Chapter 9-3: Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great The Big Idea Alexander the Great built a huge...
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- Chapter 9-3: Alexander the Great
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- Alexander the Great The Big Idea Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread Greek culture into Egypt and Asia. Main Ideas Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC. Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt. The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexanders empire blended Greek and other cultures.
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- Phillip II became king of Macedonia and targeted Greece for an invasion. He beat Athens, and the rest of Greece agreed to make him their leader after seeing Athenss defeat. Phillip was a brilliant military leader. His soldiers fought as a phalanx with spears that were longer than the Greeks. He also had a cavalry and archers supporting the phalanx. Main Idea 1: Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC. When Phillip died, his throne and his plans were passed on to his son, Alexander.
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- Why were the soldiers spears so long?
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- Main Idea 2: Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt. Alexander began his rule by ending the revolt in Thebes, setting an example to the Greeks not to rebel. He then set out to build an empire and earned the name Alexander the Great. He went on to conquer Egypt and was crowned pharaoh without a fight. He then defeated Persia and became the ruler of the Persian Empire. Alexander wanted to push into India, but his troops were exhausted and refused to go. He began the march home, but died from sickness before making it back to Greece.
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- 1.About how long was the route of Alexander from Pella to Babylon? 2.What bodies of water did Alexander cross?
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- Spreading Greek Culture Alexanders empire was the largest the world had ever seen. An admirer of Greek culture, he worked to spread it throughout his empire. He encouraged Greek settlers to move to the new cities he conquered. These settlers passed along the language and culture of Greece. Alexander also encouraged people to keep their own culture, so Greek and native customs blended. Historians call the culture Hellenistic, or Greek-like.
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- After Alexander died, his generals fought for power and divided the empire among themselves. The three kingdoms were Macedonia, Greece, and Syria. Macedonia had the weakest government and had to put down Greek revolts. Syria was weakened by rebellions. Egypt, especially Alexandria, became a great cultural center. Main Idea 3: The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexanders empire blended Greek and other cultures. Each empire was eventually taken over by the Romans.
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- Quick Questions 1.In your own words, define the term phalanx. 2.Philip wanted to conquer the Persian Empire. Was he successful? Why or why not? 3.After Athens and Thebes were defeated by Philip, why did the rest of Greece agree to make Philip their leader? 4.Why is Alexander called the great? 5.Using the information on this page (274) and in the map of Alexanders empire, summarize Alexanders efforts to conquer the world. 6.How did Alexander help spread Greek culture throughout his empire? 7.What does Hellenistic mean? 8.Why did Alexander model new cities after the cities of Greece? 9.What happened to Alexanders empire after his death? 10.Do you think Alexander was successful as a conqueror? Should he be called great?