Egypt: Gift of the Nile

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  • Egypt: Gift of the Nile

  • The Nile valley supplied abundant food to those who lived there, while the mountains and desert on either side provided them with security. Ancient Egypt developed and prospered on 750 navigable miles of a river that is 4000 miles in length. Where it empties into the Mediterranean, the Nile creates a fertile delta, known as Lower Egypt, where the Egyptian civilization first began. Upper Egypt is arid except for the narrow fertile land on either side of the river. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt is the gift of the Nile." By this he meant that the Nile determined Egypts economy, its form of government, and its culture.

  • In ancient Egypt, the Nile River served as the most important transportation route. Boats, much like these, were used to move people and cargo up and down it.

  • The Nile River at sunset. Amun-Re, the sun god, was one of ancient Egypt's most important gods.

  • Construction of this colonnade was started by Amenhotep III in the 13th century BC. Over 60 feet tall, the 14 sandstone columns are shaped like papyrus plants.

  • Egyptian Obelisk:

    The ancient Egyptians often placed obelisks carved from stone at the entrances to their temples.

  • Horus Statue at Edfu Temple:

    Horus was a falcon-headed sky god closely associated with every pharaoh.

  • Here we see tourists being helped up a pyramid in Egypt.

  • This picture was taken in the late 1890s.

  • Sphinx and pyramid built by the pharoah, Khafre: The pharaoh Khafre had this sphinx carved to guard the way to his pyramid over 4,500 years ago.

  • Step Pyramid from a distance: Built almost 5,000 years ago as the burial place for king Zoser (Djoser) of the Old Kingdom, the Step Pyramid is the oldest stone memorial building known.

  • Great Pyramid at Giza:When first built, the pyramids had flat polished sides of white limestone. Over the years, almost all of the siding was removed for use as building material in Cairo

  • The Sphinx of Memphis, also known as the "Alabaster Sphinx" because is made of calcite, is 26 feet long and 3,500 years old.

  • Akhenaten Changes Egyptian Art

  • Scarab beetles symbolized the sun god Khepri, who ancient Egyptians believed pushed the sun across the sky.

  • Hieroglyph in the form of an owl:This hieroglyph stands for the sound made by the letter M. It was carved into an Egyptian tomb wall about 2500 BC.

  • Slavery was a reality of life for a large part of ancient Egypt's population. Even common people who were nominally free could be conscripted by the king for construction projects during the annual floods, when agricultural work could not be performed. These slaves are being punished for misdeeds. A relief in the mastaba of Governor Ti at Saqqara.

  • An ancient Egyptian wall painting depicting the conquest of Egypt in predynastic times. Around 3100 B.C. King Menes united the regions of Upper and Lower Egypt into a single state. From that time to the present, the Nile valley civilization has largely remained under centralized administrative rule. In this painting the people in the black boat, its prow situated at right, represent the intruders.

  • Ancient Egyptian medical instruments. Among these instruments are knives, pincers, scissors, spoons, a saw, various bowls, and a balance. The ancient Egyptians were very knowledgeable about the functions and structure of the human body. This relief is from the temple at Kom Ombo, Egypt.

  • Ancient Egyptians regarded bees as important because of the honey they produced. According to an Egyptian myth, bees were created when the sun-god Re wept. His tears fell to earth as bees. The bee was used as a symbol of lower Egypt.

  • Hieroglyphs in the form of an ibis:Hieroglyphs are the earliest known writing system. This one was carved into an Egyptian tomb wall about 2500 BC.

  • Hieroglyphs: the sun-disk and a bird. The round disk represents the Sun "Re" (or Ra) and the bird signifies "Son of." The ancient Egyptians believed that their kings were literally sons of Re, the sun god. This carving is from a granite column in the Hall of Annals of Thutmose III at Karnak, Egypt.

  • Ibis were thought of as sacred birds in ancient Egypt.

  • http://www.unitedstreamingVideo clip on Papyrus:

    Paper, Writing, and Numbers

  • Papyrus is a reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians used it to make everything from boats and sandals to baskets and writing material.

  • Papyrus plants growing in a channel of the Nile Delta in Egypt. Papyrus (cyperus papyrus,) a member of the sedge family, was important in the daily life of ancient Egypt. The roots were used as fuel and the pith was eaten. Other uses of the papyrus plant included sandals, boats, rope, mats, cloth, and most notably a paper-like writing material.

  • This picture shows the minaret, or prayer tower, of a mosque in Cairo, Egypt.

  • Anubis: The Jackal Headed GodHe was the guide of the dead as they made their way through the darkness of the underworld. As a patron of magic, it was believed he could foresee a persons destiny, in this role he was the announcer of death.

  • Osiris At first the God of corn; later the God of the dead. Osiris brought civilization to the Egyptians, teaching them the uses of corn and wine, weaving, sculpture, religion, music and law.

  • This market in Cairo, Egypt, was started over 700 years ago.

  • Small towns such as this one are common in Egypt.

  • Fruit stands are a standard feature of Egypt's food markets.

  • Camels are still an important means of transportation in many parts of the world.

  • Great Pyramid at Giza:When first built, the pyramids had flat polished sides of white limestone. Over the years, almost all of the siding was removed for use as building material in Cairo

  • There are many topics you could study when thinking about the amazing culture of the Egyptians. Some of these include:Religion: Gods/Goddesses and Life After DeathPyramidsTradingAnimals in EgyptSahara DesertJewelry and ClothingFashion of the EgyptiansMedicineFood and drinkThe Social Class Ladder: Famous Pharaohs: Kings and QueensMummificationThe Roles of Men and WomenNubia

  • Read through our classroom books about Egypt and decide which three topics you are most interested in learning more about!