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Transcript of Geosystems - · PDF fileIntro Physical Geography Topic 1 2 The Scope of Geography Figure 1.3...

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    1

    Geosystems:An Introduction

    to Physical Geography

    Third Canadian Edition

    Robert W. ChristophersonMary-Louise Byrne

    Philip T. Giles

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    1

    Topic 1Basic Geographic Concepts

    What is Geography? Physical Geography? Four Spheres of the Earth Systems Theory Geodesy Coordinate Systems Time Zones Maps, Scale, & Map Projections Topographic Maps Remote Sensing, GIS, and GPS

    Chapter 1

    2

    What is Geography?Science that studies spatial relationships between "things"

    Governed by a methodological approach:spatial analysis

    3

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    2

    The Scope of Geography

    Figure 1.3

    4

    Physical Geography is

    the spatial analysis of all physical elements and processes (i.e. systems) that make up the Earth

    5

    Systems TheoryA methodological/philosophical approach

    System?

    Process?

    See Focus Study 1.1 on the Scientific Method6

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    3

    Systems Theory

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    Systems Theory

    An Open System

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    Systems Theory

    A Closed System

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    4

    System Theory

    Positive FeedbackNegative Feedback

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    System Theory

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    Mount PinatuboGlobal System Impact

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    5

    Models

    A = R K L S C P 13

    Geodesy?Science that deals with measuring the size and shape of Earth

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    Location, Location, Location

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    6

    Latitude

    Figure 1.13 Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    16

    Latitudinal Geographic Zones

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    Longitude

    18

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

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    Great Circles and Small Circles

    Figure 1.16 Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.19

    Prime Meridian and Standard Time

    Figure 1.21

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Canada Inc.

    20

    Maps, Map Scale, and ProjectionsMAP= MODEL

    CARTOGRAPHY

    21

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    8

    Map Scale

    Indicates the amount of reduction22

    The Right Scale1:250,000 1:50,000

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    Projecting a Globe on to a Flat Map

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

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    Map

    Projections 25

    Types of Projections

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    Types of Projections

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    Types of Projections

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    CLSS

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    UTM Coordinate System

    Transverse Mercator Projection

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

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    UTM Coordinate System

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    Topographic Maps

    36

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    13

    Contour Lines

    A special type of isarithmic line; indicate constant value37

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  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    14

    40

    Construction of Profiles

    41

    Remote SensingCollection and analysis of information without direct contact

    What does a RS system consist of?

    Passive vs. active

    Advantages?42

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

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    Geographic Information Systems

    A computer systems for managing, analyzing, and displaying spatial information

    Map and attribute info

    Advantages?

    45

  • Intro Physical Geography Topic 1

    16

    GNSS

    Satellite based navigation system

    What is it made up of?

    How does it work?

    Sources of error include:

    46