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Cognitive theoryFacilitating Human learningGESTALT PSYCHOLOGYGame Show


Janet BadillaMarjorie Llanes

3Team A:

Jasmine AciertoMark AraoGeraldine Cantos

Team B:

Niselyn DinglasanJearly MendozaJezel Sinohin



The two competing teams should be able to group or classify the words accordingly. The team who will finish the game first will get 30 pts.Do you know that Cognitive Theory is influenced by Gestalt Movement and later by Swiss Psychologist: Jean Piaget and Russian Psychologist: Lev Vygotsky? American cognitive theorists such as Tolman, Bruner, and Information Processing theorist have integrated European influences yet have maintained their own distinction in cognitive theory. Gestalt theory was developed by three psychologists: Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Koffka. According to Gestalists, behavior can't be understood in terms of its molecular parts because "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts." The word gestalt is of German origin which means "pattern," "shape," or "form."

10Jean Piaget popularized the cognitive development? Best known for his research on children's cognitive development. He studied the intellectual development of his own three children. Piaget's theory of cognitive development described stages that children pass through in the development of intelligence and formal thought processes. According to him, the changes in behavior that occur during development are the results of changes in one's ability to reason about the world around him or her.

Five laws that govern perception generated by Gestalt Theory

Law of ClosureLaw of SimilarityLaw of ProximityLaw of Pragnanz

Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor stagePreoperational StageFormal Operational Stage Concrete-operational Stage

15The STM Techniques

RepetitionChunkingIdentifying Logical patterns

The LTM Techniques


Barriers to Effective Memory

Repression and distortionRetroactive inhibitionPrimary and regency effects

The Seven Sins of Memory



The two competing teams should be able to identify the figures presented. Each member will be given 30 seconds to answer the question. The other team may steal if it is not answered on the given time. Each correct answer is equivalent to 20 pts.

Do you know that information-processing approach is another important theory? There are two theoretical ideas considered fundamental to cognitive psychology and the information processing framework. The first concept is "chunking" and the capacity of short-term memory. A chunk is any meaningful unit of information. It is any digit, word, chess positions, or students' faces. The idea is that the short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two). The second concept is about the test-operate-test-exit (TOTE). The TOTE should replace the stimulus-response as the fundamental unit of behavior. In this concept, certain goal is tested to the goal. According to Piaget, all biological systems share specific characteristics and functions that are performed throughout the lifespan. Piaget called these functional invariants which constrain and encourage all types of development. He identified these as organization and adaptationFigure 1. We perceive smooth continuities rather than abrupt changes.

29Law of ContinuityFigure 2. Incomplete figures are perceived as complete

Law of ClosureFigure 3. Similar objects are grouped together

Law of SimilarityFigure 5. Extremes are virtually remembered.

Law of PragnanzFigure 6. The child has the tendency to equate height with volume CONSERVATIONDIFFICULT ROUNDWORD POWER

The two competing teams should be able to arrange the jumbled words accordingly. The jumbled words will be shown on the screen. Answers will be written on the board. The first team who will finish the game will get 50 pts.Do you know that there are strategies offered to help students retrieve and remember information?Whole and part learning. The whole and part learning accounts for introducing the material as a whole unit.Repetition and drills. We often use relevant materials for practice, repetition, and drills.Overlearning and automaticity. Once the material or information is repeated with a purpose, it can lead to automaticity.Distributed practice. We need to learn things little by little and those that come in chunks. Practice can be done into relatively long and uninterrupted periods called massed practice. On the other hand, it can be spread over time which is known as distributed price.

First Set:

Arrange the jumbled words based on the given description.

N E O Q I U T L A I R B IThis is responsible for reducing cognitive conflicts in order to create a balanced cognitive state. This is made possible through the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation. Equilibration

E S M C E HThe knowledge structure responsible for our ability to reason and adapt to the environment.scheme

N A O D I A T P A T It refers to our attempt to create an accurate view of the world around us. It means adjustment to the demands of the environment which occurs in two basic and complementary processes: assimilation and accommodationadaptation

S A O N I S T I A M L I This is the process of fitting new information into existing schemes. 49assimilation

T A O C I C N O A M D M OThis is a process of modifying our schemes in order to interact with the world around us. 51accommodation

M U S T I R L S A C R T U In the field of life, there exist totalities (structures) distinct from their parts and improving on their own organization53structuralism

Second Set:

Choose from the lists below to identify the words being described.Choose from the lists below to identify the words being described.

Deferred imitationLong-term Memory System (LTM)genetic epistemologyShort-term Memory System (STM) Knowledge of objectshorizontal decalageKnowledge of causationCentrationKnowledge of spaceEgocentricityKnowledge of timeMental imagery