Social Interaction and Social Processes

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    Social interaction &

    Social Processes

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    Nature & Approaches to Social

    Interaction

    When 2 or more persons, group

    meet, there will be a mutual

    awareness & response between

    them, both verbal & non-verbal.

    Exchange of messages is carriedon through the medium of

    language.

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    Language is a system of

    verbal and non-verbal

    written symbols with

    standardized meaning.

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    Non-verbal language

    involves the use of

    written symbols.

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    Social interaction refers to the

    mutual inter stimulation &response between 2 or more

    persons and groups throughsymbols, language, gestures, &

    expression of ideas, (PANOPIO,

    1997)

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    3 situations for social

    interaction

    Person

    toperson

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    Person

    to-group

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    Group-to-group

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    2 Approaches to Social

    Interaction

    a. Symbolic

    interactionb.Functionalist view

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    Symbolic interactionrefers to the

    communication of thoughts &

    feelings between individuals that

    occurs by means of symbol.

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    Specific Approaches under Symbolic

    Interaction

    1. Definition of the Situation (W.I

    Thomas)

    -refers to the sociological

    perspective that views the

    meaning people attribute to asocial setting. This process is

    called negotiated interaction

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    2. Dramaturgy (Erving Goffman)

    -views social interaction as a resembling a

    theatrical performance in which peoplestage their behavior in such a way as to

    elicit the responses they desire from other

    people.

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    3. Ethno Methodology(Harold Garfinkel)

    -studies the procedurespeople use to make sense

    of their everyday lives &experiences

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    4. Social Exchange (Blau &

    Homans)-portrays interaction as a

    more or lessstraightforward &

    rationally calculated seriesof mutually beneficial

    transactions.

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    b. Functionalist view

    -human interactions involveslittle more than people acting

    out roles (parent, child, worker)based on social script, much as

    theatrical actors take their linesfrom a play.

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    THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF

    SOCIAL PROCESSES

    1. THE NATURE OF SOCIALPROCESS

    Social Processrefers to therecurrent and patterned

    interactions or responses ofindividuals to one another

    which have attained stability.

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    2. CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIALPROCESS

    a. Based on Formation

    1. Universal or basic processes

    2. Derived social processes

    b. Based on unity or opposition1. Conjunctive social processes

    2. Disjunctive social processes

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    BASED ON FORMATION

    1.

    Basic or universalsocial processes

    refers topatterned and

    recurrent responsesobservable in all

    human societies

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    Three Universal Social Processes

    a. Cooperation- involves two or more persons

    joining their intelligence,efforts, talents and resourcestogether to attain a goal which

    can be shared. (e.g. businesspartnership).

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    Type ofCooperation

    1. Informalcooperation

    -characterizedasspontaneousand involvesmutual giveand take.

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    2.Formalcooperation

    characterizedas a deliberatecontractual

    nature andprescribes thereciprocalrights andobligations ofmembers.

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    3.Symboliccooperation

    a situationwhere two or

    more person livetogether

    harmoniouslyandare supportive

    and

    interdependentresulting inmutualinterest.

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    Functions of Cooperation

    - It makes for social cohesionand integration among the

    members of a group.- It contributes to socialstability and order

    - It fosters consensus andcompromise in various socialissues.

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    b. Competition

    - it is a form of impersonalized

    struggle or opposition to secure areward or goal which cannot beshared. It is a form of disjoint

    action between opposingindividuals or group aimed toexcel, surpass or outdo the

    opponent in order to achieve thegoal. (e.g. sportsfest; rivalry)

    Type of Competition

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    Type of Competition

    1. Personal competition

    involves direct face-to-face

    contact between opposing

    parties.

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    1. Impersonal competition

    involves a struggle

    between persons or groups

    not directly aware of eachother.

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    Functions of Competition

    - Competing individuals or

    groups try to outdo each

    other and thereby innovate

    ways to do so.

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    * Competition can be a driving forceto persons to develop their

    potentials to the fullest and attainmaximum efficiency andeffectiveness.

    * Competition can developproductivity, creativity andingenuity.

    *Competition of members of asociety for certain goals and thecompetition for scarce resources

    lead to variation or differentiation.

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    c. Conflict- is a form of highly

    personalized and emotionalizedstruggle or opposition betweenindividuals or groups to attain

    scarce goals or values.( e.g.group riots, violent strikes, waror revolution)

    - it may involve physicalviolence or non-violence.

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    Functions of Conflict

    - Conflict may helpestablish unity andcohesion. Within a group

    which has beenthreatened by hostile and

    antagonistic feelingsamong the members.

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    - Internal conflict becomes astabilizing and integrating

    mechanism in certain instances.

    - Conflict provides an outlet for the

    expression of suppressedemotions and frustrations.

    - Competition and conflict promotesocial change.

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    2. Derived social processes- refers to secondary social

    processes that arise out of the basicsocial processes.

    a. Acculturation it is a social process wheregroup blends in and takes on somecharacteristics of another culture.

    Also called cultural borrowing/imitation. (e.g. Christianization ofFilipinos)

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    c. Amalgamation

    refers to some kind of biological fusion

    through intermarriage of persons coming fromdifferent ethnic groups .(e.g. intermarriage of

    Filipino and Chinese)

    b. Assimilation

    it involves some kind of interpenetration or fusion of

    cultural elements whereby persons or groups accept the

    cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and sentiments of

    another through direct, friendly and continuous

    contacts. (e.g. Filipino immigrants to American way of

    life)

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    d. Differentiation refers to the creation of interest

    resulting in individuals or groupsneeding or wanting different things orservices rather than the same thing. Itrefers to specialization or division of

    labor. (e.g. adjacent stores sellingdifferent goods)

    e. Accommodation

    refers to the social process wherebycompeting or conflicting individuals orgroups trash out difficulties in order to

    minimize or stop the conflict.

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    2. Truce or Pact

    is an agreement to cease hostilities or

    fighting for a certain period of time. (e.g.

    peace negotiations)

    3. Compromiseis a process of settling differences where opposing parties withdraw their

    demands to