Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

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Development is index of our pursuit for comfort and for practical implications it has become index of sellable comfort in modern times and thus challenging sustainability. 'Evolution of Planning Perspectives' is a listing of important historical Planning Concepts, Theories and Models to current need of Sustainable Development.

Transcript of Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

  • Vinay Prakash Shrivastava 1 Evolution of Planning Perspectives presentation structured on notes of Dr. Alka Bharat
  • 1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives 2. Layout Drawings & Concepts 3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future
  • 3 17TH CENTURY Mercantilism was the economic philosophy adopted by merchants and statesmen during the 16th and 17th centuries. Mercantilists believed that a nation's wealth came primarily from the accumulation of gold and silver. Nations without mines could obtain gold and silver only by selling more goods than they bought from abroad. Accordingly, the leaders of those nations intervened extensively in the market, imposing tariffs on foreign goods to restrict import trade, and granting subsidies to improve export prospects for domestic goods. Mercantilism represented the elevation of commercial interests to the level of national policy. System Improving Mercantilism ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 4 1682 Grid system & neighborhood parks Pre-Modern Planning: Focus on Urban Design and Street System System Improving Philadelphia plan William Penn Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 5 1695 Radiocentric Pre-Modern Planning: Focus on Urban Design and Street System System Improving Annapolis plan Francis Nicholson Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 6 EARLY 18TH CENTURY A group of 18th century French philosophers, developed the idea of the economy as a circular flow of income and output. They opposed the Mercantilist policy of promoting trade at the expense of agriculture because they believed that agriculture was the sole source of wealth in an economy. As a reaction against the Mercantilists' copious trade regulations, the Physiocrats advocated a policy of laissez- faire, which called for minimal government interference in the economy. System Improving Physiocrats ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 7 LATE 18TH CENTURY Began with the publication in 1776 of Adam Smith's monumental work, The Wealth of Nations. The book identified land, labor, and capital as the three factors of production and the major contributors to a nation's wealth. In Smith's view, the ideal economy is a self-regulating market system that automatically satisfies the economic needs of the populace. He described the market mechanism as an "invisible hand" that leads all individuals, in pursuit of their own self-interests, to produce the greatest benefit for society as a whole. Smith incorporated some of the Physiocrats' ideas, including laissez- faire, into his own economic theories, but rejected the idea that only agriculture was productive. System Improving The Classical School ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 8 LATE 18TH CENTURY Marginalist economists emphasized that prices also depend upon the level of demand, which in turn depends upon the amount of consumer satisfaction provided by individual goods and services. AS AGAINST Classical economists theorized that prices are determined by the costs of production. System Improving Marginalist ECONOMICS Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 9 1733 Ward park system System Improving Savannah Oglethorpe Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 10 1790 Grand, whole city plan System Improving Washington Pierre LEnfant Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 11 1798 The link between population growth and resources. Exponantial growth model. WEIRD IN CONTEXT TO MODERN WORLD BUT DESIGN BASIS FOR STATISTICAL DOCUMENTATION AND REINFORCEMENT OF OBSERVATIONS FOR ANALYSIS IN SOCIOLOGY based on the demographical structure,Thomas Robert Malthus used the idea of diminishing returns to explain low living standards. Population, he argued, tended to increase geometrically, outstripping the production of food, which increased arithmetically Critical theory DEMOGRAPHY Malthus, T. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 12 1826 AGRICULTURE PRODUCE German landowner in 1800s All that matters is transport costs~ stress the distance from the market & the transport cost Near to the market (transport cost) Far away from the market (transport cost) Near to the market (the intensity) ~ There is a negative relationship between the distance from the market & the intensity SPECIFIC TO AGRI BUT WEIRD IN MODERN DAY IN LIGHT OF TRANSPORTATION. VALUABLE FOR REALISATION OF COST OF LAND WRT DIST FROM CENTER Critical theory Model of rural land use. von Thnen, H. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 13 1852-1870 Model for City Beautiful Critical theory Paris Napoleon III; Haussmann Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 14 mid-19th century The Marxist School challenged the foundations of Classical theory. Writing during the mid- 19th century, Karl Marx saw capitalism as an evolutionary phase in economic development. He believed that capitalism would ultimately destroy itself and be succeeded by a world without private property. Social theory The Marxist School Marx Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 15 1856 First major parkland System Improving Central Park F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 16 1867 First modern land-use zoning in US (forbad slaughterhouses in geographic districts) New Urban Forms Social mobilization San Francisco Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 17 1869 Model curved street suburb New Urban Forms Critical theory Riverside, IL F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 18 1876 US Supreme Court upholds regulation of private enterprise New Urban Forms Critical System Improving Munn v Illinois F L Olmsted Sr Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 19 1880 Model industrial town George Pullman Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 20 1885 Laws of migration. Ravenstein, E. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 21 1892 First federal action on city problems New Urban Norms Response to the Emerging Industrial City: The Public Health Movement System Improving US federal study of slums Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 22 1867/1879 First major tenement house controls New Urban Forms System Improving New York City Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 23 1870 -Need for more systematic and forward-thinking action New Urban Forms System Improving Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 24 1888 Promotes city and national planning The Rise of a Social Conscience System Improving Looking Backwards Edward Bellamy Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 25 1890 Focuses on slums and poverty The Rise of a Social Conscience System Improving How the Other Half Lives and Children of the Poor Jacob Riis Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 26 Burnham, Olmsted Sr, Columbian Exposition City Beautiful Movement Social mobilization The White City 1893 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 27 Ebenezar Howard anti-urban, agrarian Garden City Movement Critical theory Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform 1898 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 28 Institutionalist economists Institutionalist economists regard individual economic behavior as part of a larger social pattern influenced by current ways of living and modes of thought. They rejected the narrow Classical view that people are primarily motivated by economic self-interest. Opposing the laissez-faire attitude towards government's role in the economy, the Institutionalists called for government controls and social reform to bring about a more equal distribution of income. Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 29 Letchworth Welwyn introduces superblock Garden City Movement Social mobilization Two garden city projects 1903-1920 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 30 Burnhan & Olmsted Jr Columbian Exposition Update of LEnfants Plan System Improving McMillan Plan for Washington DC 1902 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 31 Daniel Burnham First major application of City Beautiful in US Social mobilization San Francisco Plan 1906 Evolution of Planning Perspectives
  • 32 Edward Bennett & Daniel Burnham First metro regional plan