BRAIN ACTIVITY. Electroencephalogram EEG: Recording of electric brain waves. EEG: Recording of...

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Transcript of BRAIN ACTIVITY. Electroencephalogram EEG: Recording of electric brain waves. EEG: Recording of...

  • Slide 1
  • BRAIN ACTIVITY
  • Slide 2
  • Electroencephalogram EEG: Recording of electric brain waves. EEG: Recording of electric brain waves.
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  • Slide 4
  • ALPHA WAVES Relaxed, reflecting Relaxed, reflecting Taking a break (walk) Taking a break (walk) 9-14 cycles/second. 9-14 cycles/second.
  • Slide 5
  • BETA WAVES Alert, actively engaged Alert, actively engaged Talking, reading Talking, reading 15-40 cycles/second 15-40 cycles/second
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  • THETA WAVES Daydreaming, disengage Daydreaming, disengage Driving, shower, running Driving, shower, running happy state happy state 5-8 cycles/second 5-8 cycles/second
  • Slide 7
  • DELTA WAVES Deep sleep Deep sleep No dreaming No dreaming 2-3 cycles/second 2-3 cycles/second
  • Slide 8
  • Recap ~ Bed time Study notes: Beta Study notes: Beta Book down relax: Alpha Book down relax: Alpha Daydream about getting an A+ = Theta Daydream about getting an A+ = Theta Deep Sleep = Delta Deep Sleep = Delta
  • Slide 9
  • SLEEP Well studied. Well studied. Has cycles, that repeat during the night. Has cycles, that repeat during the night.
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  • SLEEP REM: Rapid eye movement REM: Rapid eye movement ~ 20% of sleep is REM (90 minutes) ~ 20% of sleep is REM (90 minutes) Where dreams are made Where dreams are made
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  • REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder in which the person acts out dramatic or violent dreams during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. A sleep cycle is defined by a segment of Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, which comprises of four stages, followed by a period of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. A typical sleep cycle is about 100 - 110 minutes long, beginning with NREM sleep and transitioning to REM sleep after 80 - 100 minutes. REM sleep is accompanied by bursts of Rapid Eye Movements. It has heightened brain activity and temporary paralysis of the muscles that controls posture and body movement. REM sleep is otherwise referred to as the dream sleep as most of our dreams occur during this phase of sleep and the temporary muscle paralysis that occurs during this phase is a protective mechanism so that we do not act out our dreams. Victims of REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) do not experience muscle paralysis, which is the usual case during REM sleep. This gives the victim a free hand to physically demonstrate or act out dreams. Patient with RBD demonstrate their dreams with passion and intensity, which can also turn violent. Many such patients sit up in sleep, make wild gesticulations, kick or scream, even punch their partner as they act out their dreams. Such behaviors can also manifest during withdrawal from alcohol or hypnotic drugs. REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder in which the person acts out dramatic or violent dreams during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. A sleep cycle is defined by a segment of Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, which comprises of four stages, followed by a period of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. A typical sleep cycle is about 100 - 110 minutes long, beginning with NREM sleep and transitioning to REM sleep after 80 - 100 minutes. REM sleep is accompanied by bursts of Rapid Eye Movements. It has heightened brain activity and temporary paralysis of the muscles that controls posture and body movement. REM sleep is otherwise referred to as the dream sleep as most of our dreams occur during this phase of sleep and the temporary muscle paralysis that occurs during this phase is a protective mechanism so that we do not act out our dreams. Victims of REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) do not experience muscle paralysis, which is the usual case during REM sleep. This gives the victim a free hand to physically demonstrate or act out dreams. Patient with RBD demonstrate their dreams with passion and intensity, which can also turn violent. Many such patients sit up in sleep, make wild gesticulations, kick or scream, even punch their partner as they act out their dreams. Such behaviors can also manifest during withdrawal from alcohol or hypnotic drugs.paralysismusclepassionparalysismusclepassion
  • Slide 12
  • SLEEP NON-REM: ~ 80% (6.5 hrs) NON-REM: ~ 80% (6.5 hrs) Dreamless sleep (shutdown systems) Dreamless sleep (shutdown systems)
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  • SLEEP Deep Sleep: Delta waves Deep Sleep: Delta waves Difficult to wake up Difficult to wake up Brain and body completely relax Brain and body completely relax
  • Slide 14
  • SLEEP Arousal: Neurons turn back on. Arousal: Neurons turn back on. Build up of adenosine, melanin, wake up when the majority is broken down. Build up of adenosine, melanin, wake up when the majority is broken down.
  • Slide 15
  • AgeAverage amount of sleep per day AgeAverage amount of sleep per day Newbornup to 18 hours Newbornup to 18 hours 1-12 months1418 hours 1-12 months1418 hours 1-3 years12-15 hours 1-3 years12-15 hours 3-5 years11-13 hours 3-5 years11-13 hours 5-12 years9-11 hours 5-12 years9-11 hours Adolescents9-10 hours Adolescents9-10 hours Adults, including elderly7-8 (+) hours Adults, including elderly7-8 (+) hours Pregnant women8 (+) hours Pregnant women8 (+) hours
  • Slide 16
  • Randy Gardner holds the Guinness World Record for intentionally having gone the longest without sleep. In 1965, Gardner, then 18, stayed awake for 264 hours (about 11 days) for a high school science project.[36] He experienced significant deficits in concentration, motivation, perception and other higher mental processes during his sleep deprivation. However, he recovered normal cognitive functions after a few nights' sleep. Randy Gardner holds the Guinness World Record for intentionally having gone the longest without sleep. In 1965, Gardner, then 18, stayed awake for 264 hours (about 11 days) for a high school science project.[36] He experienced significant deficits in concentration, motivation, perception and other higher mental processes during his sleep deprivation. However, he recovered normal cognitive functions after a few nights' sleep. Randy GardnerGuinness World Record[36] Randy GardnerGuinness World Record[36]
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  • SPINAL CORD ~ COLOR CODE Pg 222
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  • J= Posterior gray horns J= Posterior gray horns K= Anterior gray horns K= Anterior gray horns O= Posterior white column O= Posterior white column P= Lateral white column P= Lateral white column Q= Anterior white column Q= Anterior white column T= Anterior median fissure T= Anterior median fissure U= Central Canal U= Central Canal
  • Slide 19
  • Spinal Cord Highway leading sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses away from brain. Highway leading sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses away from brain.
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  • Spinal Cord Gray: is not myelinated, mostly cell bodies Gray: is not myelinated, mostly cell bodies White: myelinated, most of PNS White: myelinated, most of PNS
  • Slide 21
  • Spinal Cord Length: Roughly 18 inches long. Length: Roughly 18 inches long. STOPS at about L1 or L2 (Page 231) STOPS at about L1 or L2 (Page 231)
  • Slide 22
  • Spinal Cord Cauda Equina: (Horses tail) Nerves leaving end of spinal cord. Cauda Equina: (Horses tail) Nerves leaving end of spinal cord.
  • Slide 23
  • Spinal Cord Spinal Puncture: Spinal tap between L3, L4. Puncture spine to withdraw fluid and analyze. Spinal Puncture: Spinal tap between L3, L4. Puncture spine to withdraw fluid and analyze.
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  • Slide 25