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  • VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for the American Counseling Association by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 500 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to present.

    VISTAS articles and ACA Digests are located in the ACA Online Library. To access the ACA Online Library, go to http://www.counseling.org/ and scroll down to the LIBRARY tab on the left of the homepage.

    n Under the Start Your Search Now box, you may search by author, title and key words.

    n The ACA Online Library is a member’s only benefit. You can join today via the web: counseling.org and via the phone: 800-347-6647 x222.

    Vistas™ is commissioned by and is property of the American Counseling Association, 5999 Stevenson Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22304. No part of Vistas™ may be reproduced without express permission of the American Counseling Association. All rights reserved.

    Join ACA at: http://www.counseling.org/

    VISTAS Online

  • College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    VISTAS 2006 Online

    College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    Isabel Ma. Borrás Marín, Ed. D. Doctorate in Guidance and Counseling

    Professional Counseling Integral Institute for the Development of

    Individual, Family, and Community Personal, Family, Educational, Occupational and College Counseling

    cielomar4@yahoo.com

    “What a man can be, he should be.” Abraham Maslow, 1954

    This quote is the essence that guided my work as a high school college counselor for fifteen years of my life. Throughout these years, I also helped many students from other high schools who asked for my help for a multitude of reasons. This was the reason that prompted me to choose the

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    file:///C|/counseling%20outfitters/vistas/vistas_2006_Title.htm mailto:cielomar4@yahoo.com

  • College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    topic for my doctoral dissertation, a research on the college counseling services available in public and private high schools in Puerto Rico.

    High school college counseling is a multi-dimensional form of counseling which encompasses personal, academic and occupational counseling. One of the most important tasks for a high school student is to establish realistic goals after high school graduation. Moser (1963) indicates that each person should receive help in selecting an occupation as well as prepare him/herself adequately. The selection should be satisfying and also an opportunity to optimize their inborn talents. High school college counseling should be provided in an organized and encompassing manner. An essential aspect of these services is assisting students in knowing their personal strengths and weaknesses, providing information on their post secondary options, aiding the student in the analysis of this information and helping the student in the college admission counseling process.

    Cáceres (1976) defines educational and occupational planning as one of the counselors responsibilities. This entails counseling the students and their parents on the relationship that exists between the students’ occupational interests and aptitudes with available and realistic educational and occupational options. Once the students make an occupational decision, the research process begins taking into account their academic qualifications such as their grade point average, high school course selection, standardized test scores, financial need, location and size of the post secondary institutions as well as other personal preferences of the student and family.

    Placing a student in an adequate educational institution is the key for

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  • College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    academic and social adaptation and success. This statement agrees with Donald Super (1990) and his Theory of Occupational Development which emphasizes the importance of achieving congruence between occupational expectations and self concept. Self concept encompasses self knowledge of our abilities and skills, likes and dislikes, as well as our weaknesses and conflicts. Once the individual finds its place in society he can effectively contribute to his community. Occupationally, the right fit will result in better performance which will bring material and emotional satisfaction.

    What to do after high school graduation? If the decision is to continue college studies, will the student work? What and where will I continue my studies? The student faces one of the most important decisions in life, a decision that although not set in stone, will require careful analysis while dealing with peer and family pressures. Feeling that a stage in his life is being completed after 12 years of compulsory education, the student has to deal with the onset of a crucial stage in his life that will determine his future. Facing a new independence in a totally new environment with a completely different structure, the student must apply knowledge and skills learned throughout the previous 12 years of study as well as learn to manage time effectively. This is the beginning of an occupational life plan when the student must learn to balance time efficiently between work, classes, studies, family and friends.

    The Department of Education requires that high school counselors, amongst multiple tasks, provide students with the information needed for post –secondary planning as well as with occupational exploration and a variety of options after graduating from high school. Nowhere in the list of

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  • College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    tasks is college counseling mentioned. The absence of appropriate high school college counseling might eventually end up in poor placement of a student in an academic program, in an educational institution, lack of time management skills, poor adaptation skills to college life, a lack of occupational exploration and selection or a lack of financial aid to attend college.

    Hilton (1979) mentions that the ultimate component in a high school counseling system should be the follow up of graduates in college in order to be able to evaluate the consistency of plans before and after high school graduation. The analysis of this data will serve as valuable information for the counselor to evaluate the occupational and college counseling services offered at the high school.

    Research on college admission counseling has been scarce and limited to the United States dating decades ago. The findings of these investigations have little pertinence to needs of Puerto Rican students. This is one of the reasons that prompted me to conduct this investigation a year ago. This research is of a descriptive nature, designed to collect and analyze valid and reliable information provided by Puerto Rican university students on the college counseling services available in the high schools from where they graduated. This investigation identified the college admission counseling services available in public and private high schools in Puerto Rico.

    Significant differences were identified between the college counseling services offered in private and public high schools as well as between the descriptions of the students of the University of Puerto Rico (public) and

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  • College Counseling Services in High Schools in Puerto Rico: College Student Perspective

    those of the University of the Sacred Heart (private).

    Finally, it analyzed if the college admission counseling services available fulfill the standards established by the National for Association College Admission Counseling and by the American School Counselor Association. NACAC, with its main office in Alexandria, Virginia, establishes direct lines of communication between high school counselors and college admission personnel while protecting student rights. This association created the Statement of Principles of Good Practice, where its standards are clearly stated and continuously revised. There are five components in this document:

    1. admission promotion and recruitment 2. admission procedures 3. standardized college admission testing 4. financial aid 5. advanced standing students and the awarding of credit

    This document states that high school counselors should provide different post-secondary options, provide information of different colleges and universities, welcome college admission representatives, comply with the Buckley Amendment for privacy of records, and offer information on financial aid to students and families. They should also provide colleges and universities with official and accurate st