Cell Structure - Mr. Dones' · PDF file Cell Structure Plants, Animals, Fungi and Protists...

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Transcript of Cell Structure - Mr. Dones' · PDF file Cell Structure Plants, Animals, Fungi and Protists...

  • Cell

    Structure

  • Plants, Animals, Fungi and Protists have

    Eukaryotic Cell(s)

    Plant Cell Animal Cell

    straight edges curved edges

  • Cell Organization

    cell membrane

    Eukaryotic cells

    have 3 major parts:

    1. cell membrane

    2. cytoplasm

    cytoplasm

    3. nucleus

    nucleus

  • cytoplasm is gel-like and

    includes all of the

    organelles in addition to

    many substances

    Organelles – membrane-bound structures in the cytoplasm

    cytoplasm

  • Nucleus

    Usually largest organelle that is

    a round structure near center of

    cell containing genetic material

    (DNA/chromosomes)

    nucleus

  • The nucleus has many parts.

  • Nuclear Envelope

  • two membranes

    surround the

    nucleus holding

    it together

    outer membrane

    inner membrane

    Nuclear Envelope

  • Nuclear Pores

  • Nuclear pores help control what

    enters and leaves, they allow

    ________to get out

    nuclear pores

    Nuclear Pores

    RNA

  • ________________ Nucleolus

  • Dense, circular

    region inside of

    the nucleus

    nucleolus

    the nucleolus assembles ribosomes

    Nucleolus

  • Chromatin

  • the fluid of the

    nucleus contains

    chromatin

    chromatin

    Chromatin (relaxed chromosomes)

    is made of DNA and proteins

    Chromatin

  • Ribosomes

    RNA particles in the cytoplasm in 3-D

    structures with proteins that

    assemble _________ ________ into

    proteins

    Blue = proteins

    Orange = rRNA

    amino acids

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

    ER ER – network of tubes in cytoplasm

    where proteins are made

  • Rough ER –

    endoplasmic

    reticulum with

    ribosomes

    attached where

    proteins are

    made and

    transported

    through the

    tubes of the

    ER, eventually

    out of the cell

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Ribosomes

    not attached

    to the ER are

    “_______” and

    produce

    proteins that

    stay within

    the cell

    free

  • The surface of

    smooth ER is

    where the cell

    makes its

    lipids and

    detoxifies

    drugs (liver).

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    ER without any ribosomes is

    called smooth ER

  • Vesicles are transporting sacs both to

    and from the Golgi Apparatus. Notice

    the vesicles being made at the ends of

    the golgi.

  • Golgi Apparatus

  • Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus is a stack of membrane

    sacs, often shaped like a stack of pancakes,

    that receives, processes and packages

    proteins

    Golgi

    apparatus

    It makes

    vesicles which

    are, therefore,

    often nearby

    vesicles

  • The Golgi apparatus has 3 functions:

    1. To receive ______________ in vesicles from the ER

    2. To process (modify) the proteins into a usable

    form

    3. To package the proteins into _____________ (for use

    in or out of the cell)

    proteins

    vesicles

  • Lysosomes

  • Lysosomes

    Lysosomes are

    vesicles/sacs

    containing enzymes

    for digesting

    unwanted substances.

    They act like the

    cell’s garbage

    disposal. lysosome

  • Lysosomes clean up cells

    Their enzymes digest:

    1. worn out cell parts

    2. large food particles

    3. invading bacteria

    enzymes

  • Vacuoles

    Many plant cells

    have one large

    vacuole

    Plant vacuole

    Vacuoles are used

    to store water,

    salts, wastes, or

    food, like a

    refrigerator

  • Animal cells have several ________

    vacuoles.

    small

  • Some protists, like this paramecium,

    use vacuoles to control the amount

    of liquid in the cell and for

    propulsion.

  • Mitochondria

  • Mitochondria

    mitochondria

    Mitochondria

    are bean

    shaped

    organelles

  • Mitochondria - the “Powerhouse” of the Cell

    Mitochondria release the energy in

    food particles (glucose) for use by the

    cell as usable chemical energy (______) ATP

  • Plant Cell Structures

    cell wall

    vacuole

    chloroplast

  • Chloroplasts The chloroplast

    captures energy

    from sunlight and

    converts it into

    chemical energy

    (____________)

    chloroplasts

    they are green

    because they

    contain the

    pigment

    chlorophyll

    glucose

  • Internal Structure of a Chloroplast

    The chlorophyll in a chloroplast is

    where photosynthesis occurs.

  • Some protists, like euglena, contain

    chloroplasts. This is a one-celled

    protist is not a plant. However, it does have a

    vacuole and chloroplasts

  • The Cytoskeleton (network of microtubules and

    microfilaments)

    Function: shape/support

    and movement

    microtubule

    cytoskeleton

  • Substances Made from Microtubules

    Spindle fiber –

    forms during cell

    division and

    separates

    chromosomes

    Centrioles – near

    nucleus –

    help

    organize

    cell division

    ___________ – many short, hair-

    like stuructures on outside of

    some cells used for movement

    Flagella – long, whip-like structures on

    outside of some cells used for

    movement

    The Cytoskeleton

    Cilia

  • Cell Boundaries

    The cell

    membrane is

    the thin,

    flexible barrier

    surrounding all

    cells that

    controls what

    enters and

    leaves.

    cell membrane

    Cell Membrane

  • Cell membranes are complicated

    structures made of lipids, proteins and

    carbohydrates

  • Membranes are Lipid Bilayers

    one lipid layer

    a second lipid layer

    phosphate end

    phosphate end

    fatty acid ends

    (they have 2 lipid layers that are flexible

    and strong)

  • Cell membranes usually have water on

    both sides of the membrane.

    This causes some

    phospholipids to point

    to the outside of the

    cell and some to point

    to the inside of the

    cell.

    extracellular side

    cytoplasmic side

  • Membranes also contain Proteins

    protein

    Some

    proteins form

    ___________,

    while others

    form pumps

    channels

  • Present Model of a Cell Membrane

    Together, the lipids and proteins make up the

    Fluid Mosaic Model for cell membranes.

    Fluid Mosaic Model

    2 lipid layers

    with proteins

  • The Fluid Mosaic Model fluid means “capable of flowing”

    mosaic means “a pattern made from pieces”

    a

  • Cell Wall

    the cell wall contains cellulose – very tough and

    a major component of _____________ and paper.

    it is the plant’s,

    algae’s or

    fungi’s skeleton

    Strong supporting

    layer surrounding

    cell membrane of

    some cells

    wood