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Power Point presentations~Chapter 7

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Slide 1

GROUP MEMBERS

MAZLIYANA BINTI MUHSINONM20112001387

NUR HARLYANA BINTI HARUNM20112001372

NURAINI BINTI NORUDDINM2O112001368

MAGENTIRAN A/L NAWAMANIM20102001019

ACID AND BASELearning Outcome:

At the end of the lesson, student should be able to:State the meaning of acid, based and alkali.

State uses of acid, based and alkali in daily life.

Explain the role of water in the formation of hydrogen ions to show the properties of acids

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RF40cI2O16UVIDEOCLICK BUTTON TO VIEW VIDEOINTRODUCTION TO ACID AND BASES

ALKALI Chemical substance that produce hydroxide ion, OH-, when it dissolve in water. Alkali can dissolve in water. H20 NaOH Na+ + OH- BASE Chemical substance that can react with acid to produce salt and water. Base cant dissolve in water. CuO (p) + H2SO4 CuSO4 (ak) + H2O

ACIDChemical substance that produce hydrogen ion, H+ (hydroxonium ion, H3O+) when it dissolve in water. H20 HCl H+ + Cl- CONCEPT OF ACID, BASE AND ALKALI

TYPES OF ACID

Inorganic AcidOrganic AcidHCl (Hydrochloric acid)CH3COOH (Acetic acid)HNO3 (Nitric acid)HCOOH (Methanoic acid)H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid)HOOCCOOH (Ethanedioic acid)H3PO4 (Phosphate acid)

H2CO3 (Carbonic acid)

BASEUNDISSOLVE BASECALLED: BASECALLED: ALKALIDISSOLVE BASE

TYPES OF BASE

CHEMICAL REACTION OF BASE

CuO (p) + H2SO4 CuSO4 (ak) + H2O

Fe2O3 (p) + 6HNO3 2Fe(NO3)3 (ak) + 3H2O

Mg(OH)2 (p) + 2HCl MgCl2 (ak) + 2H2O

CHEMICAL REACTION OF ALKALI

H2O NaOH Na+ + OH-

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

H2O Ca(OH)2 Ca+ + 2OH-

K2O + H2O 2K+ + 2OH-

Do you know that you are using acid, base and alkali everyday?Yes, in our daily life, things such as vinegar, soap, vitamin C, pineapple, orange, toothpaste and shampoo that based on acid, base and alkali

A?USES OF ACID, BASE AND ALKALI IN DAILY LIFE

Uses of acid in daily lifeUses of acid in daily life

Uses of alkali and base in daily life

Every liquid you see will probably be either an acid or a base. Most water you drink has ions in it. Those ions in solution make something acidic or basic. ACIDS AND BASES ARE EVERYWHEREACIDS AND BASES ARE EVERYWHERE

ROLE OF WATER IN THE FORMATION OF HYDROGEN IONS TO SHOW THE PROPERTIES OF ACID Arrhenius said that acid will ionized in water to produce hydrogen ion, H+. Example hydrochloric acid, HClHCl H+ + Cl-Hydrogen ion, H+ that produced is hydrated to form hydroxonium ion, H3O+H+ + H2O H3O+ So, ionization of hydrochloric acid, HCl in water canshow by this equation:

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

ClHOHH+OHHHCl++-When the hydrogen chloride, HCl is dissolve inwater, one of the hydrogen ion H+ or proton is donated to water molecule to form hydroxonium ion.

The role of waterIf you have an ionic compound and you put it in water, it will break apart into two ions. If one of those ions is H+, the solution is acidic. If one of the ions is OH-, the solution is basic.

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND ALKALISAt the end of the lesson, students should be able to: describe chemical properties of acids and alkalisLEARNING OUTCOME

VIDEOCLICK BUTTON TO VIEW VIDEOACID AND BASE PROPERTIESSource: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjewLktzy9k

DISSOCIATION OF BASENaOH and KOH dissolve in water to form ion OH-

Without the water, ion OH-not form

SOLIDAQUEUSNaOH (p) Na+ + OH-NaOH (p) Na+ + OH-KOH (p) K+ + OH- KOH(p) K+ + OH-

DISSOCIATION OF ACID CONCLUSIONHCl and CH3COOH dissolve in water and form ion H+CONCLUSIONWithout the water, ion H+ not form

SOLIDAQUEUSHCI (p) ) H+ + Cl-

HCl (p ) H+ + Cl-

CH3COOH(ce) CH3COO- + H+ CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+

MATERIALLITMUS PAPERDISSOCIATION TO FORM OH-ALKALINE CONCLUSIONToothpaste

Toothpaste + waterNo changes

Red to blue

-

Soap

Soap + waterNo change

Red to blue--

NaOH

NaOH + waterNo change

Red to blue

NaOH

Na+ + OH-

- Hydroxyl ion caused the litmus paper paper changes from blue to red

MATERIALLITMUSPAPERDISSOCIATIONEQUATIONACIDCONCLUSIONTamarind

Asam gelugor + waterNo change

Blue to red-

Lemon

Lemon+ waterNo change

Blue to red-Etanoik acid

Etanoik acid + waterNo change

Blue to red

CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+

- Hydrogen ion caused the litmus paper changes from blue to red

Explanation Acid react with water by donating an H+ ion to a neutral water molecule to form the H3O+ ion.

Without the presence of water, acid not show the acid properties because the dry acid does not have hydrogen ion.

Base react with water by donating an OH- ion.

Without the presences of water, bases does not show the base properties because the dry base does not show hydroxide ion.

ExperimentLitmus paperMetalCarbonateHCl ( p)No changesNo changesNo changes

HCl ( ak )

Blue to red

The bubble gas yield and produce popsound when is test Mg ( p) + 2HCl MgCl2( ak) + H2

CaCO3( p) + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Conclusion

HCl solution contain the H+ and Cl-

Hydrogen chloride was dissociated completely

HCl (g) of solution shows the chemical properties of acid because it has a hydrogen ion.

ExperimentLitmus paperCa ( OH )2 ( p)No changes

Ca ( OH )2 + H2O Ca+2 + 2 OH-

Red to blue

Conclusion

Ca(OH)2 solid does not show the characteristic of alkaline.In water, Ca (OH)2 (ak) Ca2+ + 2OH-

Calcium hydroxide solution dissolve in water will dissociated and show the characteristic of alkaline

Chemical properties of basesHas a pH more than 7

Litmus paper was change from blue to red colour

Reacts with acid to form salt and water

Chemical properties of acidLitmus paper changes from red to blue colour

React with bases to form salt and water as the only products

WEB BASED SIMULATIONCLICK LINK TO VIEW SIMULATIONACID AND BASE PROPERTIESSource: ONLINE LABShttp://amrita.olabs.co.in/?sub=73&brch=3&sim=6&cnt=72

LEARNING OUTCOMEAt the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

state the use of a pH scale

relate pH value with acidic or alkaline properties of a substance

relate concentration of hydrogen ions with pH value

pH SCALEBases solution blue Acidic solution red

pH METERSThere are two different apparatus that use to measure the pH scale.

Universal Indicators ColorsUniversal Indicator is a mixture of different indicators which covers the full range of pH values

pH VALUE [ H + ] = 7 neutral [ H + ] > 7 alkali [ H + ] < 7 acid

How to measure the pH value?take measurements and record the results

[ H + ] = 10For bases

[ H + ] = 3For acids

WHEN THE CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS [H+] IN SOLUTION INCREASE SO THE pH VALUES ARE LOWER

Concentration of acids and bases with pH values

ACID AND ALKALI

Synthesizing the concept of strong acid, weak acid, strong alkalis and weak alkalis.LEARNING OUTCOMES

Relate strong or weak acid with degree of dissociation.

Relate strong or weak alkali with degree of dissociation.

Conceptualize qualitatively strong and weak acid.

Conceptualize qualitatively strong and weak acid.

ACIDALKALI

For Strong AcidFor Weak AcidBack to Menu

Back

HNO3HClH2SO4Back

Next

Diagram of strong acid dissociation Before dissociationAfter dissociationHAHA (ak) H+ (ak) + A-(ak) H2OBackHAAAHH H+ H+ H+ H+A-A-A-A-

Back

HCOOHH3PO3Back

NextBack

Diagram of weak acid dissociationBefore dissociationHA (ak) H+ (ak) + A-(ak) H2OBackAfter dissociationAHHHHAAAA-A-A-A- H+ H+ H+ H+

Back

STRONG ALKALI AND WEAK ALKALI

Back to MenuFor Strong AlkaliFor Weak Alkali

NextBack

Diagram of strong alkali dissociationBefore dissociationBOH (ak) B+ (ak) + OH-(ak) H2OAfter dissociationBackBBBB B+OHOHOHOH OH- B+ B+ B+ OH- OH- OH-

Back

Back

NaOHKOHBack

NextBack

Diagram of weak alkali dissociationBackBefore dissociationBOH (ak) B+ (ak) + OH-(ak) H2OAfter dissociationBBBB B+OHOHOHOH OH- B+ B+ B+ OH- OH- OH-

Back

NH4OHCH3OHBack

LEARNING OUTCOMEAt the end of the lesson, students, should be able to:

state the meaning of concentration state the meaning of molarity state the relationship between the number of moles with molarity and volume of solution

quantity of solute in gram or mole in 1 dm3 solution.Concentration

Concentration = mass ( g ) volume ( dm 3 )Unit : g / dm 3 Concentration = number of