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    LLS_3_LEC_1LIMBI I LITERATURI STRINE Limba englez contemporan Semantica 1

    TRUE / FALSE

    1) Meaning itself may come to be the object of the linguistic sign, and this is no contradiction withthe Fregean theses.

    2) One and the same derived lexeme may feature both prefixation and suffixation.

    3) According to Charles Sanders Peirce, an empirical and coherent semiotic theory can account forall the phenomena in the universe by means of connections of the causation type.

    4) Different holonyms may belong to one and the same lexical field, and they may be in a relationof co-hyponymy.

    5) Derived lexemes cannot undergo conversion.

    6) Morris classification brings into relief the close relationships and interactions that establishbetween Semantics, on the one hand, and Syntax and Phonology, on the other hand.

    7) If a sentence designator features more than one variable, then its extension will not always differfrom the proposition representing its intension.

    8) The meaning-making process does not stand as a main objective in Social Semiotics.

    9) Logical approaches to Semantics operate with projection rules.

    10) Hyponymy and homonymy are the two hierarchical sense relations in case of which the relation

    is one between form and meaning.

    11) Signs may belong to more than one class, a frequent association being the one between symbolicand iconic values.

    12) Inflectional rules are very productive because inflectional affixes are extremely sensitive tochange.

    13)No less than the Peircean Interpretant, the Fregean sense is viewed as an indispensable

    element in the functioning of the conventional linguistic sign.

    14) Conformity, as a relation that establishes in terms of both form and content, does not account fora sign referent isomorphism.

    15) Semiotic texts are unfolded in space and time networks of signalling-systems, themeaningfulness of which resides in the contextualising interactions among the involved signs.

    16) Selectional rules account for the expression content isomorphism.

    A

    A

    A

    A

    A

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    A

    A

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    17) At least some of the non-binary systems of contrasts of sense are ultimately decomposable asclusters of binary features.

    18) Both linguistic and encyclopaedic knowledge presuppose operations with meaningful concepts.

    19) Semiotics deals with linguistic and non-linguistic semiosis.

    20) According to Hjelmslevs model, the referent is part of the content-substance, and therefore it isexcluded from the constituency of the linguistic sign.

    21) The cross-linguistic sharing of certain meaning properties is a central assumption in translationalapproaches to Semantics.

    22) The unmarked term of the pairgander goose isgoose.

    23) The status of Semantics in translation theory and practice, and in language teaching may differfrom the one in linguistic fundamental theoretical research.

    24) Inflectional affixes cannot attach to derived lexemes.

    25) Symbols, images, and diagrams are motivated by the resemblance that they bear with theirobject.

    26) The various conceptual fields underlying a given actualised lexical field may vary cross-linguistically and/or diachronically.

    27) The realistic approach to formal Semantics is also known as space grammar.

    28) Hyponymy and incompatibility are contrastive relations.

    29) There are prefixes that trigger a change of word-class in the lexemes to which they are attached.

    30) The reflexivity of semantic studies is a consequence of the fact that the models employed in thescientific description of the domain are constructed within the same medium, and using the same

    kind of entities as the object of study.

    31) The extension of a predicator can only be formed up of real, actualised entities satisfying acertain property.

    32) In logical approaches to Semantics, the concepts of satisfaction, definition, and truth are allemployed in rendering relations between expressions and the objects that these expressions refer

    to.

    33) The Interpreter is an indispensable component of Peircean sign-action.

    34) Different signs can refer to one and the same referent only if each of the signs in question canalso refer to more than one referent.

    A

    A

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    A

    A

    A

    A?

    A

    A

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    35) General Semiotics studies the connections and interactions of signs pertaining to differentsignalling-systems, and therefore manifesting in different media.

    36) The intension of a predicate is the concept of an individual designator.

    37) Continuing the Saussurean tradition, Hjelmslevs construal of the functioning of the linguisticsign focuses upon the link between sound and meaning.

    38) The string On 9/11, all the terrorist groups had a similar composition: one leader, who was also

    a trained pilot, and three or four muscle-hijackers. features an instance of semantic shift.

    39) Fregean theory cannot account for the semantic and pragmatic acceptability of the string On fullmoon, some people still fear werewolves.

    40) Form and content may be both employed in either lexical or semantic change, the distinction inthese terms between the two types of processes therefore being ultimately a matter of degree.

    41)There cannot be relationships of hierarchical ordering among the meanings of the lexical items

    forming up the lexical fieldscientific domains.

    42) The Interpretant is included within the triadic nature of signs.

    43) The marked term of the pairmatter antimatteris matter.

    44) Lexical approaches to Semantics support and strengthen the characterisation of the latter as moreof an observational (rather than experimental) science.

    45) Peirces semiotic theory was intended to be non-anthropocentric, and therefore it excludedhuman conventional signs from its scope and domain.

    46) A rigorous observing of the principles postulated by the descriptivist theories of reference wouldresult in excluding non-exemplar entities from the reference set of a concept.

    47) The class of inflectional suffixes is by far less dynamic than the one of lexical suffixes.

    48) The nature of meaning and its role in epistemological processes are relatively recentpreoccupations of mankind.

    49) The meanings of the hyponyms are included in the meaning of the hyperonym.

    50) Saussurean Semiology, as the entirety of theories and analyses of signalling-systems, wasgrounded upon the fundamental principles of structural linguistics, and it represented a

    generalisation of them.

    A

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    A

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    MULTIPLE CHOICE

    1) Choose the correct variant:As far as the forming of the plural is concerned, the morphological behaviour of a compound

    lexeme depends upon:

    a) the presence / absence of a bound root component

    b) the degree of solidarity between (among) its components

    c) the difference between the sum of the meanings of the components and its overall meaning

    d) the presence / absence of a negative affix or particle as one of its componentse) the number of its components

    2) Which of the following signs may acquire different references when used by various speakers?a) diamondb) brass

    c) homeland

    d) Hamlet

    e) Verdi

    3) Choose the correct variant:

    The graphically recorded indications of a seismograph are:a) an indexic sign

    b) an indexic sign also having symbolic values

    c) an iconic sign

    d) an iconic sign also having symbolic values

    e) a symbolic sign

    4) Choose the correct variant:The syntagmstone deafis part of:

    a) the conceptual fieldstone

    b) the semantic field ofstone

    c) the family of words ofstone

    d) a general taxonomy of the mineral kingdom

    e) a meronomy the superior term of which is rock

    5) Choose the correct variant:The fact that classemes tend to be lexicalised is demonstrated by:

    a) the existence of irregular plurals like children oroxen

    b) the existence of irregular gradable adjectives likegood better the best

    c) the existence of a commonly shared across an entire field feature like [+ animate]

    d) the existence of the commonly shared suffix -en with verbs like to darken, to strengthen,to broaden, etc

    e) the existence of a relation of oppositeness of meaning with pairs like to whiten / to blacken

    6) Choose the correct variant:A bar code on the wrapping of a productis:

    a) an iconic sign (image)

    b) an indexic sign

    c) a symbolic (conventional) sign

    d) an indexic sign with additional symbolic values

    e) an iconic diagrammatic sign

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    7) Which of the following affixes cannot entail a negative meaning?a) a-

    b) dis-c) mis-

    d) -ment

    e) -less

    8) Which of the following statements is correct?a) Grammatical aspects are irrelevant with respect to the issue of markedness.

    b) Meaningfulness is paramount in epistemological processes.

    c) Semantic fields are perfectly homogeneous.

    d) Borrowed lexemes are not subject to any adaptive processes.

    e) A linguistic sign is always an isolated lexematic unit.

    9) Choose the correct variant:The string Towards the end of World War II, many British ships were equipped with anASDIC, a device which can be justly considered as the precursor of the sonar. demonstrates

    that:

    a) ASDIC (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) is a metaphor

    b) ASDIC (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) is the result of back-formation and clipping

    c) ASDIC (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) is an indexic sign

    d) ASDIC (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) is an abbreviation

    e) ASDIC (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee) is an acronym

    10) Which of the following signs does not have the same reference ( referent) as the other four?a) the author of The Adventures of Gordon Pym

    b) Samuel Clemens

    c) the author of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finnd) Mark Twain

    e) the creator of the character Tom Sawyer

    11) Which of the following series of terms is not a taxonomy?a) coal: boghead coal, lignite (brown coal), bituminous coals (subbituminous, bituminous,

    semibituminous coals), semianthracite coal, anthracite (black coal); but also: humic

    (woody) coals, and sapropelic coals

    b) dinosaur: the Ornithischia order (Stegosaurus, Triceratops, Iguanodon), and theSaurischia order (Tyrannosaurus, Apatosaurus Brontosaurus , Diplodocus); but also:quadrupedal / bipedal dinosaurs; carnivorous / herbivorous dinosaurs; terrestrial /

    amphibious (Hadrosauridae) / semiaquatic / aquatic (Ichthyosauridae) dinosaursc) microwave oven: power supply unit, magnetron (cathode, anode), magnetron control

    circuit (with micro-controller microprocessor), waveguide, cooking chamber, control

    paneld) dishes: soup (fish soup, giblet soup, noodle soup, pea soup, gravy soup, etc), fricassee,

    stew (Irish stew, vegetable stew), chop (mutton chop, pork chop), steak (sirloin steak,rump steak, stewing steak), ragout, confit (goose confit, duck confit), salad (lettuce salad,endive salad, etc), French fries, sausages, pizza, scrambled eggs, etc

    e) drinks: soft drinks (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, etc juice, coke, soda, etc), wine, brandy,cider, beer (light beer ale, lager , dark beer stout, porter, stingo, bock ), vermouth,

    whiskey (barley, maize, rye whiskey), etc

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    12) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:Together with their actual productive output of linguistic expressions, the native speakers

    ___ are principal sources in constituting the body of primary data that the empirical study ofLexical Semantics needs.

    a) knowledge and experience of various extra-linguistic entities

    b) training and skills in various domains

    c) intuitive semantic judgements of various linguistic materials

    d) various uses of basic syntactic structures

    e) intuitive interpretations of various syntactic structures

    13) Which of the following lexemes is a case of blending?a) overextension

    b) apocalypsec) enhancement

    d) kaleidovision

    e) e-business

    14) Choose the correct variant:Within the componential analysis of the verb to rain, the feature [+ impersonal verb] acts:

    a) as a classemeb) as a marker

    c) as a semantic marker

    d) simultaneously as a marker and as a semantic marker

    e) simultaneously as a marker and as a distinguisher

    15) Choose the correct variant:The individual is one of the central concepts in:

    a) Structural Semantics

    b) Lexical Semantics

    c) Logical Semantics

    d) Semiotics

    e) Syntax

    16) Choose the correct variant:The stringHis new and expensive boat is the pearl of this picturesque but shabby marina.features:

    a) a welded compound lexeme

    b) two lexemes which are in a relation of complementarity

    c) an instance of conversion

    d) an instance of a sign having no reference

    e) an instance of secondary iconicity

    17) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    flask: 1) a) a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long

    narrow neck (also more fullyFlorence flask)b) a similar vessel for use in a laboratory

    c) the contents or capacity of a flask; a definite quantity of liquid

    2) a bottle of glass or metal (usually furnished with a screw-top, and when

    made of glass encased in leather for protection), somewhat flat in

    shape, and of a size suitable to be carried in the pocket, which is intended

    to contain a supply of wine or other beverage for use on a journey

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    3) a) (founding) a frame or box used to hold a portion of the mould for

    casting

    b) (dentistry) a sectional metal container for holding a denture during

    vulcanisation

    4) (dialectal) a kind of basket

    5) (attributive and combinations) asflask-case, -glass, -shaped; also,flask-leather, a fastening for a powder-flask;flask-shell, a molluscwhose shell is flask-shaped

    (adapted afterOxford English Dictionary Online, copyright Oxford University Press, 2005)

    is an instance of:a) a conceptual field

    b) a lexical field

    c) a semantic field

    d) a family of words

    e) none of the four above

    18) Which of the following statements is incorrect?a) Linguistic signs cannot be grounded upon a resemblance with their object.

    b) Cognitivistic approaches to Semantics typically focus on lexical meaning.

    c) In informal speech, the termsemantics may also acquire a pejorative connotation.

    d) According to the realistic approaches to Semantics, meanings are extra-mental entities.e) There are approaches which practically oppose the termsign to the termsymbol.

    19) Which of the following signs is capable of signification irrespectively of the existence / non-existence of its object?

    a) footprints in a muddy soil

    b) a loud and clear signal on the sonar of a submarine

    c) a recorded echography

    d) the indicator paper turning red when in contact with a liquid

    e) traces of gunpowder on a murder suspects hands

    20)Choose the correct variant:

    Freges claim that identity (similitude) of sense triggers identity of reference can be

    illustrated by:

    a) the signspeed

    b) the signswiftness

    c) the sign rapidity

    d) the sign velocity

    e) the four signs above

    21) Which of the following affixes has two homonymous variants, out of which one is inflectional,and the other one is lexical?

    a) -ed

    b) i-c) -ness

    d) -ere) a-

    22) Choose the correct variant:The claim that signs have dynamic properties refers to:

    a) their evincing various modes in which they are capable of signification

    b) their being independent of the human consciousness entities

    c) their being meaningless

    d) their being triadic

    e) their representing a cause triggering the occurrence of other (in their turn, semiotic) events

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    23) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    OEsteorfan, MEsterven = to suffer complete and permanent cessation of all vitalfunctions, to come to the end of ones life, to die

    LMEsterven = to die of hungerModE to starve = to suffer severe, chronic (and sometimes lethal) malnutrition; to bevery hungry

    is an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) narrowingb) narrowing and pejoration

    c) pejoration

    d) elevation

    e) narrowing and elevation

    24) Choose the correct variant:Within the componential analysis of the lexeme leech, the feature [+ blood-sucking] acts:

    a) as a semantic marker

    b) as a distinguisher

    c) simultaneously as a semantic marker and as a distinguisher

    d) simultaneously as a semantic marker and as a classeme

    e) simultaneously as a marker and as a classeme

    25) Which of the following items represents the content-substance underlying the signsatellite?a) the sounds that are produced when uttering the word in question

    b) the sequence of graphemes forming up the word in question

    c) the sequence of phonemes forming up the word in question

    d) the concept of satellite

    e) the natural or artificial entities revolving round a planet, and our knowledge of them

    26) Which of the following verbs of visual perception most appropriately corresponds to a tentativecomponential analysis featuring the semes [- durative], [+ instantaneous], [+ mere sensorial

    perception], [- mental processing], [ furtively], [- fixedly], [- systematically], [- emotionallyconnotated], [+ also used figuratively]?

    a) to look

    b) to stare

    c) to gaze

    d) to peep

    e) to glance

    27) Choose the correct variant:The lexeme marathon is the result of:

    a) coining

    b) both coining and extensionc) semantic shift

    d) both extension and semantic shift

    e) both coining and semantic shift

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    28) Choose the correct variant:The seriespharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)represents:

    a) a case of locative inclusion

    b) a part of a segmental meronomy

    c) a systemic meronomy

    d) a part of a folk-taxonomy

    e) a scientific taxonomy

    29) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:Single-criterion concepts ___ describe the referent.

    a) partially

    b) fully

    c) scientifically

    d) roughly

    e) figuratively

    30) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    18 c. avatr= the descend of a deity to the earth in an incarnate form19 c. avatar= manifestation in human form; incarnation; manifestation orpresentation to the world as a ruling power or object of worship

    19-20 c. avatar= manifestation; display; phaseis an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) pejoration and specialisation

    b) broadening and pejoration

    c) broadening and amelioration

    d) amelioration

    e) pejoration

    31) Which of the following lexemes is an illustration of coining?a) walrusb) guruc) meson

    d) famine

    e) breach

    32) Choose the correct variant:Typically, Semantics is not conferred a central role in:

    a) traditional grammar

    b) Standard Generative-transformational Grammar (GTG)

    c) Extended Standard Theory (EST)

    d) Revised Extended Standard Theory (REST)e) any of the four approaches above

    33) Choose the correct variant:One of the fallacies of the descriptivist account of reference resides in the fact that a typical

    definitional mechanism would fail to pick up referents like:

    a) tight shirts

    b) numerous insects

    c) brilliant scientists

    d) toothless sharks

    e) ancient civilisations

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    34) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:When confronted with the authors own postulations regarding the requirements that a

    scientific theory has to meet, Hjelmslevs glossematic model appears ___ .

    a) to comply with all of them

    b) not to comply with any of them

    c) to be non-contradictory and simple, yet not exhaustive

    d) to be non-contradictory and exhaustive, yet not simple

    e) to be simple and exhaustive, yet contradictory

    35) Choose the correct variant:Lexemes are more resistant to change than:

    a) inflectional affixes

    b) the associated to them sememes

    c) syntactic structures

    d) phonological rules

    e) morphological categories

    36) Which of the following signs can illustrate the one-to-many correlation in the sign referentdyad?

    a) The Renaissanceb) Babylon

    c) Great-grandfather

    d) clone

    e) molecule

    37) Choose the correct variant:The string The snake was hissing menacingly. contains an instance of:

    a) incompatibility

    b) incompatibility and conversion

    c) onomatopoeic iconicity and conversion

    d) onomatopoeic iconicity and converseness

    e) onomatopoeic iconicity

    38) Which of the following pairs is an instance of hyponymy?a) Phobos / Deimos

    b) barren / prolific

    c) aristocrat / count

    d) to commence / to start

    e) lack / want

    39) Choose the correct variant:The noun kingdom is not:

    a) a base

    b) a stem

    c) a compound

    d) a symbolic sign

    e) a designator

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    40) Which of the following verbs of light most appropriately corresponds to a tentativecomponential analysis featuring the semes [+ intermittently], [ emitting light], [ reflecting

    light], [- intense light], [+ lustre], [- incandescence], [+ referring to water], [- referring to eyes],[- referring to cheeks], [- referring to stars], [ also used figuratively]?

    a) to sparkle

    b) to glow

    c) to twinkle

    d) to glitter

    e) to glisten

    41) Which of the following lexemes is the result of both prefixation and back-clipping?a) undergrad

    b) bigamyc) atheist

    d) misspell

    e) aftermath

    42) Choose the correct statement:a) The content dimension of a lexeme is integrally rendered by its componential definition.

    b) Semantic theory has always operated a clear distinction between lexical and semanticfield.

    c) The sememes associated with the terms within a lexical field have to be completely

    distinct.

    d) Several terms belonging to one and the same lexical field can have a common referent.

    e) Terms belonging to different lexical fields cannot evince commonly shared features.

    43) Choose the correct variant:The string The car in front of me suddenly pressed the brakes and skidded laterally.contains:

    a) an illustration of the fact that there can be signs without a referent

    b) an instance of reversibility

    c) an instance of coining

    d) an iconic sign

    e) an instance of secondary iconicity

    44) Choose the correct variant:The string When the meat is almost cooked, you have to add the diced vegetables, andafterwards the tomato sauce. contains an instance of:

    a) attachment

    b) antonymy

    c) conversion

    d) extension

    e) blending

    45) Choose the correct variant:Within the componential analysis of the verb to cease, the feature [+ ergative] is:

    a) a unit of expression

    b) a distinguisher

    c) a semantic marker

    d) a marker

    e) none of the listed above

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    46) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    17 c.Parea, 17-18 c.Paria = a member of a tribe in South India, originallyfunctioning notably as sorcerors and ceremonial drummers, and also as labourers and

    servants, but later increasingly as untouchables in insanitary occupations

    19-20 c.pariah = member of any low caste; a person of no caste; a member of adespised class of any kind; someone or something shunned or avoided; a social

    outcast(adapted afterOxford English Dictionary Online, copyright Oxford University Press, 2005)

    is an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) broadening

    b) specialisation

    c) pejoration and broadening

    d) pejoration and specialisation

    e) amelioration and broadening

    47) Choose the correct variant:The meanings ofsolution in There were several salts dissolved in that solution., and inAs a

    result of the violent contact with the sharp edge of the box, the skin on his ankle presented atwo-inch contiguity solution. illustrate:

    a) non-identityb) the semantic change process of narrowing

    c) the relation of meronymy

    d) the relation of enantiosemy

    e) the relation of incompatibility

    48) Which of the following affixes can trigger two different changes of word-class?a) -less

    b) -ify

    c) dis-

    d) -lye) re-

    49) Choose the correct variant:A schoolboys coming home having a black eye, several other bruises and scratches, tornand dirty clothes is:

    a) an iconic diagrammatic sign

    b) an indexic sign

    c) an indexic sign with additional iconic values

    d) an iconic sign with additional indexic values

    e) an iconic sign with additional symbolic values

    50) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    ME cork= the outer bark of the cork oak (a Mediterranean tree)LME, ModE cork= the bark of a tree; the material itself (light, soft, and porous)having various uses; a particular product made of this material or of other materials

    (e.g. plastic), which is used for closing the opening of a bottle

    is an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) elevation

    b) pejoration

    c) narrowing and pejoration

    d) broadening

    e) broadening and elevation

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    51) In which of the following domains the study of cognitive processes stands as one of the centralaims?

    a) Linguistics

    b) Semiotics

    c) Psychology

    d) Philosophy

    e) Sociology

    52) Choose the correct variant:The fact that the position of an indicator needle on a control panel can signify (i.e. supplyinformation about) the pressure of a fluid in a containercan serve as an illustration of:

    a) the nature of signs as exclusively human products

    b) the linguistic nature of signs

    c) the arbitrariness of signs

    d) the meaninglessness of signs

    e) the nature of signs as entities that have to involve relations to other sorts of things

    53) Which of the following series of terms is not a meronomy?a) US: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,

    Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, New York, Ohio,Pennsylvania, Texas,Virginia, Wyoming, etc

    b) US: New England, The Mid-Atlantic, The South, The Midwest, The Southwest, The West

    c) Complement Clauses: THATClauses, Infinitive Clauses (FOR-TO Complementation, TOComplementation), Gerundial Clauses, Embedded (Indirect) Questions

    d) Zoology: Entomology, Ichthyology, Herpetology, Ornithology, Primatology, etc

    e) leaf: petiole or stalk, and blade or lamina (margin, midrib, vein)

    54) Choose the correct variant:The feature [+ cards] within the componential analysis of the verb to shuffle functions as:

    a) a classeme

    b) a semantic marker

    c) a marker

    d) a distinguisher

    e) none of the four above

    55) Which of the following models (theories) of the (linguistic) sign most ambiguously deals withmeaning?

    a) Saussures model

    b) Hjelmslevs model

    c) Freges theses

    d) Carnaps symbolic logic

    e) Peirces general semiotic theory

    56) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The concepts ___ can be both employed in analytic statements.

    a) vealand elephant

    b) rubberandglue

    c) drone and lass

    d) marmalade andpaper

    e) cucumberand mutton

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    57) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The lexeme ___ illustrates the fact that the suffix -lingmay in some cases behave as a class-

    changing affix.

    a) weakling

    b) nestling

    c) deathling

    d) earthling

    e) worldling

    58) Choose the correct variant:The syntagm thin ice within the string To lie to your employer is to skate on thin ice. pertains

    to:

    a) the lexical field ice

    b) the paradigm ofice

    c) the semantic field ofice

    d) the truth value of the designatorice

    e) none of the four above

    59) Which of the following items is an instance of acronymy?

    a) HQ (headquarters)b) HP (horse-power)

    c) k. p. h. (kilometres per hour)

    d) m. p. h. (miles per hour)

    e) each of the four items above

    60) Choose the correct variant:The fact that a four-year-old childs, a housewifes, and an entomologists views on spidersmay significantly differstands as an argument supporting:

    a) Hjelmslevs theoretical assumptions regarding the functioning of the linguistic sign

    b) the tenets of the external account of reference

    c) an a priori definition of the concept

    d) Freges first and second theses

    e) Carnaps general classification of designators

    61) Which of the following pairs is an instance of lexical relatedness?a) device vice

    b) fascinating fastidiousc) calf half

    d) drop droplet

    e) obstacle barrier

    62) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The most difficult problem to be solved by a non-psychological account of sign-action is___, and, by doing this, not to alter the concept of sign itself.

    a) to explain the differences among the various classes of signs

    b) to capture the essential nature of the objects of signs

    c) to focus upon the transcendental condition of signs

    d) to avoid discussing the dynamic properties of signs

    e) to avoid resorting to the intervention of a human brain

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    63) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:Hyperonyms are ___ than holonyms.

    a) typically, simpler terms

    b) typically, simpler concepts

    c) more frequently and clearly expressed

    d) less frequently and/or clearly expressed

    e) less relevant for the study of field properties

    64) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    OE heofon, ME heven = sky

    ModE heaven = the place (somewhere up in the sky) where God and angels live; theplace where the souls of good people go; the land of happiness; extremely pleasant

    place or enjoyable situation

    is an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) broadening and elevation

    b) narrowing and pejoration

    c) elevation

    d) pejoration

    e) broadening and pejoration

    65) Choose the correct variant:The collocationfrom cradle to the grave is an instance of:

    a) a one-to-many correlation

    b) a many-to-one correlation

    c) narrowing

    d) metonymy

    e) zero derivation

    66) Which is the extension of the designatorSalieri envied Mozart.?a) the existence in the real world of an actual individual entity called Mozart (1756-1791)

    b) the actual individual entity of the person called Salieri (1750-1825)c) the concept of Italian composer

    d) the property of being a genius

    e) the truthfulness of the corresponding proposition

    67) Which of the following lexemes is the result of back-clipping?a) none of the four below

    b) T-Rex

    c) viz.

    d) tin

    e) hue

    68) Which of the following construals of (linguistic) sign-action is not resolvable into, and does notresort to any dichotomy?

    a) Peirces theory of signs

    b) Voronins phonosemantic analysis

    c) Hjelmslevs glossematic model

    d) Saussures model

    e) Carnaps analysis of designators

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    69) Which of the following pairs is not an illustration of a hierarchical sense relation?a) spice / cinnamon

    b) ship / keelc) windpipe / trachea

    d) game / darts

    e) radiator / antifreeze

    70) Choose the correct variant:The suffix -ous can attach to:

    a) grief

    b) murder

    c) poison

    d) burden

    e) all the four lexemes above

    71) Choose the correct variant:A de re reading of a concept entails:

    a) considering speakers knowledge of the referent

    b) considering the possible modifications that the referent itself may undergo

    c) considering other contextual variablesd) all the three above

    e) none of the three above

    72) Which of the following verbs of cutting most appropriately corresponds to a tentativecomponential analysis featuring the semes [+ wood, stone], [- meat], [ into thin portions],

    [- into small pieces], [- disintegrating], [- at the edges], [- engraving], [ using a special device],

    [+ also used figuratively]?

    a) to slice

    b) to cleave

    c) to chop

    d) to carve

    e) to mince

    73) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:Signs are generically defined by ___ as meaningful stimulus patterns.

    a) behaviourists

    b) generativists

    c) structuralists

    d) cognitivists

    e) linguists

    74) Which of the following pairs is an instance of converseness?a) tissue / fatsb) present / absent

    c) solar / lunar

    d) sovereign / subject

    e) fragrance / scent

    75) Which of the following signs can stand as an illustration of Freges first thesis?a) Bacchus

    b) Aristotle

    c) Magna Charta

    d) Thomas Aquinas

    e) Chaucer

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    76) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:A direction in which the cognitivistic program still has to overcome some evinced till now

    limitations is the one concerning ___ .

    a) the mental representations of linguistic expressions

    b) the semantic representation at lexical level

    c) the synchronic dimension of language

    d) the psychological aspects of language

    e) the social aspects of language

    77) Which of the following lexemes is not a loanword?a) adagio

    b) mantra

    c) mahout

    d) creek

    e) nebbish

    78) Choose the correct variant:The string Some of the children were noisily running up and down the stairs. contains acollocation which illustrates:

    a) the possibility for lexical items in a field to be lexically relatedb) the possibility for lexical items in a field to evince hierarchical ordering

    c) the possibility for lexical items in a field to evince similarity

    d) the possibility for lexical items in a field to be syntagmatically related

    e) the possibility for lexical items in a field to be paradigmatically related

    79) Which of the following signs does not share the same sense and reference with the other four?a) craft

    b) ability

    c) skill

    d) facility

    e) capability

    80) Choose the correct statement:a) There are no non-linguistic conventional signs.

    b) Reversibility is a hierarchical sense relation.

    c) The feature [ human] is a distinguisher.

    d) There are no non-intersecting lexical fields.

    e) According to many lexical approaches to Semantics, the role of grammar is to serve the

    conveyance of meaning.

    81) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:According to ___, the features specified by the sense of a sign suffice for the users to

    successfully refer to the corresponding in extra-linguistic reality objects.

    a) the general semiotic theories

    b) the Conformity Law

    c) the internal account of reference

    d) the cognitive semantic theories

    e) the external account of reference

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    82) Which of the following pairs is not a synonymic one?a) ludicrous / emetic

    b) limpid / clearc) feasible / practicable

    d) to thrust / to push

    e) to disdain / to contempt

    83) Which of the following signs is not an indexic one?a) someones waving of a white flag after a battle

    b) the bad smell of a loaf of meat

    c) steam rising over the water of a spring

    d) an increase of the average life expectancy of a countrys population

    e) several persons ahead of you slipping on the same area of the sidewalk

    84) Choose the correct variant:In principle, and considering also the thesis of the non-existence of perfect synonyms, a

    given sememe should uniquely correspond to:

    a) a certain semantic field

    b) a certain phoneme

    c) a certain morphemed) a certain lexeme

    e) a certain referent

    85) Which of the following lexemes is both a borrowed word, and a word which has undergone (inAnglophone usage) a semantic change process of pejoration?

    a) hollow

    b) macho

    c) loch

    d) kimono

    e) Maori

    86) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The actual presence in somebodys psyche of a state of beneficial or destructive

    determination in achieving a certain goal represents ___ambition.

    a) the sense of the lexeme

    b) a property of the indexic sign

    c) the content dimension of the lexeme

    d) an extension of the individual expression

    e) the intension of the individual expression

    87) Choose the correct variant:The use ofown goalwithin the stringBeing so busy trying to harm the others, she has

    neglected her very interests, and ruined her reputation, thus scoring an own goal. is part of:

    a) none of the four below

    b) the expression-substance of the signgoal

    c) a meronomy the superior term of which isgoal

    d) the paradigm ofgoal

    e) the semantic field ofgoal

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    88) Choose the correct variant:The interdisciplinary bias of semantic studies represents:

    a) a cause of their reflexivity

    b) the reason for which M. Bral is considered to be the father of modern Semantics

    c) positively, a drawback

    d) positively, an advantage

    e) a complexly influential factor in what concerns the scope, methodology, and theoretical

    perspectives of the domain

    89) Choose the correct variant:The encircled figure 16 in the right lower corner of the TV screen is:

    a) an indexic sign

    b) an indexic sign also having iconic values

    c) a symbolic sign

    d) an iconic sign

    e) an iconic sign also having symbolic values

    90) Choose the correct variant:The termspop, dance, disco, blues, soul, reggae, country, jazz, metal, techno, rave, etc are

    in:a) any of the four relations below

    b) a relation of contrast

    c) a relation of incompatibility

    d) a relation of co-hyponymy

    e) a logical relationship of inconsistency

    91) Which of the following signs cannot stand as an illustration of Freges first thesis?a) Merlin

    b) Plato

    c) Valhalla

    d) Manitu

    e) Quetzalcatl

    92) Choose the correct variant:A conceptual field can be construed as:

    a) a cross-linguistic invariant

    b) the totality of the meanings that a lexeme may have

    c) a language-specific segment of the lexicon

    d) a set of lexemes which are derived from one and the same root

    e) none of the four above

    93) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    OEfstrian, fstr(i)an = to supply with food or nourishment; to nourish, feed,support

    EMEfoster= to bring up (a child) with parental care; often, to bring up as a foster-child, be a foster-parent; to encourage or help to grow; to promote the growth of (a

    fire, plant, etc)

    MEfoster= to nurse, tend with affectionate care; to cherish, keep warm (in thebosom); to bring up, educate, nurture in (beliefs, habits, etc); (also fig. about a

    country, etc)

    LMEfoster= to encourage, indulge in a habit, etc; to encourage, cherish, harbourfondly, nurse (a feeling, etc); to encourage, promote the development of; (about

    things, circumstances) to be favourable or conducive to

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    ModE to foster= (to a certain extent) the previously listed meanings; ~ out, to put (achild) into the care of foster parents

    (adapted afterOxford English Dictionary Online, copyright Oxford University Press, 2005)

    is an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) narrowing and degradation

    b) narrowing

    c) broadening and degradation

    d) broadening and elevation

    e) elevation

    94) Choose the correct variant:The concept wormhole can occur:

    a) in analytic statements, as a single-criterion concept

    b) in analytic statements, as either a single- or a law-criterion concept

    c) in synthetic statements, as a single-criterion concept

    d) in synthetic statements, as either a multiple- or a law-criterion concept

    e) in synthetic statements, as either a single- or a law-criterion concept

    95) Choose the correct variant:The verb to enactis the result of:

    a) blendingb) back-clipping

    c) class-changing prefixation

    d) class-changing prefixation and back-clipping

    e) marginal conversion

    96) Which of the following pairs is an instance of partonymy?a) willing / reluctant

    b) clock / hands

    c) trade / agriculture

    d) before / after

    e) plane / pilot

    97) Choose the correct variant:The many-to-one sign referent correlation can be illustrated by:

    a) the sign the capital of the state of Illinois

    b) the sign wind city

    c) the sign Chicago

    d) the three signs above

    e) a linguistic sign consisting of more than one lexeme

    98) Choose the correct variant:

    The small hearts on Valentines Day postcards are to be interpreted as:a) signs having both iconic and indexic values

    b) signs having both symbolic and iconic values

    c) signs having both symbolic and indexic values

    d) signs having no reference

    e) signs having both indexic and metonymic values

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    99) Which of the following items is the intension of the designatorEnola Gay?a) the plane itself

    b) the property of being capable of flying

    c) the property of being lethal

    d) the plane that carried the first atomic bomb, and which was named after the commanders

    mother

    e) a single-criterion concept

    100) Which of the following lexemes is always used metaphorically?a) seed

    b) wave

    c) bloodbath

    d) blaze

    e) sunbeam

    101) Choose the correct variant:The presence of a reddish-brown with metallic lustre deposit on the rock out of which astream is springingis:

    a) an iconic sign

    b) an indexic signc) a symbolic sign with additional iconic values

    d) a symbolic sign with additional indexic values

    e) an iconic sign with additional indexic values

    102) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The sense ofpitch inIt was pitch dark. is included in ___ of the lexeme in question.

    a) the conceptual field

    b) the semantic marker

    c) the grammatical paradigm

    d) the expression dimension

    e) the semantic field

    103) Which of the following lexemes features a different from the other four word formation pattern?a) Guinea pig

    b) Alzheimer disease

    c) Doppler effect

    d) Mach speede) Brodmann area

    104) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:In Fregean terms, for an entity to be the referent of a sign implies that it satisfies at least

    some of the properties specified by ___ of the sign in question.

    a) the subjective representation

    b) the name

    c) the sense

    d) the symbol

    e) the graphical representation

    105) Which of the following pairs is an instance of incompatibility?a) fashion / aphasia

    b) host / guest

    c) fury / rage

    d) granite / marble

    e) mollusc / squid

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    106) Which of the following concepts does not exclude from its scope the denotatum (object)?a) Carnaps intension

    b) Fregean reference

    c) Fregean sense

    d) Peircean Interpretant

    e) Peircean icon

    107) Choose the correct variant:Cognitivistic approaches to Semantics typically operate with:

    a) definitions

    b) cross-linguistic meaning properties

    c) propositions

    d) truth values

    e) mental image-schemas

    108) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:The termjewelis ___ including brooch, bracelet, necklace, ring, earring, etc.

    a) the hyperonym of a meronomy

    b) the holonym of a meronomy

    c) the hyperonym of a taxonomyd) the holonym of a taxonomy

    e) the hyponym ofbeads in a taxonomy

    109) Which of the following affixes entails a negative meaning?a) mal-

    b) en-

    c) -y

    d) re-

    e) -age

    110) Choose the correct variant:According to the views on language promoted by cognitive approaches, the functionalproperties of a string are the contribution of:

    a) grammar

    b) Semantics

    c) Syntax

    d) Pragmatics

    e) Phonology

    111) Choose the correct variant:The series unicellular, storm cell, cell-phone, cellulite is part of:

    a) none of the four below

    b) a semantic field

    c) a conceptual field

    d) a lexical field

    e) a family of words

    112) Choose the correct variant:Inflectional affixes cannot attach to:

    a) lexemes that are the result of extension

    b) bound roots

    c) lexemes that are the result of conversion

    d) hyphenated compounds

    e) lexemes that are the result of back-clipping

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    113) Which of the following signs differs from the other four in terms of reference, and fieldappurtenance?

    a) to crushb) to destroy

    c) to pervade

    d) to smash

    e) to annihilate

    114) Choose the correct variant:The lexeme amperometeris the result of:

    a) welded compounding

    b) extension and blending

    c) extension and welded compounding

    d) borrowing and blending

    e) fore-clipping and prefixation

    115) Which of the following items is an instance of content-form?a) the sequence of phonemes/d////m/

    b) the graphemes d, a, and m

    c) actual constructions built in order to create an accumulation of waterd) the concept of dam

    e) both the first two items above

    116) Choose the correct variant:The gathering and circling of vultures above a certain spotis:

    a) an iconic diagrammatic sign

    b) an indexic sign

    c) a symbolic sign

    d) an iconic sign also having symbolic values

    e) an iconic sign also having indexic values

    117) Which of the following pairs is not an illustration of incompatibility?a) Alsace / Bretagne

    b) planet / pole

    c) dread / awe

    d) fortune-teller / sculptor

    e) cortisone / adrenaline

    118) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:Knowledge about the ___ may vary from speaker to speaker.

    a) sign

    b) sense

    c) referent

    d) intension

    e) Interpretant

    119) Which of the following items is an instance of expression-substance?a) the idea or concept of raft

    b) the entities that are floating platforms made of logs tied together or the entities that are

    small inflatable boats made of rubber or plastic

    c) the users knowledge and/or experience of such entities

    d) the users sonorous emissions when uttering the word raft

    e) the sequence of phonemes/r//://f//t/or/r////f//t/

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    120) Which of the following items is an abbreviation?a) oz. (ounce)

    b) SMS (short message system or service )c) GI (Government Issue)

    d) S.O.S. (save our souls)

    e) each of the four items above

    121) Which of the following verbs of contact (adjoining) features within its componential analysis thedistinguisher [+ functional joining of technical devices]?

    a) to grab

    b) to clutch

    c) to seize

    d) to grasp

    e) to catch

    122) Choose the correct statement:a) The termsemasiologie was gradually abandoned because it was specialised for reference

    to the content dimension of the linguistic sign.

    b) Universal Grammar is not one of the applied directions in Linguistics.

    c) Reflexivity is a trait of linguistic studies, and not a linguistic phenomenon.d) The semantic module occupies a central position in formal grammatical models.

    e) The contemporary trend in Lexical Semantics is to focus upon referential or dictionary

    meaning.

    123) Choose the correct variant:The stringIn 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were the first men to reach theroof of the world. contains an instance of:

    a) zero derivation

    b) sound-symbolism

    c) narrowing

    d) semantic shift

    e) reversibility

    124) Choose the correct variant:The following example:

    ME boi(e) / boy(e) = an attendant (messenger, gate keeper, butchers boy), a servant

    (cooks helper) usually young; a person of low birth or rank; a worthless or wickedfellow

    ModE boy = a male child, youthis an illustration of the semantic change process(es) of:

    a) broadening

    b) amelioration

    c) broadening and ameliorationd) narrowing

    e) narrowing and amelioration

    125) Choose the appropriate to fill in the blanks variant:With polysemous lexemes, ___ to enter a given sense relation.

    a) all the meanings are supposed

    b) only one meaning is likely

    c) none of the meanings are likely

    d) only proper (non-figurative) meanings are supposed

    e) only contextual meanings are likely

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    126) Choose the correct variant:The linguistic expression adult magis the result of:

    a) compounding and abbreviation

    b) compounding and acronymy

    c) compounding and back-clipping

    d) broadening, compounding, and back-clipping

    e) specialisation, compounding, and abbreviation

    127) Which of the following pairs is an instance of partonymy?a) to confine / to restrict

    b) pathology / oncology

    c) ellipsoidal / octagonal

    d) soothing / calming

    e) ant / termite

    128) Which of the following signs is a symbolic sign with additional iconic values?a) the formula E = mc2

    b) the New option on the toolbar of your computer

    c) the Microsoft Word option in the Programs menu of your computer

    d) the close sound of a car horn while you are carelessly crossing a streete) a small circle having a cross underneath (), and indicating (the appurtenance to) the

    female gender

    129) Choose the correct variant:The intension of the designator(to be) wetis:

    a) all the objects evincing the property of being impregnated with a liquid

    b) water

    c) water and all kinds of other liquids

    d) the concept of humidity, moist, dampness due to the presence of liquids; the property of

    being permanently or temporarily sodden

    e) all expressed thoughts about humidity

    130) Choose the correct variant:The semantic notions of truth and designation prove indispensable to:

    a) the study of lexical change processes

    b) traditional grammars

    c) cognitive grammar

    d) early generative grammars

    e) the methodology of science

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    MATCHING

    1) Match each item in the first column with the correctly corresponding specification in the secondcolumn:

    A) spatial relative positions of entities 1) a situation that may characterise the relative

    to each other positions of two given lexical

    fields

    B) scientific progress 2) a factor that may contribute to taxonomic

    instabilityC) intersection (partial superposition) 3) a component of the semantic field associated

    with a lexeme or syntagm

    D) gradability 4) the extra-linguistic determining factor in

    establishing the relation of locative inclusion

    E) figurative meaning(s) 5) a discriminating criterion within the domain

    of oppositeness of meaning

    2) Match the two columns in order to associate correctly each of the items in the first column withits description in the second column:

    A) translational linguistic predictability 1) a drawback in the development of

    linguistic Semantics

    B) meaning of a (single) sign 2) a consequence of the existence of cross-linguistic relations among signs

    C) views on Linguistics 3) a generative grammar in which Semantics

    is conferred a more clearly outlined role

    than in other formal grammars

    D) Government and Binding Theory 4) the main focus of classical Lexical

    Semantics

    E) empirical diachronic investigation of

    semantic changes5) one of the variables influencing the status

    and definition of Semantics

    3) Match the two columns in order to obtain the correct associations between the lexemes in the

    first column, and the lexical process specifications in the second column:A) digital cam 1) three-stage suffixation

    B) spinal cord 2) compounding, suffixation, back-clipping

    C) polarisation 3) prefixation, two-stage suffixation

    D) bionic implant 4) compounding, blending, prefixation,conversion

    E) deodorisation 5) compounding, suffixation

    4) Associate each of the signs in the first column with the correct classifying specification in thesecond column:

    A) a mans kissing of a ladys hand 1) iconic sign with additional symbolicvalues

    B) the sound of brakes followed by a thuddown in the street

    2) indexic sign

    C) fewer lines in the area marked by anantenna on the display of a cell-phone

    3) symbolic-iconic sign with additional

    indexic values

    D) the button Select All that can be

    customised on the toolbar of the computer4) symbolic sign with additional indexic

    values

    E) a map of the European Union 5) symbolic sign

    4B2C1D5E3

    B4C5D3E1

    B5C1D4E3

    B2C3D4E1

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    5) Match the two columns in order to obtain the correct correspondences between the items in thefirst column, and the specifications in the second column:

    A) triadic models of the linguistic sign 1) an extra-linguistic level

    B) exhaustiveness 2) the plereme ceneme duality

    C) linguistic sign 3) one of the fundamental requirements a

    scientific theory has to meet

    D) dyadic models of the linguistic sign 4) marginalise or do not clearly specify the

    role of meaningE) substance 5) evince similarities with the general

    semiotic models

    6) Match the items in the first column with their correct descriptions in the second column:A) Medusa 1) a sign with no referent

    B) rail 2) a sign that can have different references

    (referents)

    C) chromosome 3) a cluster-criterion concept

    D) Auntie 4) a law-criterion concept

    E) a deaf musician 5) a referent the reference to which

    contradicts the de dicto principle

    7) Match the two columns in order to indicate correctly the sense relation that holds between thelexemes in each of the pairs in the first column:

    A) primary / ultimate 1) incompatibility

    B) to appal / to horrify 2) non-identity

    C) on / off 3) converseness

    D) Earth / Jupiter 4) complementarity

    E) banister / lust 5) synonymy

    8) Match each of the concepts in the first column with its correctly corresponding description /

    specification in the second column:A) grammatical meaning 1) a process the productivity of which

    decreases with the development of the

    language in question

    B) semantic significance of a process 2) a lexical process which can be also dealt

    with as a semantic one

    C) content 3) a property diminishing its relevance or

    acquiring systematicity and predictability

    with highly productive processes

    D) coining 4) a component of meaning the variation of

    which is normally undertaken by

    inflectional rules

    E) extension 5) the most dynamic level of language

    B3C2D4E1

    B3C4D2E5

    B5C3D1E2

    B5C3D1E2

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    9) Indicate the correct associations between the items in the first column, and the specifications inthe second column:

    A) the sharing by many users of roughly thesame sense of an expression

    1) an argument supporting the claim for

    objectivity and inter-subjectivity of senses

    B) a biunique (1-1) correlation in the sign

    referent dyad2) an entailment of the thesis of the basic

    arbitrariness of the linguistic sign

    C) sense of a sign 3) an interpretation of sense which also takes

    into account the referent

    D) The General Multiple Choice NominationLaw

    4) one of the possible (incomplete) modes ofpresentation of the reference

    E) a de re reading of the sense of a linguistic

    expression5) a formulaic postulation of the bi-

    directional homeomorphism characterising

    the sign referent dyad

    10) Match the concepts in the first column with their correctly corresponding descriptions in thesecond column:

    A) core meaning 1) a cause of the frequent discrepancy

    between the structure of the meronomic

    hierarchy, and the actual internal structure

    of the complex entity that the former

    linguistically signifiesB) conceptual field 2) a criterion for identifying the unmarked

    term of an opposition

    C) lexical gaps 3) a component of the semantic field

    associated with a lexeme

    D) contextual meaning(s) 4) the distinctive semantic feature(s) that is

    (are) common to all the terms in a field

    E) pragmatic naturalness 5) an abstracted construct beyond individual

    languages

    11) Match the two columns in order to obtain the correct correspondences between the concepts in

    the first column, and the descriptions in the second column:A) single-criterion concept 1) a definitional interpretation of sense

    B) a de dicto reading of the sense of alinguistic expression

    2) the referred to extra-linguistic entity initself

    C) extension of an individual expression 3) that which is specified by sense

    D) intensionality of designators 4) a (rare) label the sense of which

    completely describes the referent

    E) a set of properties of the reference

    (referent)5) roughly, their meanings

    12) Match the two columns in order to obtain the correct correspondences between the givenconcepts, and the type of approach to Semantics that employs them:

    A) formatives in the lexicon 1) Logical SemanticsB) meanings as mental entities 2) Structural Semantics

    C) propositions 3) Transformational Semantics

    D) lexical field 4) Sentence Semantics

    E) meaning of an organised sequence of signs 5) Cognitive Semantics

    B2C4D3E5

    B5C1D3E2

    B1C2D5E3

    B5C1D2E4

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    13) Match the two columns in order to indicate correctly the lexical process specification for each ofthe lexemes in the first column:

    A) to sunbathe 1) compounding, extension, suffixation

    B) high voltage 2) prefixation, suffixation

    C) rigidification 3) compounding, class-changing prefixation

    D) Embedded Clause 4) compounding, marginal conversion(deflection)

    E) coalescence 5) three-stage suffixation

    14) For each of the items in the first column, indicate the correct association with its description /specification:

    A) the phenomenal and the noumenal 1) the type of motivated signification with

    which the form of the sign is highly

    conditioned by the specific properties of

    the medium

    B) inference 2) the extra-mental reality mentally

    represented by our conceptions

    C) iconicity 3) a generic denomination, which in some

    linguistic approaches may stand for

    motivated signs of either iconic or indexic

    typesD) symptoms 4) the logical operation by means of which

    knowledge can be obtained, even starting

    out from imperfect information

    E) signal 5) the label that some linguists (e.g. J. Lyons)

    prefer for denominating biological indexic

    signs

    15) For each of the concepts in the first column, indicate the correctly corresponding description /specification in the second column:

    A) hyponymy 1) the result of the sequential further

    decomposability of some of thesemantically distinctive features within the

    componential definition of a term

    B) co-meronymy 2) an element included as a variable in the

    complex function equation of sense

    C) contextual interpretation 3) a contrastive field property

    D) polysemy 4) the main structuralist principle at work in

    componential analysis

    E) systems of binary oppositions 5) a form meaning relation

    16) Match the two columns, associating each concept in the first column with the correct description/ specification in the second column:

    A) causation 1) a dynamic entityB) iconic sign 2) a specific feature of symbols

    C) conventionality 3) the main driving force of semiotic action

    D) sign 4) a case in which the existence of the

    signified entity is not mandatory

    E) logical truth 5) the entailment or implication of the form

    of a logical expression

    B1C5D3E2

    B4C1D5E3

    B3C2D5E4

    B4C2D1E5

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    17) Match the two columns in order to obtain the correct association between each of the items inthe first column, and the description / specification in the second column:

    A) the meaning of meaning 1) the leading principle in early generativegrammars

    B) logical expression and its truth values 2) the central issue in numerous semantic

    enterprises

    C) set of possible worlds 3) the main focus in contemporary

    approaches to Lexical Semantics

    D) autonomous syntax 4) a postulation of intensional realisticsemantics, initially formulated in Kripkes

    works on modal logics

    E) contextual meaning 5) the main focus of philosophical (logical)

    semantics

    18) Match the two columns in order to associate correctly the items in the first column with thedescriptions / specifications in the second column:

    A) emergence of a new word 1) a possible but not obligatory consequence

    of suffixation

    B) morpho-syntax 2) an important and sometimes determining

    element in primary word formation

    processesC) change of word-class 3) a criterion for distinguishing instances in

    which word formation processes have

    applied from abbreviations

    D) identity of some elements of expression 4) a necessary but not sufficient condition for

    lexical relatedness between (among)

    lexemes

    E) extra-linguistic factors 5) the most resistant to change level of

    language

    19) Match the two columns in order to associate correctly the concepts in the first column with the

    definitions in the second column:A) representing entity 1) a model only partially rendering the

    original

    B) phoneme 2) the intension of a sentence designator

    C) proposition 3) a unit of expression

    D) synthetic statement 4) a function of the sense of a sign

    E) reference 5) an utterance that has a truth value

    actualisation

    20) Match the two columns in order to associate correctly each of the concepts in the first columnwith its description / specification in the second column:

    A) inclusion 1) one of the possible factors influencing

    taxonomic structural variabilityB) cross-linguistic differences 2) a relation that may characterise a given

    lexical field with respect to another field

    C) co-hyponymy 3) a lexematic set within which the terms are

    all lexically related

    D) family of words 4) a semantic actualisation of the logical

    relationship of inconsistency

    E) binary contrast 5) the characteristic trait of oppositeness of

    meaning

    B5C4D1E3

    B5C1D4E2

    B3C2D4E4

    B1C4D3E5

    Edited by Foxit ReaderCopyright(C) by Foxit Software Company,2005-2008For Evaluation Only.