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GeographyA Case Study of Tourism in an LEDC - KenyaWhere is Kenya? Kenya is located in East Africa, its capital city is Nairobi and it has a population of approximately 30 million people.

Why visit Kenya?

- it has an attractive climate (tropical) with sunshine all year round, hot and humid at the coast; temperate inland and dry in the NE (rainy season - AprilJune and Oct-Dec, heavy rainfall in the afternoon and early evening)

- Safari holidays are popular - e.g. in the Maasai Mara / Nakuru National Park - Kenya has spectacular wildlife - including the big 5 - Lion, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Leopard and Buffalo - Cultural experience - many tourists visit local tribes such as the Maasai to find out more about their lifestyle and traditions - Coastal Holidays - SE of Kenya has fine sands and coral reefs with spectacular marine life - e.g. Mombassa

Why have numbers of tourists visiting Kenya increased?

- Kenya was one of the first LEDC countries to acheive mass tourism and in the 1970s and 1980s there was a rapid increase in the numbers of tourists, particularly following the release of the films Born Free and Out of Africa. - Tourist numbers have also increased as larger aircraft in the 1980s brought prices of air travel down.

Advantages of Tourism to Kenya:

- Tourism encourages the building of new roads and better communications - Jobs in tourism have helped develop people's business skills - Tourism has created all year round jobs for Kenyans - Tourism is Kenya's biggest earner of foreign exchange -Tourism has stimulated farming, by creating a demand for local food from farmers - National Parks have been created - encouraging people to protect the environment.

Disadvantages of Tourism for Kenya:

- there is leakage of income - with a lot of the money paid for holidays never actually reaching Kenya (travel companies and foreign owned hotels get it instead)

- Safari minibuses disturb animals - often getting too close (e.g. can be 3040 buses around a single animal in the Maasai Mara), they also cause soil erosion as the wheels churn up the grass - many Maasai are traditionally nomadic, but many have been forced out of the National Parks - losing their land and also losing their traditional lifestyles. - Hot air balloons in parks disturb animals - by casting shadows and from the noise of the burners. - Coastal Environments such as those in Mombassa have been damaged e.g. destruction of coral reefs as tourists step on the coral and also take souvenirs. - Drugs and crime has increased and AIDS is a major problem

Working towards sustainable tourism in Kenya - KIGO CONSERVANCY - An example of ECOTOURISM.

Kigio Conservancy was set up in 1997 on an old beef / dairy ranch with the aim of providing a wildlife sanctuary and a sustainable eco-tourism destination. The accommodation at Kigio is in "cottages" built of mud, timber and thatch, using local and reclaimed materials and methods. The furniture is built from re-claimed timber from the ground and there is no electricity, oil lamps are instead used. Kigio has a number of ecotourism activities it is involved in:

- partnerships with local communities - helping to fund and work on community projects - provides links with local schools with schools in the UK, raising money for new classrooms and other projects (e.g. water tanks) - partnerships with conservation organisations such as the Tusk Trust - which has involved setting up conservation centre for use by local schools and providing sustainable development education for local communities

- employees local people - e.g. guides and other workers - conservation activities - e.g. looking after orphaned wildlife - e.g. 2003 relocation of giraffe into the area - including a baby giraffe from the Karen Blixen Giraffe Orphange in Nairobi.

A Case Study of Tourism in an MEDC - Menorca

Menorca is the second largest of the Spanish Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. It has a population of 67,000 and it has a total land area of 702km2. Reasons why people visit Menorca:

- Mediterranean Climate - average temperature of 16oC with an average of 24oC in the summer months and little rainfall in the summer - Menorca has a beautiul and varied landscape - Northern Menorca has an uneven and rugged coastline and in the south there are many white sandy beaches - There are a wide range of watersports available (windsurfing; water skiing, scuba-diving etc.) - Other outdoor activities include horse riding, cycling and potholing.

What are the advantages of tourism to Menorca?

- Job creation - tourism is the largest employer in Menorca - tourism has had a multiplier effect and helps to support many different sectors of the economy e.g. jobs in farming (providing food for hotels and cafes), jobs in the craft industry (providing locally made souvenirs) and it is recognised that ice-cream is a major business - tourism in Menorca has also raised awareness of the need to preserve the environment

What are the disadvantages of tourism to Menorca?

- as tourism is very much a seasonal industry - employment fluctuates at different times of the year - the demands of the tourists have led to changes in the local way of life and there is also resentment of the number of villas and other properties being bought up as second homes by foreigners - some of the earliest hotels which were built did not fit in with the local landscape and contrast dramatically against the beauty of the natural coastline - the local culture has suffered some 'erosion' as changes have been made to meet the demands of tourists

Working towards more sustainable tourism in Menorca In recognition of the importance of tourism to Menorca, as well as the importance of

protecting the natural landscape which attracts tourists in the first place there have been increasing attempts in Menorca to make tourism more sustainable. These attempts include:

- the UN have declared the island a Biosphere Reserve with the aim of continuing to profit from tourism in Menorca whilst also protecting the island - as part of the Biosphere - urban development has been controlled and beaches have been managed - endangered species have been protected - education programmes have been adopted in schools to raise environmental awareness -tight planning controls have been implemented on the island restricting the growth of multi-storey hotels within 250km of the coastline to conserve the natural beauty of the landscape. - government attempts to protect the impact on the local culture includes ensuring that all signage is in the traditional Menorqui language.

Case Study of a Distribution Industry - Argos Distribution Centre, StaffordWhat needs to be considered in the location of a distribution centre?

The operating costs and customer service will be very important in influencing the location of a new distribution centre and the new location must be considered in relation to its suppliers (transport networks) and promixity to its customers location (this will determine response time) Therefore things to consider will be:

Access to Motorways Adequacy of surrounding infrastructure for the transport of goods in and out

Transport costs Availability of workers and labour costs


The map opposite shows the location of the distribution centre. Why then did Argos choose to locate at this site?

- Easy access to the motorway and main access roads for the transport of goods and access for workers - The central location of the site in the Midlands means that drivers can have easy access to Argos's regional bases and drive through the night without exceeding their permitted number of work hours. - Large, flat greenfield site, providing plenty of room for storage (essential for a distribution industry dealing with large volumes of stock), as well as transport and office facilities - A plentiful labour supply from nearby Stafford.

Case Study - Manufacturing Industry - The Whitbread Brewery

Traditionally all beer was brewed in local market towns on a small scale as it was bulky and expensive to move around. Today the trend is for large 'jumbo' breweries, but they are still market orientated (i.e. locate close to major markets). What influences the choice of location for the brewing industry? Raw materials required - malt; water; sugar; hops and yeast

The raw material needed in the largest quantity is water, but this is not significant to the location of the brewing industry as it is possible to source water either through the main system or by digging a borehole. Hops and Malt are also easily available and for a reasonable price (transport costs are relatively low) The costs of transporting the raw materials are therefore far less than the costs of transporting the beer to market Therefore the brewing industry (market-orientated) tends to locate as close to the market as possible.

CASE STUDY: WHITBREAD BREWERY, Luton Where was the original location of the brewery?

originally opened in London in 1796 in 1960s it needed a vast brewery to supply the large market area - the urban location of London meant that there was no room for expansion and transport costs to the rest of the South and East were expensive.

Where did the Brewery locate to and why? A new "jumbo" brewery was built at Leagrave in Luton in 1976 - this site was chosen because:

it was the optimum least cost site for the market very close to London and major towns well placed for the SE England and W Midlands market industrial land was available in the area plenty of water was available from the boreholes in the Chiltern Hills Raw materials could be transported easily by road 500 workers - skilled and local were available