BEYOND CONNECTIONS Energy Access Redefined ... The ESMAP Manager would appreciate receiving a copy...

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  • BEYOND CONNECTIONS Energy Access Redefined

    T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T 0 0 8 / 1 5

    C O N C E P T U A L I Z A T I O N R E P O R T

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    E S M A P M I S S I O N

    The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) is a global

    knowledge and technical assistance program administered by the World

    Bank. It provides analytical and advisory services to low- and middle-

    income countries to increase their know-how and institutional capac-

    ity to achieve environmentally sustainable energy solutions for poverty

    reduction and economic growth. ESMAP is funded by Australia, Austria,

    Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, the Netherlands,

    Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as the World Bank.

    Copyright © July 2015 The International Bank for Reconstruction And Development / THE WORLD BANK GROUP 1818 H Street, NW | Washington DC 20433 | USA

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) reports are published to communicate the results of ESMAP’s work to the develop- ment community. Some sources cited in this report may be informal documents not readily available.

    The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this report are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its board of executive directors for the countries they represent, or to ESMAP. The World Bank and ESMAP do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accept no responsibil- ity whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of acceptance of such boundaries.

    The text of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or nonprofit uses, without special permis- sion provided acknowledgement of the source is made. Requests for permission to reproduce portions for resale or commercial purposes should be sent to the ESMAP Manager at the address below. ESMAP encourages dissemination of its work and normally gives permission promptly. The ESMAP Manager would appreciate receiving a copy of the publication that uses this publication for its source sent in care of the address above.

    All images remain the sole property of their source and may not be used for any purpose without written permission from the source.

    Written by | Mikul Bhatia and Nicolina Angelou

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program | The World Bank

  • i

    T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

    FOREWORD iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v

    ABBREVIATIONS vii

    TERMINOLOGY viii

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

    SECTION 1 | BACKGROUND 22

    1 | CONCEPTUALIZING MULTI-TIER FRAMEWORKS FOR MEASURING ENERGY ACCESS 22

    2 | REVIEW OF EXISTING APPROACHES FOR DEFINING AND MEASURING ENERGY ACCESS 26

    3 | CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND 42

    4 | THE ENERGY RESULTS CHAIN 52

    SECTION 2 | MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK 58

    5 | OVERARCHING FRAMEWORK 58

    6 | HOUSEHOLD ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY 66

    7 | HOUSEHOLD ACCESS TO LIGHTING AND PHONE CHARGING 84

    8 | HOUSEHOLD ACCESS TO COOKING SOLUTIONS 104

    9 | ACCESS TO ENERGY FOR PRODUCTIVE ENGAGEMENTS 132

    10 | ACCESS TO ENERGY FOR COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE 152

    11 | STRENGTHS AND SHORTFALLS OF THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 178

    SECTION 3 | APPROACH FOR IMPLEMENTATION 184

    12 | ACCESS IMPACT OF UPSTREAM ELECTRICITY PROJECTS 184

    13 | CONCLUSION AND NEXT STEPS 194

    ANNEX 1 | ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE ENERGY ACCESS INDEX 196

    ANNEX 2 | ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT ELECTRICITY SERVICES 206

    ANNEX 3 | ESTIMATION OF ATTRIBUTES THROUGH SURVEY INFORMATION 209

    ANNEX 4 | ENERGY APPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCTIVE AND COMMUNITY USES 214

    REFERENCES 217

    List of Figures and Tables

    Figure ES.1 Hierarchy of Energy Access Indices 3

    Figure ES.2 Implications of the Tier 1 Framework for a Household of Five Using a Single Light Source with a Range of Performance Characteristics and Different Levels of Access to Mobile Charging 8

    Figure 1.1 Addressing Methodological Challenges to Measuring Energy Access over the Medium Term 23

    Figure 2.1 Incremental Levels of Access to Energy Services 31

    Figure 2.2 Proposed Emissions Tiers for Cookstoves 36

    Figure 3.1 The Energy Ladder 47

    Figure 3.2 The Energy Transition Process 48

    Figure 4.1 Energy Results Chain 54

    Figure 5.1 Diagram of Energy Access Indices 65

    Figure 6.1 Example of Index Calculation 82

    Figure 7.1 Consumption of Lighting by Candles, Gas, Paraffin (Kerosene and Town Gas), and Electricity in the United Kingdom, 1700–2000 85

    Figure 7.2 Efficacy Trends for Electric Lighting 85

    Figure 7.3 Classification of Individual and Household-Level Energy Systems 86

    Figure 7.4 Days of Income Required to Purchase Solar Systems in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries 87

    Figure 7.5 Days of Income Required to Purchase Solar Systems in India 87

    Figure 7.6 Group Satisfaction with Levels of Luminous Flux, Africa and India 92

    Figure 7.7 Basic Lighting Concepts 93

  • ii

    Figure 7.8 Histograms of Self-Reported Nightly Use of Fuel-Based Lighting in Five Sub-Saharan Countries 94

    Figure 7.9 Estimated Hours of Nightly Use of Kerosene, India 95

    Figure 7.10 Implications of the Tier 1 Framework for a Household of Five Using a Single Light Source with a Range of Performance Characteristics and Different Levels of Access to Mobile Charging 98

    Figure 8.1 Interlinkages between Health Risks, Cookstove Emissions, and Other Factors 108

    Figure 8.2 Relationship between Level of PM2.5 Exposure (μg/m 3) and Relative Risk (95% Confidence Interval)

    of Child ALRI, Based on IER Function 109

    Figure 8.3 Example of Index Calculation 130

    Figure 9.1 Example of Index Calculation 150

    Figure 10.1 Percentage of Health Facilities with No Access to Electricity 157

    Figure 10.2 Access to Electricity in Primary Schools in Selected Countries 158

    Figure 10.3 Example of Tier Calculation 176

    Figure 12.1 Characteristics of Electricity Projects 189

    Table ES.1 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Supply 6

    Table ES.2 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Services 6

    Table ES.3 Multi-tier Matrix for Electricity Consumption 7

    Table ES.4 Multi-level Matrix for Access to Cooking Solutions 10

    Table ES.5 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Space Heating 11

    Table ES.6 Multi-tier Matrix for Measuring Access to Productive Applications of Energy 13

    Table ES.7 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Street Lighting 14

    Table ES.8 Multi-tier Matrix for Measuring Access in Community Infrastructure (Survey of Institutions) 16

    Table ES.9 Levels of the Proposed Multi-Tier Framework 19

    Table 2.1 Indicators Used to Measure Energy Access 29

    Table 2.2 Minimum Levels for Three Key Energy Services 32

    Table 2.3 Different Access Levels for Electricity 33

    Table 2.4 Different Access Levels for Fuel and Cooking/Heating Technology 33

    Table 2.5 Total Energy Access Minimum Standards 34

    Table 2.6 Energy Supply Index Quality Levels 35

    Table 2.7 Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index Indicators 38

    Table 2.8 Energy Development Index Composition 39

    Table 4.1 Simplified Energy Results Change 55

    Table 6.1 Household Electricity Services 71

    Table 6.2 Typical Household Electric Appliances by Power Load 71

    Table 6.3 Tiers of Capacity 72

    Table 6.4 Tiers of Availability 73

    Table 6.5 Tiers of Reliability 74

    Table 6.6 Tiers of Quality 74

    Table 6.7 Tiers of Affordability 75

    Table 6.8 Tiers of Legality 76

    Table 6.9 Tiers of Health and Safety 76

    Table 6.10 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Supply 77

    Table 6.11 Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Services 78

    Table 6.12 Multi-tier Matrix for Household Electricity Consumption 78

    Table 6.13 Indicative Calculation of Electricity Consumption, by Tier 79

    Table 7.1 Number of People with Tier 1 Access Using a Single Device in a Household of Five 101

    Table 8.1 WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Polution (P2.5 and CO) 109

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    Table 8.2 Input Distributions for Monte Carlo Simulation to Calculate Emission Rate Targets 113

    Table 8.3 Emission Rate Targets for Meeting WHO Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for PM2.5 113

    Table 8.4 Emission Rate Targets for Meeting WHO Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for CO 113

    Table 8.5 International Workshop Agreement Technical Guidelines 114

    Table 8.6 Multi-tier Emissions Standards 115

    Table 8.7 Multi-tier Framework for Measurement of Indoor Air Quality 118

    Table 8.8 Multi-tier Fr