Geography notes form 2

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  • Geography Form 2

    Stephanie Ellul

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    1. Discovering the Atlas

    Atlases are books of maps

    that show physical

    territories, regional details,

    place names, etc.

    Most Atlases are divided

    into three parts:

    a) The first few pages are devoted to the special information which consists


    The titles of the Map and the page number where they are to be found.

    Tables of climatic data eg: temperature, and figures of certain places.

    Short notes.

    b) The second part consists of different types of maps.

    Maps generally include:

    1. name of place depicted at the top of the page

    2. scale of map

    3. grid for locating places

    4. specific features (e.g. sea level, location, place names)

    Some types of maps included in the Atlas:

    1. A physical map uses symbols to show where mountains, deserts, forests,

    and other features of the land are.

    2. A political maps show places where people live.

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    3. A road map shows where roads

    and streets are in a certain place.

    c) The third part of the Atlas consists

    of the INDEX. The index is always

    found at the end of the atlas.

    All atlases have an index while only

    some atlases include a glossary.


    1. What is the name of your Atlas?



    2. Look through the second part of your Atlas and say on which pages

    you find:

    a. The map of British Isles___________

    b. The map of East Europe and Turkey ___________

    c. The map of South Asia ___________

    d. The map of New Zealand ___________

    e. The map of South America ___________

    3. Why is it important to have an Atlas?



    (10 marks)

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    The best way to find the location of something in an Atlas is to use the Index.

    The Index can be found at the back of the Atlas. Find the Index in your Atlas.

    Salavat Russia 49 J5 53 19N 55 54E

    Salavat is at 53 degrees, 19 minutes north and 55 degrees, 54 minutes east

    A. Find the following:

    1. Aachen is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________

    degrees, _______ minutes ________

    2. Selma is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________

    degrees, _______ minutes ________

    3. Provo is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________ degrees,

    _______ minutes ________

    4. Walsall is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________

    degrees, _______ minutes ________

    5. Sinai, Mount is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________

    degrees, _______ minutes ________

    6. Wuxi is at ______ degrees, _______ minutes ________ and ________ degrees,

    _______ minutes ________

    (3 marks)

    Grid square

    on page

    Latitdues/Longitude Name of

    place Country it is

    located in

    Page number of


  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    2. Representing dimensions on maps

    We use maps because although we know that

    Malta is found in the Mediterranean Sea, if we

    are in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with no

    computers to pin point our exact location, how

    are we going to find Malta in the

    Mediterranean sea?

    Of course the answer is with MAPs. Maps have the advantage to locate any

    place that we want. However do all maps contain the same detail?

    In reality large maps contain much more detail than small maps. Large maps

    are therefore called: large scale maps

    Each map/picture must have a scale in the form of a ratio.

    To fully understand ratio, we can turn them into fractions, for example 1:18

    is 1/18. These fractions are called representative Fractions.

    Important: We have to remember that the SMALLER the ratio the BIGGER the

    size of the map/picture.

    A a

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    A. Go through some of the maps in your Atlas and write down 12 examples of

    different scales. Write also the equivalent representative fraction as is

    shown in the example that follows.

    (3 marks)

    B. Suppose you have 5 maps of Europe on the following scales. Arrange the

    maps in descending order of size, starting from the largest and ending with

    the smallest:

    1. Map of Europe on scale 1:5,000,000 _____

    2. Map of Europe on scale 1:10,000,000 _____

    3. Map of Europe on scale 1:1,000,000 _____

    4. Map of Europe on scale 1:50,000,000 _____

    5. Map of Europe on scale 1:2,000,000 _____

    (2.5 marks)

    Map of: Page in Atlas: Scale

    Ratio R.F.

    Example: France 42 1:5,000,000 1/5,000,000








  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    C. Find the map of the Mediterranean Region in your Atlas. Write down the

    answers to the following questions:

    1. What is the given scale of the map? _______________________

    2. If the scale is larger, will the map contain less or more details? ____________

    3. If the scale is smaller, would the map of Malta in it be smaller or larger?


    (1.5 marks)

    3. Latitudes and Longitudes

    Fill in the blanks with the following words:

    vertically, equal, East, pole, half, London, West, parallel, horizontally,

    Prime Meridian, North, Greenwich, South, equator.

    Latitudes are lines, drawn on maps running

    from __________ to __________. The principal of

    Latitude is the 0 called the __________. The

    equator is the largest circle running around

    the earth. One needs to remember that all

    circles run __________ to the equator and to

    each other.

    Longitudes are lines that run from __________ to

    __________ each joining at the North and South

    _________. The lines of longitude only form

    _________ circles. The lines of longitude are all

    _________ in size. The principal line of longitude

    is called the ________ __________ which passes

    through __________. It is also known as


  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    The most important lines of Latitudes are:

    Tropic of Cancer (2330N)

    Tropic of Capricorn (2330S)

    Arctic Circle (6630N)

    Antarctic Circle (6630S)

    (7 marks)

    4. Google Earth

    Google earth navigators:

    i. Background


    Google Earth allows you to travel the world through a virtual globe and view

    satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings, and much more.

    Lines of longitude appear __________ Lines of latitude appear __________

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    Although the options within Google Earth are endless, here are a few things

    you can do:

    Discover the Earth: Fly to any location in the world, learn about a city and

    its geographic features, find local businesses, and create tours.

    Explore the Sky: Enjoy the wonders of the heavens and learn about our

    solar system.

    Dive in the Ocean: Go beneath the surface and visit the depths of the

    ocean and explore the planet's deepest underwater canyons. Learn

    about ocean observations, climate change, and endangered species.

    You can even discover new places to surf, dive and fish.

    Walk on the Moon: Take tours of landing sites narrated by Apollo

    astronauts and view 3D models of landed spacecraft.

    Visit Mars: Travel the Red Planet and explore NASA's latest imagery of our

    galactic neighbor.


  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________

    4. ____________________ 5. ____________________ 6. ____________________

    7. ____________________ 8. ____________________ 9. ____________________

    10. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 12. ___________________

    13. ___________________ 14. ___________________ 15. ___________________

    16. ___________________ 17. ___________________ 18. ___________________

    (3 marks)

    ii. Install it

    a. Download the latest version of Google Earth from the following location:

    b. Double-click the file and go through the installation process

    c. You should now be able to run Google Earth by going to Start > Programs >

    Google Earth and clicking on the Google Earth icon.

    iii. Basics

    Each time you start Google Earth, the Earth appears in the main window. The

    area that shows the Earth is called the 3D viewer.


    The navigation controls appear in the top

    right corner of the 3D viewer.

    To view and use the navigation controls,

    move the cursor over the top right corner of

    the 3D viewer. The navigation controls

    automatically appear whenever you do

    this; they fade from sight when you move

    the cursor elsewhere.

  • Ms.S.Ellul Form2


    Finding places

    You can search for specific locations using the Fly

    To tab in Google Earth. To do this, enter the

    location in the in