FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A HYDROPOWER STUDY OF A HYDROPOWER PROJECT: CASE STUDY OF N°KSAR HEPP,...

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  • FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A HYDROPOWER PROJECT:

    CASE STUDY OF NKSAR HEPP, TURKEY

    A THESIS SUBMITTED TO

    THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES

    OF

    MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    BY

    REYHAN MUTLU

    IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

    FOR

    THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

    IN

    CIVIL ENGINEERING

    SEPTEMBER 2010

  • Approval of the thesis:

    FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A HYDROPOWER PROJECT:

    CASE STUDY OF NKSAR HEPP, TURKEY

    submitted by REYHAN MUTLU in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

    the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering Department, Middle

    East Technical University by,

    Prof. Dr. Canan zgen ___________________

    Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applies Sciences

    Prof. Dr. Gney zcebe ___________________

    Head of Department, Civil Engineering

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Elin Kentel ___________________

    Supervisor, Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Prof. Dr. Doan Altnbilek ___________________

    Co-Supervisor, Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Examining Committee Members:

    Prof. Dr. Melih Yanmaz ___________________

    Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Assist. Prof. Dr. Elin Kentel ___________________

    Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nurnnisa Usul ___________________

    Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zuhal Akyrek ___________________

    Civil Engineering Dept., METU

    Dr. Emre Alp ___________________

    Environmental Engineering Dept., METU

    Date: 15.09.2010

  • iii

    I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and

    presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare

    that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced

    all material and results that are not original to this work.

    Name, Last name : Reyhan Mutlu

    Signature :

  • iv

    ABSTRACT

    FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A HYDROPOWER PROJECT:

    CASE STUDY OF NKSAR HEPP, TURKEY

    Mutlu, Reyhan

    M.Sc., Department of Civil Engineering

    Supervisor : Assist. Prof. Dr. Elin Kentel

    Co-Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Doan Altnbilek

    September 2010, 110 pages

    Hydropower helps countries meet their energy needs in an economically,

    environmentally, and socially sustainable way while saving money and increasing

    energy security and self-reliance. Being one of the fastest developing countries,

    electricity demand of Turkey has been increasing and is expected to increase in the

    future. Untapped hydropower potential is among the prospective alternative

    resources to supply this demand. Developing a hydropower project requires a great

    deal of expertise in multiple disciplines. RETScreen software developed by

    CanmetENERGY helps the planners and decision makers to assess the feasibility of

    renewable energy projects at the pre-feasibility and feasibility stages. This study is an

    application of RETScreen to assess the feasibility of alternative formulations for

    Niksar HEPP, a small hydropower project which is under construction in Turkey.

    Three alternative formulations are generated and their economic performances are

    evaluated and compared. First, optimum design discharges are calculated and then

    economical analysis is conducted for various electricity export rates by RETScreen

    for all the alternatives. This study provides a detailed literature review on

    hydropower and its economical, social and environmental aspects, and shows how

  • v

    RETScreen can be used in assessing the economical feasibilities of the current

    formulation for Niksar HEPP and its alternative schemes.

    Keywords: Hydropower, Feasibility, RETScreen

  • vi

    Z

    BR HDROELEKTRK SANTRALN YAPILABLRLK ALIMASI:

    NKSAR HES RNE, TRKYE

    Mutlu, Reyhan

    Yksek Lisans, naat Mhendislii Blm

    Tez Yneticisi : Yrd. Do. Dr. Elin Kentel

    Ortak Tez Yneticisi : Prof. Dr. Doan Altnbilek

    Eyll 2010, 110 sayfa

    Hidroelektrik enerji, lkelerin enerji ihtiyalarn ekonomik, evresel ve sosyal

    adan srdrlebilir bir ekilde karlamalarna yardm etmekle birlikte enerji

    gvenliinin salanmasnda ve enerjide da bamlln azaltlmasnda nemli rol

    oynar. Dnyann en hzl gelien lkelerden biri olan Trkiyenin elektrik talebi

    byk bir art gstermitir ve gelecekte bu talebin daha da artmas beklenmektedir.

    Potansiyelinin byk bir ksm henz kullanlmam olan hidroelektrik enerji, bu

    talebi karlamada kullanlabilecek nemli kaynaklardan biridir. Hidroelektrik enerji

    projelerinin gelitirilmesi birok disiplinde uzmanlk gerektirir. CanmetENERGY

    tarafndan gelitirilen RETScreen yazlm planlamaclara ve karar vericilere n

    fizibilite ve fizibilite aamalarnda yenilenebilir enerji projelerinin

    yaplabilirliklerinin deerlendirilmesinde yardmc olmaktadr. Bu alma,

    Trkiyede halihazrda inaat aamasnda olan Niksar HESin alternatif

    formlasyonlarnn fizibilitelerinin deerlendirilmesinde RETScreenin kullanmna

    bir rnektir. alternatif formlasyon retilmi ve bunlarn ekonomik

    performanslar deerlendirilip karlatrlmtr. nce optimum dizayn debileri

    hesaplanm, sonra deiik elektrik fiyatlar iin bu alternatiflerin ekonomik

    analizleri yaplmtr. Bu alma hidroelektrik enerji ve onun ekonomik, sosyal ve

  • vii

    evresel etkileri zerine detayl bir literatr almas sunmakta ve Niksar HESin

    alternatif formlasyonlarnn ekonomik fizibilitelerinin incelenmesinde

    RETScreenin nasl kullanlabileceini anlatmaktadr.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Hidroelektrik Enerji, Fizibilite, RETScreen

  • viii

    DEDICATION

    To My Family

  • ix

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The author wishes to express his deepest appreciation to his supervisor Assist. Prof.

    Dr. Elin Kentel for her direction, assistance and guidance. Without her invaluable

    suggestions and persistent help this thesis would not have been possible.

    The author would also like to thank his co-supervisor Prof. Dr. Doan Altnbilek for

    suggesting this study, providing the data and sharing his precious experience and

    knowledge.

    The author wishes to express his deepest gratitude to Reat Kymen and Nadi Bakr

    from ERE Group for their encouragement and financial support.

    The author is also very grateful to TBTAK for granting a scholarship during this

    study.

    Special thanks should be given to Boran Ekin Aydn and Arzu Soytekin for their help

    and sincere support.

    Finally, words alone cannot express the thanks the author owes to his family and his

    fiance, Glay Kl, for their endless love and assistance.

  • x

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ iv

    Z ............................................................................................................................. vi

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................................................................... ix

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................. x

    LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................... xii

    LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................. xiv

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................... xvi

    CHAPTERS

    1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1

    2. LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................... 5

    2.1 Hydropower ................................................................................................... 5

    2.1.1 Definition of Hydropower ...................................................................... 5

    2.1.2 History of Hydropower .......................................................................... 7

    2.1.3 Types of Hydropower Plants .................................................................. 8

    2.1.4 Hydropower Potential .......................................................................... 14

    2.1.5 Hydropower in the World .................................................................... 15

    2.1.6 Hydropower in Turkey ......................................................................... 17

    2.1.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower .................................. 25

    2.1.8 Planning and Implementation of Hydropower Projects ....................... 36

    2.1.9 Sustainable Development of Hydropower ........................................... 41

  • xi

    2.2 RETScreen Clean Energy Analysis Software ............................................. 44

    2.2.1 Assessment Tools for Small Hydropower Projects .............................. 44

    2.2.2 RETScreen Clean Energy Project Analysis Software .......................... 45

    3. A CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY: NiKSAR HEPP ...................................... 50

    3.1 Lower Kelkit Project Master Plan Report ................................................... 50

    3.2 Niksar HEPP ................................................................................................ 53

    3.