Cells Animal and Plant Cells. Cell Structure & Function

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Transcript of Cells Animal and Plant Cells. Cell Structure & Function

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Cells Animal and Plant Cells Slide 2 Cell Structure & Function http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html Slide 3 Two Types of Cells ProkaryoticProkaryotic EukaryoticEukaryotic Slide 4 Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html Slide 5 Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms PlantAnimal http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html Slide 6 Typical Animal Cell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif Slide 7 Cell Parts Organelles Slide 8 Surrounding the Cell Slide 9 Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 10 Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 11 Inside the Cell Slide 12 Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA Slide 13 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 14 Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 15 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 16 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material Slide 17 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 18 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 19 Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 20 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 21 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 22 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 23 http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif Typical Plant Cell Slide 24 Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html Slide 25 Cell Division Slide 26 MITOSIS Slide 27 Mitosis The process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell. Slide 28 Mitosis can be divided into stages Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase & Cytokinesis Slide 29 Interphase The cell prepares for division Animal Cell DNA replicated Organelles replicated Cell increases in size Slide 30 Interphase Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm Slide 31 Prophase The cell prepares for nuclear division Animal Cell Packages DNA into chromosomes Slide 32 Prophase Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm Slide 33 Metaphase The cell prepares chromosomes for division Animal Cell Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere Slide 34 Metaphase Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm Slide 35 Anaphase The chromosomes divide Animal Cell Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell Slide 36 Anaphase Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm Slide 37 Telophase The cytoplasm divides Animal Cell DNA spreads out 2 nuclei form Cell wall pinches in to form the 2 new daughter cells Slide 38 Telophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm Slide 39 Mitosis Animation http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm Slide 40 Animal Mitosis -- Review Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase Slide 41 Cell Specialization http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgene tics/cellspecialization/ http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgene tics/cellspecialization/ cell specialization is an adaptation to do a particular job in a cell Examples: lung cells, heart cells, muscle cells, blood cells, bone cells Slide 42 Stem Cells Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Two Types of Stem Cells: Adult stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a four- or five- day-old human embryo that is in the blastocyst phase of development.