Facilitating E-learning

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Facilitating E-learning. Chad Bates & Tony DePietro EP 524 Fall 2009. Agenda. Introduction History Advantages & Disadvantages Facilitating E-Learning: Guidelines & Mannerisms Synchronous & Asynchronous Research Study. Introduction. There are many definitions of E-Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Facilitating E-learning

History of Electronic Learning There are many definitions of E-Learning
E-learning refers to any type of learning situation when instructional content is delivered electronically via the internet when and where people need it (Zhang and Nunamaker, 2003).
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Introduction
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History
1980- Microcomputer instruction (CBI/CBT) flourished in this decade with the emphasis on design for interactivity and learner control.
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History
1990 - Focus on designing learning environments based on a constructivist approach to learning and multimedia development. Hypertext and hypermedia influence the field and cross-cultural issues are bridged using the Internet. In the 1990s, interactive learning via computer-based training (CBT), use of touch screens and interactive videodisks increased with the availability of home computers and more reliance on technology in the workplace.
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History
2001 MIT announced its commitment to make materials from virtually all of it courses freely on the web (Zhang, Zhao, Lina Zhou, Nunamker, 2003).
2002 enrollment in the baccalaureate and graduate programs at the University of Phoenix Online reached 50,000 a increase of 70% (Zhang, Zhao, Lina Zhou, Nunamker, 2003).
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Advantages
Class work can be scheduled around personal and professional work
Reduces travel cost and time to and from school
Learners may have the option to select learning materials that meets their level of knowledge and interest
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Advantages
Learners can study wherever they have access to a computer and Internet
Flexibility to join discussions in the bulletin board threaded discussion areas at any hour, or visit with classmates and instructors remotely in chat rooms
Different learning styles are addressed and facilitation of learning occurs through varied activities
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Advantages
Development of computer and Internet skills that are transferable to other facets of learner's lives
Successfully completing online or computer-based courses builds self-knowledge and self-confidence and encourages students to take responsibility for their learning
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Advantages
Improved performance: A 12-year meta-analysis of research by the U.S. Department of Education found that higher education students in online learning generally performed better than those in face-to-face courses.
Increased access: Instructors of the highest caliber can share their knowledge across borders, allowing students to attend courses across physical, political, and economic boundaries. Recognized experts have the opportunity of making information available internationally, to anyone interested at minimum costs. For example, the MIT OpenCourseWare program has made substantial portions of that university's curriculum and lectures available for free online.
Convenience and flexibility to learners: in many contexts, eLearning is self-paced and the learning sessions are available 24x7. Learners are not bound to a specific day/time to physically attend classes. They can also pause learning sessions at their convenience.
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Disadvantages
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Disadvantages
Student Participation
Some students are intimidated by the permanence of contributions as opposed to easily forgotten classroom comments.
Not comfortable having their comments exposed for all to see and criticize
Fear of having to sound intelligent
Fear of being impolite
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Disadvantages
Unmotivated learners or those with poor study habits may fall behind
Lack of familiar structure and routine may take getting used to
Students may feel isolated or miss social interaction
Instructor may not always be available on demand
Slow or unreliable Internet connections can be frustrating
Managing learning software can involve a learning curve
Some courses such as traditional hands-on courses can be difficult to simulate
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Online Facilitation is broadly defined as, “the act of managing the learners and the learning through an online medium” (according to Backroad Connections Pty Ltd, 2002).
“ Facilitation can also refer to the meaning ‘the communication of others online’.” (according to Backroad Connections Pty Ltd, 2002).
“Facilitation when used as a pedagogical term, ‘applies to student-centered approaches to teaching as opposed to teacher-driven’.” (Kempe, 2001, as cited in Backroad Connections Pty Ltd, 2002).
Facilitating E-learning
Participants become independent and interdependent inquirers.
Responsibility is taken on by each group member for his / her own learning.
Discussion groups do not look at instructor for validation.
Facilitating E-learning NECESSARY MANNERISMS
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What type of qualities are important in an instructor who is facilitating an e-learning course?
C. Bates and T. DePietro
Facilitating E-learning NECESSARY MANNERISMS
The following mannerisms should be qualities which the online facilitator possesses:
Someone who can provide direction and support to learners.
Someone who pays attention and is responsive.
Someone who can allow participants to develop group cohesiveness, yet also knows the appropriate time to step in and transfer a conversation or provide encouragement.
C. Bates and T. DePietro
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Someone with a capacity for relationship building.
Someone who can progress normal conversations into deeper level engagements.
Facilitating E-learning NECESSARY MANNERISMS
Facilitating E-learning COURSE DEVELOPMENT
Motivation is key throughout the course development.
Ease of Communication: The “communication tool” needs to be easily visible inside the course section’s screen site at all times.
- This makes it possible for students to send e-mails to the professor throughout the course.
- Also ensure that graphics and sound can be sent through e-mail communication system.
Identify Types of Assistive Technology allowed & those prohibited at the beginning of the course.
C. Bates and T. DePietro
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES
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“ESTABLISH INFORMED EXPECTATIONS
how you would like them to interact with each other.
- Check “discussion area” at least 3 times per week, as well as “Help!” forum. If you are going to be gone for a few days, inform class of this information
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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- Establish group trust, rapport, & confidence in technical skills
- Respond to requests for assistance ASAP
ESTABLISH A HUMAN PRESENCE
- Introduce yourself to students in a unique way
- If / when appropriate weave in humor into “personalization”
- Before posting message read aloud to self – do messages sound like you? If not, make changes.
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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VISIBLE and PREDICTABLE RHYTHMS OF COMMUNICATION
- Develop a schedule – develop a “routine” so that you do not get behind on feedback to students
- Write a Mid-week and Friday post – by doing so students are aware mid-week of their “direction / progress.” At the end of the week, try to “connect” the work from the previous week, as well as “guide” them in the direction they need to go for the following week.”
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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- Keep messages short– keep focused on one topic
- Carefully craft your posts – Think about the following four items when composing your posts:
1. What are the learners’ ideas?
2. What do I think the group needs to pursue in more depth?
3. What behaviors do I want to model and / or encourage?
4. How do I think my readers will perceive the post?
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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GIVE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK
- Try writing messages, leaving room, and then coming back to re-read it, only this time imagining yourself as the recipient of the message.
- Also, try to think of the recipient as a “co-learner,” instead of trying to speak in the “teacher’s” voice. In other words, write with a first person voice (i.e., I wonder what would happen if …)
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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GIVE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK (con’t)
- Always look for something positive to say at the beginning of the message
- Instead of making corrections, keep a list of the problems and wait. See if other group members notice and address these problems in the course. If not, then write something in your mid-week post.
- Ask the participants, themselves, if there are any “areas of concern,” which they feel they need to address.
Facilitating E-learning GUIDELINES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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Ask Yourself, “WHAT DOES THE GROUP / INDIVIDUAL NEED TO MOVE FORWARD?”
- The facilitation of a group will change daily, depending on what is needed. There is not one correct “response.”
- Listed below are possible actions that can be taken as a facilitator:
Moderate
Guide
Prompt
Troubleshoot
Mediate
Summarize
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learning environment?
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Important to provide a safe environment for online activities and communications.
Reason students will not engage if they feel their security / privacy is being invaded.
Online environment has to be designed so that stages flow properly in learning stages.
Facilitating E-learning COURSE ENVIRONMENT (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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Online exercises using symbiotic computation
Environment also contains :
- Facilities for collecting extensive data on all aspects of students’ usage.
Facilitating E-learning COURSE ENVIRONMENT (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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Student-Student Interaction:
Keep discussion group sizes manageable. (sizes of four to five students is ideal)
Encourage students to answer each other’s questions, rather than having you answer their questions.
Also, encourage students to critique each other’s work.
Develop an area for personal interaction.
Facilitating E-learning COURSE ENVIRONMENT (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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According to Australian National Training Authority (2000), some of the greatest challenges when facilitating e-learning are:
“Blended Learning” – finding right mix of online and offline activities
Keeping tabs on individual students’ progress
Catering for different learning preferences & learner needs
Adopting “student-centered” approaches
Facilitating E-learning CHALLENGES
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the power and potential of the medium for self
and group learning
students online
messages
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and learn
learner’s use / experience to online learning
Facilitating E-learning EFFECTIVENESS
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Participants post in discussion forums regularly (appropriate to facilitator’s instructions)
The online community meets its members’ needs,
and participants express honest opinions
Facilitating E-learning EFFECTIVENESS (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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and even the facilitator is acceptable and
evident
community
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The two types of online learning that exist are “synchronous” and “asynchronous.”
-Asynchronous E-Learning is most often practiced by e-mail and discussion boards. This type of e-learning makes it possible for learners to download documents, files, etc., at any time they wish. The facilitators may also post lectures, instructions, videos, etc., and check these posts at any time they wish.
This type of e-learning is the more flexible type of learning because everyone does not have to be online at the same time to participate.
2 Types of Online Learning
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Assessment of Learner Satisfaction with Asynchronous Electronic Learning Systems
Electronic learning is one of the most significant recent developments in the information systems industry (Wang, 2003)
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-Synchronous E-Learning is often preferred in today’s e-learning community. Reasons why include:
Frustration is avoided when having to wait for an answer.
A more “social” atmosphere is provided.
Motivation is increased.
The “receiver’s” reaction is able to be monitored, where it cannot be when learning asynchronously.
Synchronous E-learning
Synchronous E-Learning
Synchronous E-Learning
Discussing less complex issues Getting acquainted with co-workers Planning tasks
Why?
Learners become committed and motivated because a quick response is expected.
How?
Use synchronous means such as videoconferencing, instant messaging and chat, and complement with face-to-face meetings.
Examples
Learners expected to work in groups may be advised to use instant messaging as support for getting to know each other, exchanging ideas, and planning tasks.
A facilitator who wants to present concepts from literature in a simplified way might give an online lecture by videoconferencing.
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- Yi-Shun Wang (2003)
What is E-Learning Satisfaction?
According to Giese and Gote’s e-learning satisfaction can be defined as
A summary affective response of varying intensity that follows asynchronous e-learning activities, and is stimulated by several focal aspects, such as content, user interface, learning community, customization, and learning performance (Wang, 2003).
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Hypotheses
A positive relationship exists between ELS score and the reuse intention of the e-learning systems
A negative relationship exists between ELS score and the extent of post-usage complaint behavior
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Content validity
Concurrent validity
Discriminant validity
Convergent validity
Nomological validity
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Facilitating E-learning REFERENCES
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Vehe, S. M. (1996). Research Directions in Cartography: Web Based Maps Versus Paper Maps. University of Nebraska at Omaha.
Wang, Yi-Shun. 2003. Assessment of Learner Satisfaction with Asynchronous Electronic Learning Systems. Information and Management, 41 75-86.
White, N. (2009). What do we mean by engagement online? [online facilitation]. Full Circle Associates?
Facilitating E-learning REFERENCES (con’t)
C. Bates and T. Depietro
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Williams, C. (2002). Learning On-line: A review of recent literature in a rapidly expanding field. Journal of Further & Higher Education, 26(3), 263-272. doi:10.1080/03098770220149620.
Zhang, D., Zhao, J., Zhou, L. & Numamaker, J. (2004). Can e-learning replace classroom learning? Communication of the ACM, 47(5), 75-78.
Facilitating E-learning REFERENCES (con’t)