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  • 1.Fish Lapbook

2. Fish and Mammals Lapbooking: Mammals & Fish Shtterfold and Ocean Depths What is a fish? A fish is a cold blooded animal, which lives completely in water. A fish normally has scales covering its body. It has fins and a tail for mobility in the water. A fish breathes by taking water through the mouth, with is then forced through the gill slits, where oxygen is taken into the bloodstream. Most fish have an air bladder which is used to keep the fish at the right depth in the water. Fish have bones that are made of cartilage - not hard bones like mammals. Fish usually lay eggs (although a few do have live young). The small fish feed themselves on food similar to the adult diet. Example of a fish: sharks, flounder, tuna What is a mammal? A sea mammal on the other hand is a warm blooded animal. It comes to the surface to breathe. Air is taken into the lungs, and the blood collects oxygen from there. A mammals skin is smooth or covered in fur. They have flippers instead of fins. They have no scales. A mammal like a dolphin has a bone structure that is similar to all other land mammals. Even the flippers have bones that resemble finger bones in humans. They give birth to live young, which are fed on milk for the first few months of their lives. Example of a sea mammal: dolphins, whales and manatees What do fish and mammals have in common? The most obvious similarity that fish and sea mammals have, is that they live in water, and cannot survive out of water. The both can swim by use of what looks like fins, but in a mammal this is actually a flipper. 3. The Life Cycle of Fish Lapbooking: Life Cycle Wheel Female fish normally lay their eggs in a secluded safe area, and then the male fertilizes them. (In some fish the eggs stay in the female, hatch in her belly, and seem to be born live.) The embryo grows inside the egg, and in a few weeks, the fingerling or hatchling emerges from the jellylike egg. The hatchling remains in the safety of denser seaweed and in between rocks and coral, while it feeds on a diet similar to that of the adult fish. Usually these hatchlings have to fend for themselves. As the fish grows, it ventures deeper into the ocean, and will soon be an adult fish. The adult fish will return to the breeding grounds to lay their eggs to complete the life cycle. Some fish, like Salmon are very interesting in that they will venture from the rivers they were hatched in, out into the ocean, and many years later, they return to the exact river they hatched in to lay their eggs. 4. The Food Chain Lapbooking: Food Chain pt 1 and Food Chain pt 2 The very basis of the food chain in the ocean is microscopic floating sea plants, called phytoplankton - which means drifting plants. The phytoplankton absorb the suns energy, minerals in the water in which they live and carbon dioxide, exactly like land plants do. This process is called photosynthesis. Just like all animals (and humans) need plants directly or indirectly, sea creatures also all depend on plankton. Due to air turbulence and wave action, the upper layers of the ocean are cooler and richer in minerals, and this is where plankton grows. Zooplankton (microscopic floating animals ) feed on phytoplankton. Larvae of shore and bottom-dwelling creatures like crabs and worms also feed on phytoplankton. Zooplankton is in turn eaten by squid, jellyfish and small fish like herrings, anchovies and sardines. The basking whale shark and some of the whales including the largest whale - the Blue Whale - eat only plankton. Tuna and other medium sized fish eat these smaller fish and creatures. Sharks and Marlins and other large fish eat these medium sized fish in turn. Of all the sea creatures, these large sharks are at the top of the food chain, but man has placed himself right on the top of the food chain, when we enter their territory to fish with our modern fishing equipment. 5. The History of Fishing Lapbooking: History of Fishing Timeline Fishing has been the major source of protein for many communities for centuries, and amazingly the basic methods of fishing have changed very little over this time. As man has ventured deeper into the oceans, his methods have become refined, but have not changed very much. The Native Americans were adept at catching fish with their bare hands, but also by using their bows and arrows and spears made of wood. Fish and dried fish was a staple part of their diet. In Egypt the Nile was a large source of protein. Fish and dried fish were also part of their staple diet. The Egyptians invented various implement to make fishing easier and more effective. They made simple boats made of reeds, woven nets weir baskets made from willow branches, hooks and lines (hooks ranged in size from less than 1cm to 18cm) and harpoons. Hooks were fashioned from bones, and there are indications that some thorns were also used. By the 12th century hooks were made of metal with barbs on. Fish were clubbed to death after capture. There are indications that fishing was not only done for food, but also as a pastime. In Greek culture fishing was left to the lower classes. It was a peasants way of earning money, and putting food on the table. The Romans enjoyed fishing with nets, rods and lines and there is evidence of them having used traps and nets. The trident was also very popular for fishing. The gladiators were given tridents and nets to catch their prey, as was popular in the fishing sport of that day. The Bible mentions fishing approximately 4000 years ago. Job was a contemporary of Abraham. In Job 41:7 Barbed irons and fishing spears are mentioned. Fishing was a staple food for all the villages around the Sea of Galilee, and along the Mediterranean Coast. The Greek author Oppian of Corycus wrote a treatise on sea fishing approximately 1800 years ago. It is the oldest such work left to us intact on fishing. He describes the fishing methods used in the days that Jesus walked on earth. The fishing nets were cast from boats, and dragged behind the boats. He also mentions scoop nets that were held open with large hoops, spear fishing and trident fishing. Boats at this time were however 6. small and had no sails, and ere used close to shore, especially on the ocean. Not much is written about fishing in the medieval times and dark ages. We can however see that for thousands of years the methods employed did not alter. As the sizes of the boats grew, the nets could grow, and the sizes of the catches could grow. They also ventured deeper into the oceans. Because they needed the fish to remain fresh, however, they had to still remain fairly close to shore, to bring the days catch in on the same day. Gillnets were suspended between 2 boats with stones attached along the bottom edge to make the bottom sink, and not float away. Wood was attached to the top end to keep it floating, to keep the net open. This was then dragged till there were enough fish, and it was hauled in. By 1864 this method had extended to Europe, Japan and other fisheries. These boats were normally powered by oars., and some had small sails. By the early 1900's these small boats were taken out into deeper oceans by steam powered boats. The fishermen did their catching, and were collected again at days end by the steam boats. In this way they could venture out much further than by themselves. By the 1930's the rowing / sailboat had virtually disappeared, only being still used by the local fisherman in fishing communities. The larger fisheries had started using gas powered boats. In 1931 the powered drum was invented, which reeled in the nets, taking much of the manual labor from the fishermen, and made reeling in the nets much less time consuming. They could now access fishing ground which had been to far away previously. By 1940, the war effort brought about much new technology, like better sonar devices, which were quickly also employed to find large schools of fish. The technology used on ships also made them much faster, and accurate to steer. Until the 1960's natural fibers were used in making nets and lines. But modern technology gave the fishermen Nylon. These synthetic fibers where stronger, and did not need as much repairing as the older type nets. They lasted longer too, as the nylon is not degrades by the ocean like the natural fibers were. The synthetic fibers were also cheaper to produce and because the synthetic fibers become almost invisible under water, the produced much larger catches. In 1993 Gillnets were banned by the United Nations in all international territories. Much damage was caused by these nets to the ecosystem in the oceans. There was much unnecessary loss of marine life, and damage to the sea beds, reefs and environment. Gillnets are still used in many countries national waters, where they continue to cause a lot of damage. 7. For the last century fishing has split into 3 main groups. 1.The large commercial fisheries, who are now able to process and freeze the fish they catch on board, allowing them to go out for months at a time, until they have filled their ships, and come in to unload their cargo. It is these large ships that are causing most of the damage to the fragile ocean ecosystem. 2. Local fishing communities. These communities depend on fishing for their livelihood. They go out in smaller boats, even rowing boats are still used in many poor communities worldwide. Some also catch from the shore. In Sri Lanka some fishermen go out on stilts, standing quietly in the sea, and catch with rods, lines and hooks. 3. Fishing for sport. Most sport fishermen release their catch or most of it, because they are seeking the thrill of mastering the fish. Many different methods are employed by these sportsmen, but mostly they include rods and lines, like fly fishing. How were nets made and used in days gone by? Making a net was a very time consuming effort. The fishermen probably spent more time making and repairing nets, than ac