Chapter10: Social Interaction and Social Processes
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Transcript of Chapter10: Social Interaction and Social Processes
- 1. Chapter 10: Social Interactionand Social Processes
2. NATURE OF AND APPROACHES TO SOCIALINTERACTIONNATURE OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONSocial Interaction refers to the process by whichpeople mutually or reciprocally influence oneanothers attitudes, feelings, and actions. Thisis the lie between the individual and society.There are three situations for social interaction:Person-to-person (P to P).Person-to-group (P to G).Group-to-group (G to G). 3. APPROACHES TO SOCIALINTERACTIONLiterature on social interaction gives thefollowing approaches to a betterunderstanding of social interaction:Symbolic Interaction-it refers to the communication ofthoughts and feelings between individualsthat occurs by means of symbols such uswords, gestures, facial expressions, andsounds. 4. Specific approaches under symbolicinteraction include:1. Definition of the Situation-it refers to the sociological perspective that views thepeople attribute to a social setting; a stage of mentalexamination and deliberation in which we size up asituation so as to devise our course of action. Thisprocess is called negotiated interaction.2. Dramaturgy-it is a sociological perspective that views socialinteraction as resembling a theatrical performance inwhich people stage their behavior in such a way as toelicit the responses they desire from other people. 5. 3. Ethno methodology-it is a sociological perspective that studies theprocedures people use to make sense of theireveryday lives and experience. These proceduresare the taken-for-granted, routine activities of ourdaily lives and the understandings that lie behindthem.-it comes from the Greek word ethnos meaningfolk or people, methodology refers to theprocedures used in doing something.4. Social Exchange-it is a sociological perspective that portraysinteraction as a more or less straightforward andrationally calculated series of mutually beneficialtransactions. 6. Functionalist View-human interaction involves little morethan people acting out roles based onsocial script, much as theatrical actorstake their lines from a play. 7. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OFSOCIAL PROCESSESThe Nature of Social ProcessSocial Process refers to the recurrent andpatterned interactions or responses ofindividuals to one another which haveattained stability. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIALPROCESSSocial process is classified according to certainbases:1. Based on formationUniversal or basic processesDerived social processes2. Based on unity or oppositionConjunctive social processesDisjunctive social processes 9. BASED ON FORMATION1. Basic or universal processes refers topatterned and recurrent responses observable in allhuman societies.There are three (3) universal social processes: a.)cooperation, b.) competition and c.) conflict.a. Cooperation. It involves two or more personsjoining their intelligence, efforts talents andresources together to attain a goal which can beshared. It is a kind of conjoint action or a alliance ofperson or groups seeking some common goal orreward. 10. Types of cooperation:Informal cooperation. It is characterized asspontaneous and involves mutual give andtake.Formal cooperation. It is characterized as adeliberate contractual nature and prescribes thereciprocal rights and obligations of members.Symbolic cooperation. It is a situation wheretwo or more persons live together harmoniouslyand are supportive and interdependent,resulting in mutual self-interest. It involvesinterdependent activities, but the peopleinvolved may not be aware that their activity isa form of cooperation. 11. Function of CooperationIt makes for social cohesion and integrationamong the members of a group.It contributes to social stability and order.It fosters consensus and compromise invarious social issues. 12. b. Competition. It is a form of impersonalizedstruggle or opposition to secure a reward orgoal which cannot be shared.Types of Competition:Personal competition. It involves direct,face-to-face contact between opposingparties.Impersonal competition. It involves astruggle between persons or groups notdirectly aware of each other. 13. Functions of CompetitionCompeting individuals or groups try to outdoeach other and thereby innovate ways to doso.Competition can be a driving force topersons to develop their potentials to thefullest and attain maximum efficiency andeffectiveness.Competition can develop productivity,creativity, and ingenuity.Competition of member of a society forcertain goals and the competition for scarceresources lead variation or differentiation. 14. c. Conflict. It is a form of highly personalized andemotionalized struggle or opposition betweenindividuals or group to attain scarce goals orvalues.Functions of ConflictConflicts may help establish unity and cohesionwithin a group which has been threatened byhostile and antagonistic feelings among themembers. Conflict with the outside brings peacein the inside.Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing andintegrating mechanism in certain instances.Conflict provides an outlet for the expression ofsuppresses emotions and frustrations.Competition and conflict promote social change. 15. 2. Derived social processes refersto secondary social processes thatarise out of the basic socialprocesses. 16. The following are the derived social processes which ariseout of the basic social processes:Acculturation. It is a social process where a groupblends in and takes on some characteristics of anotherculture. It is also called cultural borrowing or culturalimitation.Assimilation. It involves some kind of interpenetration orfusion of cultural elements whereby persons or groupsaccept the cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and sentimentsof another through direct, friendly and continuouscontacts.Amalgamation. It refers to some kind of biological fusionthrough intermarriage of persons coming from differentgroups.Differentiation. It refers to the creation of interestsresulting in individuals or groups needing or wantingdifferent things or services rather than the same thing.Accommodation. It refers to the social process wherebycompeting or conflicting individuals or groups thresh outdifficulties in order to minimize, if not stop, the conflict. 17. Types or Kinds of AccommodationDominationTruce or PactCompromiseMediationConciliationArbitrationToleration 18. BASED ON UNITY OR OPPOSITIONConjunctive Social Processes theyrefers to patterned forms of socialinteractions which lead to unity organization,cooperation and harmony.Disjunction Social Processes they referto patterned forms of social interactionswhich lead to disunity, disorganization,division, and disharmony. 19. KILIGMUCH...THANKYOU!!!THE END!!!...