Weather & Climate --chapter 3--. I. Factors Affecting Climate ïµ Weather?...

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Transcript of Weather & Climate --chapter 3--. I. Factors Affecting Climate ïµ Weather?...

  • Weather & Climate--chapter 3--

  • I. Factors Affecting ClimateWeather?Climate?

  • What happens to the suns energy when it reaches Earth? Solar energy & Heat energy?

  • The Greenhouse Effect

  • Global WarmingCauses?

  • Air/Atmospheric PressureWhat happens when you climb in elevation? High vs. Low? Warm vs. Cold?

  • Air Pressure ZonesPurpose? What drives them?

  • Global Wind BeltsWind always flows from pressure to pressure. Global Energy Balance? Prevailing Winds?Doldrums?Westerlies?Front?Jet Streams?

  • Ocean CurrentsOceans affect climate?Global Energy Exchange?Warm vs. Cool currents?

  • II. Weather Factors Precipitation?Evaporation? Humidity?Condensation?

  • Elevation & Mountain EffectsTemp. drops 3.5 / 1,000 feet of elevation.Orographic Effect?

  • Land & Sea BreezesWind = HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE!

  • Storms

  • III. Climate & Vegetation PatternsFactors that affect climate:TemperaturePrecipitationElevationContinental or Maritime locationLatitude

  • Tropical Humid ClimateTemps. & Precip.? Why?65 to over 450 inches/year

  • Tropical Wet & Dry ClimateJust north & south of Trop. HumidDistinct rainy & dry seasonsMore seasonal changes than Trop. HumidSupports savannas: grasslands w/scattered trees & shrubsMonsoon influence

  • Tropical Wet and Dry Climate

  • Arid ClimateLatitude?Pressure Zone?Precip =
  • Semiarid Climate (Steppe)Transition zone betw. Arid & HumidShort grass vegetationTrees are rareonly found along river banksPoor farming practices & overgrazing turn some steppes into deserts

  • Mid-Latitude Climates (Temperate)1. Mediterranean ClimateBetween 30 - 40 North & South Western/Southern coastal areas of EuropeWest coast of continents w/cool currentsAvg. Winter temps = 50s

  • 2. Humid Subtropical ClimateEastern side of continents w/warm ocean currentsHot/humid summers w/mild wintersLarge temperate forests (deciduous & coniferous)

  • 3. Marine West Coast climateHeavily influenced by oceansFound on west coast of continents in upper middle latitudesMild temps all year round

  • Marine West Coast Climate

  • 4. Humid Continental climateFound in areas that receive both warm & cold airHot, humid summers w/cold wintersInteriors & east coasts of upper-middle latitude continents4 distinct seasons

  • High Latitude Climates1. Subarctic:Found in high latitudes of Europe, Asia & N. AmericaLong, dark, cold wintersTemps below freezing for 6 monthsShort summers can have warm tempsGreatest temp. rangeSupports large boreal (evergreen) forests

  • 2. Tundra climate:Long, cold wintersTemps only above freezing during short summersSupports tundra vegetationmosses, herbs, low shrubsWater & soil below surface remains frozen all year --> permafrost

  • Tundra Climate

  • 3. Ice Cap climateCold temps & snow all year roundFound in polar regionsPrecip =
  • Ice Cap Climate

  • 4. Highland climateTemp changes w/increased elevationTemp drops 3.5 degrees every 1,000 ft.

  • Highland Climate