. Confucius Temple in Fenzhou, Shanxi 6. Wen Temple (another name for a Confucius temple) in Harbin
11. School of Confucius in Guiyang, Guizhou 7. Confucius Temple in Deqing, Zhaoqing, Guangdong
10.Confucius Temple in Tainan 9. Confucius Temple in Yunnan 8.Wen Temple (another name for a Confucius temple)
in Zhengding, Hebei
5. Social Values in the Construction of the Confucius Temple
5.1 Development and Promotion of the philosophies by Confucian scholars, as well as the advancement of culture
(HKSAR Chief Executive Mr Leung Chun-ying, Chief Secretary for Administration Mrs Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor,
Secretary for Home Affairs Mr Tsang Tak-sing meet the senior management team of the Confucian Academy at Government House, showing their support for the promotion and development of Confucian culture, 2013)
The development of Confucianism was built upon the foundation of Chinas long and
illustrious history. The great sages teachings were a continuation of almost 3000 years of heritage
and traditions before his time, as well as sources of inspiration in the 2500 years that followed;
consequently, the philosophy is an embodiment of over 5000 years of Chinese culture.
Confucianisms influence on Chinese culture is unique whether in the crucial role it plays in the
continuation of traditional heritage, the inspirations it offers to future generations, or its ability to
embody the essence of Chinese culture. Despite its long history, Confucianism remains relevant to
the society today.
HKSAR Chief Executive, Mr Leung Chun-ying has long been an avid supporter of Confucian
philosophies, and believes it can foster the advancement of culture in Hong Kong. The Confucius
Temple can serve as a symbol of the essence of Chinese culture, promoting the virtues of
benevolence, kindness, filial piety, brotherhood, loyalty, forgiveness, trustworthiness and
harmony across the entire Hong Kong society, particularly through the long term vision of
nurturing the younger generations. This will contribute greatly to the advancement of culture in
(Secretary for Home Affairs Mr Tsang Tak-sing as officiating guest at the Global Celebration of Confucius Birth,
recognising the importance of the promotion and development of Confucian culture. 2007)
5.2 Strengthening the Sense of Nation and Facilitating Racial Harmony
Since its reformation, China has made the development of traditional cultures, especially
Confucian philosophies, one of its priorities. The ideas and philosophies of Confucius have lasting
and profound impacts, transcending the limitations of words, to be passed on through traditions
and rites and become an integral part of peoples values. The sense of cohesion encouraged by
Confucian philosophies plays a critical role in fostering racial harmony among Chinas 56 racial
groups and minorities. The construction of a Confucius Temple in Hong Kong will demonstrate
that the SAR embraces the spirit of One Country within the two systems. In addition, it will also
strengthen the cultural identity of the Chinese diaspora across the world and a wide spectrum of
society. Both in terms of culture and psychology, the influence of Confucianism has special
significance in the countrys unification.
(Former Chairman Jiang Zemin meets with representatives of the International Confucian Association at the Great Hall of the People, 1994)
5.3 Affirming Traditional Values and Boosting Cultural Confidence.
As a major cosmopolitan city, Hong Kong serves as a convergence point for both Chinese
and Western cultures, where diverse opinions and values are welcomed with a strong sense of acceptance. Underpinning its culture are the ideas of Confucian philosophies and teachings, yet there is still not a venue dedicated to Confucianism, despite the passing of 16 years since the SARs return to China. Not only does the construction of a Confucius Temple fill the void in this crucial area, but it also demonstrates the SAR governments dedication to the affirmation of traditional Chinese values, which will consequently boost the Cultural Confidence of Hong Kongs people as members of a Chinese society.
6. Religious Significance of the Confucius Temple
6.1 Religious Necessity of the Confucius Temple
Religions the world over have been represented by their temples, churches, mosques or other analogous buildings or locations. These places of worship provide a physical focal point
where the religions followers can perform rites and worship their saints and deities. In Hong Kong,
there are six major religions, five of which are represented by numerous of places of worship.
However, one religion is excluded from this group Confucianism. Although there are more than a
thousand Confucius Temples overseas, Confucianism does not have an ideal temple of worship in
Hong Kong, despite its increasing religious and cultural involvements.
A Confucius Temple is one of the most important carriers for Confucian cultures, which
form an essential building block of Chinese culture. Confucius Temple is therefore an important
base for traditional Chinese cultures. Yet without a Temple, the Confucian Sages would have had
no home. In view of the situation, the Confucian Academy proposes the construction of a
Confucius Temple, modelled after the temple in the town of Qufu, Confucius hometown in
Shandong Province. The Temple will play many roles; as well as a place of worship where followers
can perform rites in honour of the great sage, it will serve as a focal point for the promotion and
development of Confucius ideas and philosophies, whilst cultivating a stronger culture based on
humanistic values, benefiting the hearts and minds of people and the nations morals. The Temple
also will be an academic destination, where research can be conducted and exchange scholars
from both Hong Kong and abroad will be welcomed. Furthermore, it also serves as an attraction
for visitors from the Mainland and overseas who have an interest in Confucianism.
The Temple will host a variety of religious performances, such as theatre, dance, guqin (a
traditional Chinese musical instrument) performance, painting, calligraphy, qigong and martial arts.
The main square will be the perfect venue for traditional dances such as the dances of Bade (the
Eight Virtues) and Liuyi (the Six Arts) as well as the live performance of sacred music, offering
the audience powerful first-hand experiences of the diversity of Confucian culture and the
religions fundamental sacredness.
6.2 The Religious Functions of the Confucius Temple
The Confucius Temple is a place of religious worship as well as an example of religious and culturally-significant architecture. It serves many crucial religious functions, of which a few are
listed below as examples.
6.2.1 The performance of religious rites
The primary as well as most important religious function of the Confucius Temple is to
provide a venue for the performance of religious rites. It is only through a Confucius Temple that
people will inherit the sense of respect and reverence towards Confucius, and for the strong sense
of traditional moral to rekindle in peoples heart and the societys psyche, to ultimately realise
Confucius ideals. Without the Confucius Temple, there will consequently be no tangible medium
for the heritage to be passed on.
Each year the Confucian Academy hosts the international celebration of Confucius birth.
Without a dedicated venue, the Academy has been using spaces rented from the HKSAR
Government for these celebrations. Unfortunately these spaces are often not equipped with all
the facilities required for the performance of religious rites in Confucianism. Once completed, the
Confucius Temple will provide an ideal venue to host the annual ceremonies in honour of
Confucius, Mencius and other great sages of the past. This sacred Confucian site will be home to
joyous celebrations attended both by followers of the religion and by the wider community.
Other rites and religious activities include: the rite to worship Heaven, the rite to worship
Confucius, ancestral worship and the worship of the great heroes in Chinese history. Traditional
folk festivals including the Spring Festival (Lunar Chinese New Year), Mid-Autumn Festival and
Chung Yeung Festival will also be celebrated at the temple. All these festivities will proudly
demonstrate how rites and rituals have been held in high esteem by Chinese culture throughout
its long and illustrious history.
Confucian Wedding Ceremony 1 Confucian Wedding Ceremony 2 Confucian Wedding Ceremony 3
Confucian Wedding Ceremony hosted by the Confucian Academy Kaibi Ceremony hosted by the Confucian Academy
(Kai, open; Bi, pen: the ritual of welcoming young
children to the world of learning)
1.A large calligraphy brush is presented 2.Children citing classic passages by the sages 3.Getting ready to use their first
at the commencement of the ceremony calligraphy brush
The Confucius Temple will provide a venue for residents from Wong Tai Sin and other parts
of Hong Kong to take part in a series of Confucian rites and ceremonies, which celebrates
meaningful stages along lifes journey, such as children learning to write, young peoples rites of
passage, wedding ceremonies, memorial services and tribute events. Each one of these embodies
the ideas of Confucianism, and expresses the great sages ideals of benevolence and kindness
through the acknowledgment of peoples needs in different stages of life.
6.2.2 Promoting Religious Exchange
In Hong Kong, people from both the East and West enjoy great cultural diversity and
religious freedom. Each religion has its own doctrines, beliefs and ideas; Confucianism is a
proponent of the harmonious co-existence of different beliefs. To nurture a culture of mutual
understanding, appreciation and respect in society, a channel for effective communication and
exchange is required. The Confucius Temple provides just such a platform, showcasing Confucian
culture to religious leaders from Hong Kong and the rest of the world, whilst fostering exchanges
between different religions. Such exchanges represent movements towards Confucius ideal of
universal harmony, by contributing to peace and positive development in human societies.
(Former HKSAR Chief Executive, Mr Donald Tsang Yam Kuen and six religious leaders, 2008)
6.2.3 Preserving and Curating Sacred Confucian Artefacts and Cultural Heritage, whilst Promoting Tourism
The Confucius Temple is a sacred site for Confucianism. Upon its completion, the Confucius
Temple in Hong Kong will be home to one of the largest and most magnificent Da Cheng Halls and
Confucius statues in the world.
A Classics and Rare Books Library and a Museum of Traditional Chinese Culture will be housed within the Temple. In addition to the statues or portraits of the great sages in history, a
collection of precious Confucian relics from around the world, such as calligraphy works and books
by ancient sages, will be exhibited at the venues. As well as promoting Confucianism, these
artifacts and cultural resources will also attract visitors from the city and around the world, and
will therefore represent a valuable tourist attraction, especially for overseas visitors who are
interested in Chinese culture. 7. Cultural Significance of the Confucius Temple
The Confucius Temple is primarily a venue for performing religious rites to honour and
worship Confucius. As the Temple-School System developed after the Tang Dynasty, Confucius Temples began to adopt a special type of architecture. In every important city and town, there was a Confucius Temple. It is only natural that a Confucius Temple should be built as soon as possible in Hong Kong - Asias World City and Chinas southern window on the world.
7.1 The Confucius Temple and Confucian Culture
The Establishment of a Confucius Temple will represent a fitting recognition of the
esteemed status of Confucianism, and also contribute to the renaissance of traditional Chinese
culture. Concepts such as Education for all, Kindness and care to all people, creatures and
objects and the Principles of loyalty and forgiveness will be promoted, with an emphasis on the
new interpretation of Confucius teachings taking into account the multitude of different
situations throughout todays world. It is hope that the esteemed wisdom of Confucius and
Mencius will encourage mankind to place greater value on integrity and righteousness, against the
troubling trend of decay and negativity in todays society.
The Confucius Temple will serve as a flagship architecture of Hong Kong, playing a vital role in the promotion and development of Confucius teachings and philosophies, as well as the wealth of culture and art within Confucianism. In addition to its role as a venue of religious worship, ceremonies and important gatherings, the temple will offer a range of world-class art and cultural facilities for a wide variety of events and activities. The Confucius Temple will serve as a platform to showcase the aforementioned activities, offering a first-hand experience for people from Hong Kong and the rest of the world in the understanding and appreciation of Confucianism, its power and elegance, as well as its immense value to the society.
Benevolence and righteousness are at the core Confucius ideas. Through the principle of
Honouring Confucianism and Promoting Learning, the Confucian Academy aims to promote and
develop Chinese cultural traditions and to pass on the wisdom of the sages to our future
generations . We will organise a range of community events that will foster greater social cohesion
within Wong Tai Sin and other districts, embracing different groups and organisations within the
Hong Kong society. Youth education is our key focus. Through the promotion of the Eight Virtues
(Filial Piety, Brotherhood, Loyalty, Trustworthiness, Propriety, Righteousness, Honesty and
Honour), we aim to provide the younger generation with guidance and support, helping them to
develop a positive attitude towards interpersonal relationships, personal values and ways of
conducting oneself in society. Another goal is the promotion of culture and the wisdom of the
sages, targeting the wider community. Through these initiatives, we hope to encourage young
people to develop a greater sense of care towards society and their country, and in turn building
stronger families and communities.
7.2 The Cultural Connotations of the Confucius Temple
The Confucian culture is both vast and profound, deeply rooted in its long and impressive
history. The Confucius Temple and the study of Confucianism complement each other as the
tangible and intangible dimensions of the same concept. The two are indeed one and the same.
The concept is incomplete if either part is missing, whilst a synergy is possible if both are present.
7.2.1 The Confucius Temple as Exemplification of an Architectural Culture
The architecture of a Confucius Temple is in itself a type of tangible culture. Not only is the construction that we propose faithful to the architectural traditions established by major Confucius Temples in the past and present, but also a large number of modern elements are introduced to create an organic combination of its artistic quality, practicality, and sustainability whilst achieving an optimal balance. Thanks to its careful and well-considered design, this project will bring to Hong Kong a forward-thinking and sustainable Confucius
Temple, whose influence as a culture will extend to the rest of the world.
The Temples design features a central axis that runs through the main halls and sections
of the building, from the Collage Gate, through to the Pan Fountain, Wan Ren Gate, Li Road, Yi
Road, Ling Xing Gate through to the Da Cheng Hall. This is a specific representation of traditional
Chinese culture and Confucian philosophy. A rich variety of decorations, engravings, wall murals
and sculptures will add to the aesthetic appeal of the architecture. Walking into the Confucius
Temple, one will appreciate its architectural and artistic interest, whilst at the same time
immersing oneself in Confucian culture, experiencing first-hand its power and grace.
7.2.2 The Exemplification of a Culture of Learning Through Classical Arts
Confucius said, lean upon benevolence for support and take recreation in the arts. The
great sage believed that cultivation of wisdom and the learning of the arts were one and the same.
A wide range of cultural designs will be displayed in the Confucius Temple, including a statue of
Confucius, statues of the sages, plaques with calligraphy inscriptions, calligraphy works by
renowned scholars, stone tablets with inscriptions of the Classics, and Confucian artifacts. In this
dedicated space, visitors can admire the works of the ancient sages and great scholars, and
experience the wisdom of the sages through the careful study of these revered relics.
Confucius said, A gentleman is widely versed in culture but brought back to essentials by
the rites.More than half of the primary schools, secondary schools and universities in Hong Kong
have based their school mottos or emblems on Confucius teachings, and these motors can offer
an insight into the wealth of cultural wisdom in Confucianism: The University of Hong Kongs
motto is Mingde Gewu (), To manifest virtue and to investigate things is from
Confucian classic The Great Learning; The Chinese University of Hong Kongs Bowen Yueli (
), Through learning and temperance to virtue is from The Analects; Chung Chi College,
founded by Christian Churches in Hong Kong, also takes its motto from The Great Learning: Zhiyu
Zhishan (), To rest in the highest excellence; the Catholic Wah Yan Colleges motto is
Gewu Zhizhi(), The extension of utmost knowledge lies in the investigation of things;
the Catholic La Salle Colleges motto is Keji Fuli (), To subdue one's self and return to
propriety; lastly, the Confucian Academy has adopted the motto Jingjiao Quanxue (),
Honour Confucianism and Promote Learning.
7.2.3 The Exemplification of a Culture of Rites and Music
Confucianism places a strong emphasis on rites and music, and considers them the
cornerstones of education; it also encourages the combination of the two. In fact, the rituals,
ritual objects, and musical instruments in Confucius Temples are often considered to be key
objects that exemplify the intangible culture of the Temples. The rites and rituals in Confucius
Temples, which follow a strict set of rules, are renowned for their impressive ceremonial costumes
and elegant ceremonies; they are considered national treasures. According to ancient scripture,
Hua Xia, another name for China, literally meaning glamorous and elegant, came from a
description of its dress and ceremonies. Those who take part in the ceremonies display total
concentration, each devoting full dedication to the role they are to perform in a ceremony
demanding high cultural standards. The ritual objects and musical instruments were masterfully
designed to express the rich cultural concepts that inspired the ceremonies. Traditional bells,
drums, chimes and qin, together with lamps, stoves, panels and wine cups are used in accordance
with Confucian rituals to create the perfect harmony of musical elements and a reverent
atmosphere the ceremony is grand and solemn, filled with a sense of honour and righteousness.
7.2.4 An Academic Exchange Platform
The Confucius Temple will foster and encourage academic exchange by hosting regular seminars and lectures on Chinese culture by experts and scholars from a range of different fields,
covering topics such as the study of the Four Books and Five Classics - an authoritative collection
of Confucius works, as well as philosophers and sages from other schools of thoughts, such as
Laozi, Zhuangzi, Mozi and numerous others. Scholars of Confucianism and Chinese studies from
Hong Kong and overseas will visit the temple to attend these seminars and lectures. Such
exchanges are expected to contribute greatly to the academic reputation of Hong Kong; those
most directly benefited are of course residents of Wong Tai Sin, with these engaging and inspiring
events being held in their own neighbourhood.
(President Tong Yun Kai speaks at the International Confucian Studies Forum, organised by the
Confucian Academy, 2012)
7.2.5 Major Events and Activities at the Confucius Temple (1) Rites
Dates Dates in Lunar Calendar Occasion Remarks
February Winter Solstice/ Chinese New Year
Heaven and Earth Worship Ritual
February 2nd to 6th day of Chinese New Year
Honouring the Ancient Sages Ritual
February Every Mans Birthday, 7th day of the Chinese New Year
Celebrating the Birth of Man
February 15th day of the Chinese New Yea (Yuan Xiao)
Spring Lantern Festival Recreational/Arts
March Mid Spring (February) Honouring Confucius (Spring Worship)
April Qing Ming Festival Qing Ming Festival Conduct the funeral of your parents with meticulous care and let not sacrifices to your remote ancestors be forgotten, and the virtue of the common people will incline towards fullness. The Analects
May 2nd of April, Summer
Birthday of Mencius, the Second Sage
Ritual Family Activities
1 June Childrens Day Childrens Gala treat the young in your own family with kindness, so that the young in the families of others shall be similarly treated - do this, and the kingdom may be made to go round in your palm. - Mencius
June Duan Wu Festival, 5th May
Qu Yuans Festival (in memory of the patriotic poet from ancient China)
August Kai Bi Ceremony (Quan Xue) - (Kai, open; Bi, pen: the ritual of welcoming young children to the world of learning) held before the beginning of a school year
September Mid-Autumn, 15th August
Autumn Lantern Festival Recreational/Arts
September 27th August The Supreme Sages Birthday (Birthday of Confucius)
Teachers Festival Rite
1 October National Day Celebration Ritual Praying
October 15th September Zhu Xis Birthday (Song Dynastys Confucian Scholar)
November Elders Day Elderlys Gala Treat the elders in your own family with reverence, so that the elders in the families of others shall be similarly treated; - Mencius
All year round
Kai Bi Ceremonies (the ritual of welcoming young children to the world of learning)
All year round
Rite of Passage Rite
All year round
Wedding Ceremonies Rite
All year round
Ancestral Worship and Memorials Rite
All year round
Early Years Kai Bi Ceremonies (the ritual of welcoming young children to the world of learning) (For Three-Year-Old Children)
All year round
Confucius Dinner Banquets Rite / Arts
Classes for Children:
Sn z jng Bi Ji Xng Qin Z Wn
Yu Xu Sh
Yu Xu Qing Ln
Lng Wn Bin Yng
Shng L Q Mng Zh Zi Zh Ji G Yn
Tng Sh Sn Bi Shu
Qin Ji Sh
The Six Classical Arts: Rites Music (1) (Guqin) Music (2) (Erhu) Music (3) (Pipa)
Archery Horse Riding Calligraphy
(Kai Style) Calligraphy (Li Style)
Calligraphy (Xing Style)
Mengzi The Great Learning The State of Equilibrium and Harmony
Records of the Grand Historian
Xunzi The Classic of Filial Piety
Kngz Ji Y
The Book of Poetry
Shng Sh The Classic of Rites Book of Changes
Chn Qi Zu Zhun
Chu C Shn Hi Jng Zho Mng Wn Xun
Chn Qi Gng Yng Zhun
Chn Qi G Ling Zhun
Others Chinese Chess
Couplets Writing (Poetry)
Chinese Painting 1 (Landscape)
Chinese Painting 2 (Flowers and birds)
The atmosphere of the Confucius Temple is solemn, majestic and grand; its approach
balances tradition and modernity. A religious, cultural as well as social venue, the Temple
combines a wealth of national heritage, a rich cultural content, exquisite artistic designs, as well as
a scientific and vigorous structure a unique and exemplary achievement that will stand out in
Hong Kongs architectural landscape.
8. Site Selection
The Academy proposes that the temple be built on the open space adjacent to the Tate's Cairn Tunnel Bridge, on a site near Lung Cheung Road, Choi Hung Road, Po Kong Village Road and
Hammer Hill Road. In its proximity are the Chi Lin Nunnery (a Buddhist temple) and the Wong Tai
Sin Temple (a Taoist temple). The first large-scale Confucius Temple will thus form a trio of
Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist institutions within the same district. Together with St Bonaventure
Church (Catholic) and Redemption Lutheran Church (Christian) in the Wong Tai Sin district, this is a
rare and excellent example of harmonious co-existence of religious diversity, and a special
landmark for the district. Not only does it carry special significance for the promotion and
development of traditional Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist cultures, but it will also bring new
visitors to the area, consequently boosting economic activities, whilst strengthening cultural
exchange and fostering integration within the district.
9. Gross Floor Area (GFA) of the Confucius Temple
The total land area is estimated to be around 8,000 square metres; the gross floor area of the future buildings is estimated to be around 25,000 square metres.
10.1 Key Facilities within the Confucius Temple:
Da Cheng Hall, statues of Confucius, Mencius, Zengzi ,Zisi,Yan Hui and the 72 disciples,
open to both worshippers and public visitors. A platform in front of the Hall; lounges and galleries for exhibitions on Confucian
beliefs and culture.
10.2 Additional Facilities:
Special areas, rooms and studios with individual themes, including: Ming De Room,
Ren De Rooms, Dining Hall, Classics Recital Room, Zen Meditation Room, Music Room, Go Studio (Go is a traditional game similar to ddess), Calligraphy Studio and Art Studio. Each space will be elegantly decorated and faithful to the traditional specifications.
Multi-purpose Rooms - These rooms may be used as dance studio, music studio, art
studio, multi-media creative workshop, conference rooms and rooms for small group
meetings, for a variety of youth development, cultural, athletic and artistic activities.
Social Enterprises Unique Confucian Dinners and Banquets will be hosted to promote traditional Chinese culinary culture; tea rooms and eateries to promote healthy, environmentally-friendly cuisine; there will also be gift shops for traditional arts and crafts. These enterprises will provide employment and training opportunities for young people and local residents.
The Eight Virtues Dance A special dance as part of the Rituals to The Six Arts Dance
Chinese archery Gu Qin (classical musical instrument) Chinese chess
Calligraphy Traditional painting Confucius rites and etiquette
Confucius Banquet Performances to express gratitude towards parents Guided Tours
10.3 Integrated Facilities include:
A library of Confucian Classics and Rare Books - a large, diverse and comprehensive
collection of Confucian literature and artefacts to foster religious, cultural and academic exchange.
Chinese Medicine Clinic Low-cost medical services for those in need in the local area. Theatre a venue for Confucian dance and theatre performances, as well as other
cultural and artistic events. Grand Hall a venue for large-scale meetings and events to promote Confucianism
and Confucian morals and philosophies, as well as other cultural and artistic events.
Exhibition Hall home to inspirational and educational exhibitions of artefacts related to Confucian cultures, to illustrate the close relationships between Confucianism and Chinese history for the past 2500 years, as well as its influence to the overall development of civilisation.
Lecture Hall a venue for regular cultural seminars and academic exchange events led by experts and scholars from around the world, to promote understanding of Confucianism and to foster religious exchange.
Grand Hall Tea Ceremonies Confucius Scholars Study
Exhibition Hall Zhi Shan Pavilion Classics Recital Room
11. Construction, Management and Operation
11.1 A Management and Consultation Committee will be established; members from the Wong Tai Sin District Council ,Wong Tai Sin District Office and The Chinese Temples Committee will be invited to join the Committee to oversee the construction, management and daily operations of the Confucius Temple.
11.2 The Management and Consultation Committee will be responsible for the management and
daily operations of the Confucius Temple. All facilities at the Temple will be operated on a self-
financing basis, and open for public booking or rental by residents and organisations within the
district. The fee structure and opening hours of the aforementioned facilities will be determined
by the Confucius Temple Management and Consultation Committee.
12. Design Considerations
The main design of the Confucius Temple comprises the Pan Fountain, Ling Xing Gate,
Main Walls and Da Cheng Hall (See Appendix 1). The Pan Fountain in front of the Ling Xing Gate is
a fountain in the shape of a half moon. Its history can be traced back to the rites of the ancient
Zhou dynasty: at the Zhou Emperors school, there were around the building. However, feudal
lords were only allowed to build a fountain on the south-facing side. The word Pan carries the
meaning of half water in Chinese. Because Confucius was posthumous awarded the title of Wen
Xuan King, the Pan Fountain became a standard feature of Confucius Temple designs.
( Pan Fountain)
( Ling Xing Gate)
The Ling Xing Gate was three-jian wide (jian being the ancient unit of measurement), while the ridge of the roof adopts the Fujian three-rivers style. There are four pillars on the main ridge.
The Confucius Temple is situated above three levels, with a special design for the walls
surrounding its four sides. A Confucius Temple is also commonly called a Wen Temple (Wen
means literature, culture or civil [as opposed to martial] in Chinese). Because it is also the
venue of Confucian studies, it is also called a Palace of Studies or a Palace of Education. The walls
of a Confucius Temple are called the Wan Ren Walls. Ren is an ancient measurement unit, while
wan means tens of thousands in Chinese. The name of Wan Ren Walls also came from The
Analects, in which a disciple of Confucius responds to someones suggestion that he is superior to
Confucius: Let us take outer walls as an analogy. My walls are shoulder high so that it is possible
to peer over them and see the beauty of the house. But the Master's walls are several ren (twenty
or thirty feet) high so that, unless one gains admittance through the gate, one cannot see the
magnificence of the ancestral temples or the sumptuousness of the official buildings. To show
respect for the Supreme Sage, the walls of a Confucius Temple are thus called Wan Ren Walls (i.e.
tens of thousands of rens).
(Wan Ren Walls)
(Dancers perform special rituals in honour of Confucius outside of the Da Cheng Hall)
The Da Cheng Hall is the most important part of a Confucius Temple. Its roof adopts a
traditional double eaves design, and the hall features a five-level structure. The Hall is surrounded by corridors, and at the front there are red stone steps leading up to the entrance. A pair of pillars, each featuring the engraving of a dragon, completes the main design.
In addition to facilities that will accommodate the previously mentioned activities and
events, there are several other design considerations for the Confucius Temple:
12.1 A classical architectural design incorporating modern technology and Confucian traditions
The Temples design is based on that of the Confucius Temple in Qufu (Confucius hometown) in Shandong province. The overall layout is designed according to traditional specifications, with the Da Cheng Hall in the middle, and four gate towers at the four corners. The Gate of the Hall is built on the central North-South axis. At the front gate is the Statue of Confucius.
12.2 Demand in the local district
Currently, there is a shortage of well-equipped medium size performing arts venue in the
East Kowloon District. The Confucian Temple can house a 200-seat theatre and a 1000-seat hall, as
well as providing an activity space (with a capacity of around 300) for use by young people and
senior residents. These venues will facilitate the development of religious activities and
performing arts in the local district. The Classics and Rare Books Library, with a capacity for 300
people, will have a large collection of books and literature on Chinese and Western cultures
available for public access.
12.3 Other characteristics of the local district
The theatre, activity rooms of different sizes, and the library (Classics and Rare Books
Library) will serve to facilitate cultural and arts events in the district, contributing to the aim of
fostering greater interaction between Confucian, Buddhist, Taoist as well as Catholic and Christian
groups in the district. These events will be planned to complement development projects
organised by sports complexes, urban parks and the cruise terminal in the district. All of these
projects will be valuable revitalisation initiatives, helping towards Wong Tai Sins growth into a
comprehensive development district.
12.4 Benefits for local residents
Both indoor and outdoor activities at the Confucian Temple will be open to the public, in
order to provide additional recreational space in the district. There will also be parking spaces on site.
13. District Consultation Forums
The Confucian Academy will conduct consultation forums to gauge opinions and actively
seek the advice of relevant departments in the Government, Wong Tai Sin District Council and
local representatives, so as to make every effort in ensuring the Temples facilities will adequately
meet the demands of residents of the Wong Tai Sin District.
14. Alignment with Land Development Purposes
According to the draft outline zoning plan for Tsz Wan Shan, Wong Tai Sin and San Po Kong,
the site proposed is currently designated as part of the comprehensive development zone, and will be well served by public transportation links in the neighbouring areas. We therefore propose that it would be an appropriate construction site for Hong Kongs first large-scale Confucian Temple. It is of long-term significance and we hope that the District Council will lend its support to the proposal.
15. The Budget
The Confucian Temple will be designed by Michael Chiang & Associates Architects. The total
cost is expected to be around HKD five hundred million, of which two hundred million will be covered by a donation from Tong Yun Kai, President of the Confucian Academy. The rest of the funds will be raised from other contributions from society.
Wong Tai Sin District and the Confucius Temple 1. The Establishment of the Confucian Temple will create new development opportunities and
lend momentum to the continual growth within the area.
2. The Confucian Temple will be located in the same district as the Chi Lin Nunnery (a Buddhist temple) and the Wong Tai Sin Temple (a Taoist temple), as well as other Christian and Catholic churches. Wong Tai Sin will become the district with the largest number of different religious buildings in Hong Kong, and this diversity of religious beliefs will lead to increased mutual understanding and will help to foster the values of integrity and righteousness, as well as promoting a harmonious living environment.
3. The Confucian Temple, together with the other religious buildings in the district, will form a religious trail showcasing Hong Kongs diverse religious culture. This will serve as a distinctive site of great cultural interest, that is completely unique in Hong Kong.
4. The Statue of Confucius at the Temple will be one of the most magnificent in the world, with numerous unique features. It is expected to become a new landmark of the Wong Tai Sin District, boosting tourism and the popularity of the district.
5. The vast majority of facilities in the Confucian Temple will be open to the public for free, or to be rented for a nominal fee. Such facilities will serve to enhance the quality of recreational and cultural activities in the area and benefit its residents in the process.
6. As a low-rise and low-density development, the Confucian Temple will release additional space in the developing district, improve the overall appearance in the districts landscape and create more green areas. These will serve to improve the quality of life for Wong Tai Sins residents.
7. Through extensive consultation, we have learnt that the site proposed for the Confucian Temple is not suitable for residential purposes due to its proximity to the highway and road bridges. The Temple will make good use of the available land, providing a site of cultural interest and leisure activities.
8. The Establishment of the Confucian Temple is will cost around hundreds of millions, and it is expected to stimulate economic activities within the district, as well as providing a large number of job opportunities on all levels, therefore improving and promoting local employment.
9. A Management and Consultation Committee will be responsible for the management and daily
operation of the Confucian Temple. Members of the Wong Tai Sin District Council ,Wong Tai Sin District Office and The Chinese Temples Committee will be invited to join the Committee to ensure its independence and fairness.
Councilor are invited to review and to consider the content of this paper and support the proposed the Establishment of the Confucius Temple.
Appendix 1. Volume Drawing (I) of the Confucius Temple Appendix 2. Volume Drawing (II) of the Confucius Temple Appendix 3. Design Drawings of the Confucius Temple
Confucian Academy August 2013
Remarks: Revision 201308_13
Acknowledgement: Some photos are provided by the Confucian School of Rites and Culture, Qufu,
Appendix 1. Volume Drawing (I) of the Confucius Temple
Appendix 2. Volume Drawing (II) of the Confucius Temple
Appendix 3 Design Drawings of the Confucius Temple