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2. Eriksons Theory Industry v. Inferiority If early childhood has been positive kids entermiddle childhood ready to turn their energies frommake believe to achieving realisticaccomplishments. Childrens drive coupled with expectations ofadults sets the stage for the Industry v.Inferiority struggle Struggle is resolved on the positive side whenexperiences lead children to develop competence atuseful skills and tasks. 3. Self Understanding Social Comparison-Children become more aware of theircompetencies and deficiencies, especially in relation to their peers Self Concept developed by social, cultural, and Cognitiveinfluences Influences blend, parental support is vital Children begin looking at themselves beyond the family and inthe context of social groups This is the age when self-esteem begins to decline 4. Self Esteem Hierarchy Academic Competence School work in various subjects Social Competence Relationship with peers Relationship with parents Physical Competence and Appearance Athletic abilities Physical Appearance*Note, separate self-esteems do not contribute equally togeneral self esteem* 5. Self Esteem Across age, race, sex, SES individuals w/high self esteemtend to be well adjusted, sociable and conscientious Low self-esteem can lead to anxiety, depression, andanti-social behavior To protect self-esteem children balance socialcomparisons and personal achievements and goals By fourth grade the majority experience rise in self-esteem as they discover their abilities. Berk speculates this is the reason declines in self-esteemduring the early school years are not usually harmful 6. Achievement Related Attributions Attributions: everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior(I rode my bike because I believe in myself) Master Oriented Attributions: Credit success to ability, whichcan be improved. Failure caused by insufficient effort. This leads toindustrious/persistent learning style. Learned Helplessness: Success is due to external factors like luck.Failure is caused be lack of ability which can not be improved on. Influences on Achievement- Incremental vs. Fixed View of Ability Attribution Retraining- intervention to encourage learned-helplessness children they can over come failure through effort(p.489) 7. Fostering Resilience in Middle ChildhoodResilienceis not a preexisting attribute but, rather, acapacity that develops through childhood experiences 8. PEER RELATIONS Peer Groups: Collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers. First Form in Middle Childhood Organize on the basis of similarity in:Gender EthnicityAcademic AchievementPopularity Aggression Proximity (being in the same class) Children who deviate from group codes of dress and behavior are often excluded. The customs of the group bind the kids together, creating a sense of group identity 9. FRIENDSHIPS One-on-one friendships provide children withinsight into larger social structures. Friendships become more complex andpsychologically based. TRUST is the defining feature in a friendship Children tend to select friends who are: similar inage, race, sex, ethnicity and SES. Similar personalitytraits:sociability, aggression, depression, hyperactivity, popularity, achievement and prosocial behavior. 10. PEER ACCEPTANCE Determinants of peer acceptance Popular-prosocial children are kind and considerate, theyperform well in school, solve social problems constructively &communicate with peers in sensitive, friendly, cooperativeways. Popular-antisocial children are admired for their belligerentbehavior. They may be considered tough kids, they causetrouble and defy adult authority. They are seen as cool. Helping Rejected Children Coaching, Modeling, Reinforcing Positive Social Skills Intensive academic tutoring improves school achievement Interventions with Parents 11. FAMILY INFLUENCES Parent Child Relationships Effective parents engage in coregulation exerting general oversightwhile letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decisionmaking. This depends on a cooperative relationship between parent andchild. Siblings Sibling rivalry tends to increase Parents compare their traits and accomplishments Siblings attempt to be different from one another Siblings who maintain warm bonds resolve disagreementsconstructively and provide one another with emotional support. Only Children Have higher self-esteem Do better in school Attain higher levels of education Form close, high-quality friendships, but are less well accepted in thepeer group 12. FAMILY INFLUENCES Gay and Lesbian Families Same level of commitment & effectiveness in child rearing asheterosexual families Children do not differ in adjustment or gender-rolepreferences Never-Married Single-Parent Families Generally increases economic hardship for low-SES mothers Children who lack a fathers warmth and involvement achieveless well in school and engage in more antisocial behavior thanchildren in low-SES, first marriage families 13. FAMILY INFLUENCES: Divorce All children experience painful emotional reactions duringa divorce Children with difficult temperaments & boys in mother-custody homes have more adjustment problems Best factor for positive adjustment following divorce:Effective Parenting. Contact with non-custodial parent isvery important and father custody is associated with betteroutcomes for sons. Divorce mediation can promote childrens adjustments 14. GENDER IDENTITY & BEHAVIOR Gender Typicality the degree to which a child feelssimilar to others of the same gender. Psychologicalwell-being depends, to a degree, on feeling that theyfit in with their same-sex peers. Gender Contentedness the degree to which a childfeels comfortable with his or her gender assignment. Felt Pressure to conform to gender roles the degreeto which a child feels parents and peer disapprove ofhis or her gender-related traits. 15. GENDER TYPING Achievement Areas Masculine: Science, Math, Athletics, Mechanical Skills Feminine: Reading, Spelling, Art & Music Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004 Study Mothers had early perceptions of their childrens competencein math These continued to predict daughters self-perceptions andeven career choices into their mid-twenties. Young women whose mothers regarded them as highly capableat math were far more likely to choose a physical science career 16. Thank You