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BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS. THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) STANDARD. Employer’s Duties identify job risks and classify provide appropriate training provide a plan provide appropriate equipment Compliance. Employee’s Duties follow employer’s plan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



  • OSHAS EXPECTATIONSEmployers Dutiesidentify job risks and classify provide appropriate trainingprovide a planprovide appropriate equipmentComplianceEmployees Dutiesfollow employers planknow job classificationcomplete traininguse equipment provided by employerCompliance

  • OSHA REQUIRED INFORMATIONDocumentsGeneral explanation of bloodborne pathogensHepatitis B immunizationExplanation of tasks that may involve exposure

  • BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS DEFINEDDisease-causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood or OPIM (other potentially infectious material)VirusesBacteriaParasites

  • MODES OF TRANSMISSIONPuncture wounds or cutsContact (touch, splash, or spray) with blood or OPIM on:mucous membranenon-intact skincuts, abrasions, burnsacne, rashespapercuts, hangnailscontaminated sharps

  • RISK OF EXPOSUREObjective of BBP standard is to minimize or eliminate the hazard posed by work that may expose one to blood or OPIM

  • RISK OF EXPOSUREIf a risk of exposure exists one should know:if there is a way to prevent infectionsymptoms and course of infectionavailability of counseling availability of post-exposure treatment & follow-up

  • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE INCIDENTSOccupational contact with blood or OPIM is considered an exposure incidentIf an exposure occurs:wash with soap & waterreport incidentdocument incidentseek immediate medical evaluationfollow employers exposure control plan

  • IMMEDIATE MEDICAL EVALUATIONImmediate means prompt medical evaluation and prophylaxisAn exact timeline cannot be statedTime limits on effectiveness of prophylactic measures vary depending on the infection of concern

  • REPORTING AN INCIDENTDate and time of incidentJob classificationLocation in the worksite where incident occurred

    Work practice being followedProcedure being performedPPE in useMinimal Information to Report

  • MEDICAL EVALUATION POST EXPOSUREEntitled to confidential medical evaluationPersonal decision about blood testingBlood may be tested only with consentBlood may be stored for 90 days, while considering testingInterpretation of any test results occurs with health care provider

  • BLOOD TESTINGBlood may be tested for antibodies to:Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)Other disease-causing organisms

  • SPECIFIC BLOODBORNE PATHOGENSDefinitionSigns and symptomsCourse of infectionPrevention and controlPost-exposure prophy-laxis and follow-up care

  • HIV DEFINEDHIV is Human Immunodeficiency VirusHIV can cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)Risk of HIV infection from a puncture injury exposure to HIV infected blood is very low -- 0.3%

  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF HIVSigns and symptoms include:Weight lossNight sweats or feverGland swelling or painMuscle and/or joint painCannot rely on signs and symptoms to confirm if one is infected

  • COURSE OF INFECTION WITH HIVIncubation period from HIV infection to AIDS can be 8 to 10 years

    Varies greatly among individuals

  • HIV PREVENTIONThere is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection

    Follow Universal Precautions

  • HIV POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS & FOLLOW-UPNo cure for HIV infectionTesting schedule for HIV antibodiesat time of exposureat 3 months at 6 monthsHIV antibodies usually become detectable within 3 months of infectionTreatment requires health care providerOSHA requires treatment that meets most recent CDC guidelines

  • HCV DEFINEDHCV is Hepatitis C VirusIt affects the liverIt is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in USRisk of HCV infection after exposure to HCV infected blood is 1.8%70 to 75% of those with acute HCV infection have no symptoms

  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF HCVJaundice - yellow color to skin and whites of eyesFatigueHeadacheAbdominal PainLoss of appetiteNausea and vomiting

  • COURSE OF HCV INFECTIONIncubation period averages 7 weeks

    Chronic liver disease may occur in 70% of those infected with HCV

  • HCV PREVENTIONNo vaccine exists to prevent HCV infection

    Follow Universal Precautions

  • HCV POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS & FOLLOW-UPNo cure for HCV No post-exposure pro-phylaxis recommendedTests for HCV anti-bodies & liver function recommended at time of exposureTests should be repeated 4-6 months post exposureTreatment of HCV requires a health care providerOSHA requires treat-ment that meets most recent CDC guidelines

  • HBV DEFINEDHBV is Hepatitis B Virus

    It affects the liver

    Prevalence of HBV infection among healthcare workers is 10 times greater than HCV infection

  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF HBVJaundice - yellow color to the skin and whites of eyesFatigueHeadacheAbdominal PainLoss of appetiteNausea and vomiting

  • COURSE OF HBV INFECTIONIncubation period averages 12 weeksMost cases of HBV resolve without complicationsChronic liver disease may occur in 6 to 7% of those infected with HBV

  • HBV PREVENTIONA vaccine does exist to prevent HBV infectionEmployers are required to offer HBV vaccination HBV vaccination to employees covered under BBP standard. Debra Currier at Shiprock Administration Office 368-4984 Ext: 10103Follow Universal Precautions

  • HBV POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS & FOLLOW-UPNo cure for HBV infectionPost-exposure prophylaxis should begin within 24 hours; no later than 7 days after exposureExposed person should receive HBV vaccine

    Treatment requires health care providerOSHA requires treatment meet CDCs most recent guidelines

  • HBV IMMUNIZATIONEmployees with routine occupational exposure to blood/OPIM have right to HBV vaccination at no personal expenseEmployee refusal established by signing HBV vaccination declination form

  • HBV VACCINATION SCHEDULEVaccine given in 3 doses over 6 months1st on initial assignment2nd one month later3rd five months after 2nd doseEmployer cannot require employee to use health insurance to cover test costPre-screening is not requiredHBV is declining because of vaccine use!


    Work Practice Controls

    Personal Protective Equipment

    Universal Precautions

  • SHARPS CONTAINERS MUST BE:closable and puncture resistantleak prooflabeled or color-codedfunctionalsufficient in numbereasily accessible and main- tained in upright positionreplaced per agency policyDO NOT overfilled

  • HANDWASHINGReadily available facilities

    Washing after removing PPE

    Using antiseptic hand cleanser when a sink isnt readily available


    First roll out paper towel or have towel readily available so as not to touch other surfaces to reach it


    Turn on tap water and adjust temperature

    Use plenty of soap


    Wash hands using friction on all surfaces for at least 30 seconds


    Dry hands thoroughly

    DO NOT turn off the water yet


    Turn off tap with a dry part of the towel

    DO NOT touch surfaces with clean hands

  • CLEANINGClean work surfaces according to employers exposure control plan

    Use PPE and EPA-approved solution

    DO NOT take contaminated materials home to launder!

  • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)Specialized clothing/equipment used for protection when risk of exposure existsMust prevent blood or OPIM from contaminating clothing or skinMust be available at no cost to employeeMust be in appropriate sizesMust be in good working conditionMust be properly maintainedEmployee must be trained in proper use

  • TYPES OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTGlovesMasksEye shieldsGowns/aprons

  • LATEX GLOVESMedical products containing latex must be labeled

    Allergies to latex are increasing

    Substitutes for latex-containing materials must be made available


    Infection control approach that treats all human blood and certain body fluids as if they are known to contain bloodborne pathogens

  • CCSD Policy: GBGC-EExposure Control PlanContact Payroll for Workmans CompCharlotte Simpson Ext. 10131Contact Debra Currier for Hep B vaccine information. Ext. 10103

  • EXPOSURE DeterminationHigh Risk Coaches, physical ed instructors, custodians, certain special ed program personnel, playground duty personnel, health services personnel, and security personnel.Moderate Risk Regular instructional program personnel, other special ed program personnel, school level office personnel, maintenance personnel, food services personnel, and special assignment personnel (e.g., counselors, librarians).

    Includes record keeping provisions and is reviewed annually


    *Meeting OSHAs expectations is accomplished by:TrainingProviding OSHA required informationProviding site specific required informationDocumentationOngoing observed practiceSystematic review of practice

    Training must be provided by qualified personnel.Site specific training must be provided.The timing of the training is important and documentation is required.Training must be appropriate to the education and reading level of the participants.A qualified person must be available to answer questions during training.

    TIP: Training records assist the employer and OSHA in determining whether the training program adequately addresses the risk in each job.**TIP: Puncture wounds most often occur when:Disposing of needlesAdministering injectionsDrawing bloodRecapping needlesHandling trash or dirty linens**You may change your mind at a later time and receive the vaccine as long as you are in a job covered by the standard