Climate, weather, & climate models

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Transcript of Climate, weather, & climate models

  • 1. Weather is the state of the atmosphere at agiven time and place. Weather is measured and described in avariety of ways by meteorologists, scientistswho study and predict weather. Airtemperature and air pressure, the amountand type of precipitation(hail, sleet, snow, rain, etc.) the strength anddirection of wind, and the types of clouds inthe sky (cirrus, stratus, cumulus, etc.)

2. Climate: The composite or generally prevailingweather conditions of a region averaged over aseries of years. 3. According to NASA, Weather is whatconditions of the atmosphere are over a shortperiod of time, and climate is how theatmosphere "behaves" over relatively longperiods of time. Weather is particular and fine-grained overshort time scales. Climate is general and broadly conceived overlonger time scales. 4. Climate models simulate the Earths, acontinents, or a regions climate usingfundamental understandings from the naturalsciences to generate predictions of theclimates behavior. 5. Physical laws (laws ofmotion, thermodynamics, etc.) Topography & surface features Distribution of land and water* Atmospheric contents** Temperatures Insolation Albedo*** Size of the planet Gravity Speed of its rotation 6. Model must predict the behavior of theclimate system. How? Venus Jupiter Predict the past. Make predictions about future climatebehavior. 7. How would you predict the past? 8. What happens if you change the ice albedoeffect? What happens if you move Earth farther fromthe sun? What happens if you change CO2? What if you change H2O concentration?