Click here to load reader

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)


PowerPoint PresentationWhat was designed …
“Chloramines can build up in the water, which means they can build up in the air if there is not enough fresh air surrounding pools and other places people swim in chlorinated water. This is particularly true for indoor aquatic facilities where air handling systems are not bringing in enough fresh air and exhausting enough chloramine-polluted air, which is common during winter months when heating costs increase. Chloramines that off gas from the water are heavier than air. This means they settle on top of the water’s surface where they can cause negative health effects in swimmers and spectators.” — The Centers for Disease Control “
WHAT IS AT STAKE? • Chloramine-polluted air is acidic and corrodes stainless and carbon steel.
• Structural Deterioration
• Chloramines are a known respiratory health hazard for swimmers, lifeguards, and other pool occupants.
Chloramines can fill an entire pool space but tend to concentrate directly above the pool water surface,
right where swimmers breathe.
• Enclosures with very high sensible loads (such as facilities with large amounts of glass in the enclosure)
can require more air changes to provide an acceptable supply air temperature. This is especially
important for occupants wearing wet bathing suits who could become chilled when out of the water.
• Managing Micro Environments
We know about water delivery..
ASHRAE 62.1-2016 recommends keeping pool spaces at a negative pressure of 0.05 to 0.15 inches of water relative to the outdoors and adjacent areas of the building to keep humidity, chemicals, and odors confined to the pool space.
Dew Points Space heating Air conditioning Pool water heating Ventilation Air quality Delivery rates Equipment room Ducting & Airflow Duct materials & Sizing Air volumes and velocities Air distribution
Efficient Air Distribution
Some of the biggest challenges we see in air distribution is the mechanical distribution requirements and the architectural supply placement or glazing impacts. New technology in ducting allows more flexible solutions, however balancing may be more at risk with higher elevation natatoriums
Aluminum high air flow ‘punkah’ nozzles can achieve focused locations, but some may consider that these create guest discomfort when standing on the deck in bathing suit.
Fabric or textile ducting
Ducting typically is galvanized or in some cases Stainless Steel.
Ducting failure in the high humidity of a natatorium is not that uncommon.
The design should not have a Return Air plenum into pool HVAC from pool
natatorium. This delivers chloramines back into
• Air movement over pool surfaces required , but its expensive to heat
• In the past, HVAC designers limited air movement over pool surfaces
to reduce pool water evaporation and the corresponding costs of
heating and adding chemicals to pool water.
• Return air grilles were only placed high in the space, away from the
water. This practice resulted in poor removal of chloramines, supply
air short-circuiting, and an unhealthy space with a shortened useful
• Since 1999, ASHRAE has recommended directing a portion of the
supply air across the pool surface to displace and direct chloramines
to a lower level return/ exhaust point
• Considerations for using a plenum pre-heat
approach for air reclamation will need to be
designed at progress drawing stages. Humidity
may create havoc with blending air.
ASHRAE Standard 62.1 prescribes an amount of
outdoor air that, according to the ASHRAE
Applications Handbook section on natatoriums, is
intended to provide acceptable air quality for an
average pool using chlorine as the primary
(minimum amount of outdoor air) is 0.48 cfm/ft2 for
swimming pool and deck areas.
The breathing zone is the area between 3" and 72"
(7.6–183 cm) above the floor.
Source Capture. - Capture at the water level
Source capture, a system that has multiple exhaust points in the water level pool gutter that are manifolded into one exhaust duct.
Air movement during unoccupied operation may be reduced if a pool cover is used to eliminate the transfer of chloramines to the air and if an owner is vigilant in monitoring the effectiveness of reduced airflow with regard to corrosion, condensation, and stratification. Note that most owners find pool covers inconvenient to use and partially ineffective for nonstandard-shaped pools; and there also can be a surge of chloramines into the air when a pool cover is removed.
Could I just cover the pool??
When do I call for assistance? Who can I call ? Am I crossing the line?
ASHRAE is a regulatory body that has standards required for enclosed aquatic facilities.
Easy indicators to watch for when determining IAQ challenges.
- Humidity on walls and windows. - hot and humid ..more than normal - combined chlorines seem to be worse in the morning - guards prop doors open regularly into lobby or outside -No movement of sound baffles or flagging -Failure of HPC’s or repeated testing requested
Time to ask Questions : Ask for nominal operating conditions
1) Pool water temp. 2) Room air conditions 3) Condensation occurrence on walls or windows 4) Oxidizer addition frequency if not automated
*type of oxidizer may also add to complications: - check active ingredient.
- Non chlorinated shock - Cal Hypo shock - Lithium Hypo Shock
Wildfire Smoke and the California Air Resource Board. (CARB) - Quick Facts:
- Smoke composition is a complex mixture of carbon dioxide, water, vapour, Carbon Monoxide, Particulate matter , hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals.
- Particles as large as 10 micrometers can irritate the eyes , nose and throat. - Fine particle smoke (2.5 Micrometers and less) can be inhaled into the deepest
recesses of the lung and may represent a greater health concern than larger particles.
Sensitive Populations
Children Pregnant Women Seniors Asthmatic and other respiratory diseases Individuals with Cardio Vascular disease
Higher efficiency filters MERV 8 or Higher are preferred as they can capture more of the fine particles associated with smoke and can further reduce the amount of outside air pollution that gets indoors. However, caution must be taken to ensure that the central system is able to handle the increased airflow resistance from a higher efficiency filter.
Filters need to be replaced regularly, and should fit the filter slot snugly. If a filter upgrade has been performed
Visual Range and actions to take to reduce smoke exposure when wildfire smoke is in the air
Thank you