# Digital Imaging with Charge-coupled devices (CCDs)

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31-Dec-2015Category

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### Transcript of Digital Imaging with Charge-coupled devices (CCDs)

Digital Imaging with Charge-coupled devices (CCDs)

Capacitor

CapacitorQ = CV

ExampleThe capacitance of two parallel plates is 4.5pF. Calculate the charge on one plate when a voltage of 8.0 V is applied to the plates.

ExampleThe capacitance of two parallel plates is 4.5pF. Calculate the charge on one plate when a voltage of 8.0 V is applied to the plates.

Q = CV = 4.5 x 10-12 x 8.0 = 3.6 x 10-11 C = 36 pC

Charged-coupled device (CCD)

Charged-coupled device (CCD)Silicon chip varying from 20 mm x 20 mm to 60 mm x 60 mm.Surface covered in pixels (picture elements) varying from 5 x 10-6 m to 25 x 10-6 m.

Charged-coupled device (CCD)Each pixel releases electrons (by the photoelectric effect) when light is incident on it.We may think of each pixel like a small capacitor.

Charged-coupled device (CCD)The electrons released in each pixel constitute a certain amount of charge Q, and so a potential difference V develops at the ends of the pixel (V = Q/C)

Charged-coupled device (CCD)The number of electrons released, and the voltage created across the pixel is proportional to the intensity of light.

Charge-coupled device (CCD)The charges on each row of pixels is pushed down to the next row until they reach the bottom row (the register)

Charge-coupled device (CCD)The charges are the moved horizontally, where the voltage is amplified, measured, and and passed to a digital converter.

Charge-coupled device (CCD)The computer processing this information now knows the position and voltage on each pixel.The light intensity is proportional to the voltage so a digital (black and white image) is now stored.

Charge-coupled device (CCD)To store a colored image, the pixels are arranged in groups of four, with 2 green filters, a red and a blue.

CCD uses - Telescopes

CCD uses Digital Cameras

CCD uses Endoscopes

Quantum efficiencyThe ratio of the number of emitted electrons to the number of incident photons.About 70% for a CCD (4% for photographic film and 1% for the human eye.

ExampleThe area of a pixel on a CCD is 8.0 x 10-10 m2 and its capacitance is 38 pF. Light of intensity 2.1 x 10-3 W.m-2 and wavelength 4.8 x 10-7 m is incident on the collecting area of the CCD for 120 ms. Calculate the p.d. across the pixel, assuming that 70% of the incident photons cause the emission of an electron.

ExampleThe area of a pixel on a CCD is 8.0 x 10-10 m2 and its capacitance is 38 pF. Light of intensity 2.1 x 10-3 W.m-2 and wavelength 4.8 x 10-7 m is incident on the collecting area of the CCD for 120 ms. Calculate the p.d. across the pixel, assuming that 70% of the incident photons cause the emission of an electron.

The energy incident on a pixel = 2.1 x 10-3 x 8.0 x 10-10 x 120 x 10-3 = 2.0 x 10-13 J

ExampleThe area of a pixel on a CCD is 8.0 x 10-10 m2 and its capacitance is 38 pF. Light of intensity 2.1 x 10-3 W.m-2 and wavelength 4.8 x 10-7 m is incident on the collecting area of the CCD for 120 ms. Calculate the p.d. across the pixel, assuming that 70% of the incident photons cause the emission of an electron.

The energy incident on a pixel = 2.1 x 10-3 x 8.0 x 10-10 x 120 x 10-3 = 2.0 x 10-13 J

The energy of one photon = hf = hc/ = (6.63 x 10-34 x 3.0 x 108)/4.8 x 10-7 = 4.1 x 10-19 J

The energy incident on a pixel = 2.0 x 10-13 J

The energy of one photon = 4.1 x 10-19 J

The number of incident photons is then = 2.0 x 10-13 / 4.1 x 10-19 = 4.9 x 105

The number of incident photons is then = 2.0 x 10-13 / 4.1 x 10-19 = 4.9 x 105

The number of absorbed photons is therefore= 0.70 x 4.9 x 105 = 3.4 x 105

The number of absorbed photons is therefore= 0.70 x 4.9 x 105 = 3.4 x 105

The charge corresponding to this number of electrons is 3.4 x 105 x 1.6 x 10-19 = 5.4 x 10-14 C

ExampleThe area of a pixel on a CCD is 8.0 x 10-10 m2 and its capacitance is 38 pF. Light of intensity 2.1 x 10-3 W.m-2 and wavelength 4.8 x 10-7 m is incident on the collecting area of the CCD for 120 ms. Calculate the p.d. across the pixel, assuming that 70% of the incident photons cause the emission of an electron.The charge corresponding to this number of electrons is 3.4 x 105 x 1.6 x 10-19 = 5.4 x 10-14 C

The p.d. is thus V = Q/C = 5.4 x 10-14/38 x 10-12 = 1.4 mV

ResolutionTwo points are resolved if their images are more than two pixel lengths apart.

Finished!