Art of Ancient India Ch 1

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ANCIENT INDIABuddhist, Hindu,Jainby Susan Huntington L.with contributions by John C. Huntington

.WEATHERHILLNew York - Tokyo



Preface Acknowledgments and Credits A Note on Pronunciaiion and Transliteration of Sanskrit Introducrion GeographicalConsideradons, xxiii , The Problem of Dating, xxu , Art and Calarq xxvixxnl tc111

Panr ONs. Foundationsof krdic Civilization; The Prehistoricand Protohistoric Periods Antecedents Indic Civilizatiorr of Stone Age PaintingandSculpture, . EarlyNeolithicArt, 5 . Conclusion, I 32


The Indus (or Harappa)Civilization (ca.z3oo to r75o B.C.) Tfie Citiesand Towns, r o . Sculpture,lz . Seah, . fon"Iy, z4 . T'l-te Y8 Eclipseofthe hrdus Civrlization, z5

The Vedic and UpanisadicPeriods (ca. r5oo to 45o B.c.) z6 The Indo-Aryans,z6.Literary Evidence:The Vedas(ca. r5oo to 8oo a.c.), 27. Literarylvidence: The Upanigads 8ooto 45on.c.), z8 . Other Literary Evidence: (ca. The Purenas Epics,3o . Mahavira, and Sakyamuni Buddha,and the Rise of Magadha, . Archaeological jj Evidence, ' Other IndigenousTrends:MegalithicRemains of .3r Southern India,j4 . Conclusion, 36

PARr Two.

Period of the Early Dynasties 41

4 The Maurya Period(ca.323to r85 n.c.) \\ Edictsand Pillars,43 . Rock-cutArchitecture, . Other Aiokan Monuments, . 46 5olttl


Maurya-period Sctrlpturefrom Palaliputra, 5t . Maurya-period Terra-cotta Sculpture, 54 . Conclusion, 55 5 The SufrgaPeriod and RelatedDevelopments(ca. SecondCenrury to First Century n.c.) \ ,.. . The Mafura RegionDuring the Suirga Vidi(d in the Suaga period, 6o . Period,57 period: Free-standing ,.Siiddhist Arr of the Suirga irchi Mooo-"rrts, 6r . Rock"",*J cut A_rchitecture the Suiga Period: The Westem Deccan,74 . The EasternDeccan: of The AndhraPradesh Region,f5 . Suirga-period Terra Cottas,88 . Conclusion, 89 6 Regional Developments(ca.Late First Cenrury B.c. Through First Century a.o.) The VidiSd Region:Sancr, . BuddhistRock-cutArchitecture ofthe Western 91 Deccan: Bedsa,roo . Eastem India: Khar.rdagiri/Udaya to5 . Concluson,rod giri, 7 The Sakaand Parthian Kingdoms in the Indic Sphere(ca.First Century n.c. to Mid-First Century a.o.) Introduction to the Bactro-Gandhara Region, to9.'fhe KapiSaRegion, trc.-Ihe Gandhara Region, 116. The Swat Valley (Ancient U{diyana), rr9 . Northem India (TheMathuraRegion),tzz . Conclusion, rz3 8 The Northwest and Northern Regions Under the Kuganas Late (ca. First Century to Third Century a.o.) Royal Shrines, tz6.'Ihe Ba'ctro-Gandham Region: Architectvte, 130. The Bactro_ Gandhara Region: Sct pture, r37 . Northern India: Mathura and Related Sites,rjo . Non-Buddhist Sculpture Mathura,t 59 . Concl:osion, z at fi 9 Regional Developmentsin the Deccan(ca. Secondand Third Cenruries) The WesternDeccanCaves,fi j . The Eastern Deccan:The Andhra pradeshResion Under the Later Satavthanas Ik5vakus, . Conclusion, and r74 r83






Panr TnnEr. Dynastiesof the Middle period g/ The Gupta Period (Fourth to Sixth Cenruries) 182 ' . BuddhistArt of the Fifth CenturyI North_ Hindu Art ofthe Early GuptaPeriod,188 CentralIndia (Sdnc\, 196. Buddhist Art of the Fifth Century: North IrLdia (Mathuri and Sarnath), zoo . Buddhist Art in the Northwest, 2r5 . Hindu Temple Architectute,zo6. Brick Temples Tesa-cott^ Att, z 13 . Metal Images, rg . Conclusion, 6 and z zr The Gupta Aftermath The Disintegration the Empire, 220 . Ootgrowtll of the Gupta ldioms (ca.55oto of220



7oo), zzz . EasternIndia, zz3 . Buddhist Art in the Xast,zzj . Hinda Art in the East, zz7 . Westem Indian Developrnen*, zzg . Conclusion,zj6 2jg Jz- Buddhist Cave A:qhitecture (Fifth Through Seventh Centuries). AljxtjS,zjg. Bagh, z6o ' Kenheri,z6z . Ixtangabad, 265. Ellon,268 . Conclusion,274

Hindu Rock-cut Architecture ofthe Deccan(Kalacuri and Early Western Calukya Phases)


The EarlyKalacuriPeiod, z75 . Caves ofthe EarlyWestem Calukyas, . Conclusion, z8z 290 Southern DevelopmentsUnder the Pallavas and the Pandyas The Pallavas, . The EarlyPandyas, . Conclusior., z9r jt9 Tzr zg1

r 5 The nady WesternCalukya and RelatedSchoolsofthe DeccanTemples Structural ofthe Early Westem Calukyas, . The Xastern Calukyas, . ,22 337 . Conclusion,j4o The Nolambas,336I6


Hindu Rock-cut Architecture of the Western Deccan Illora (Rastrakata j4t Phase), . Conclusion, 350


Panr Foun. Later Northern Schools Ka(mir and Related Schools Pre-Karkoqa Remains, 354 . The Karkola Period (ca.62J to 8jJ), j57 . The LJtpala Dynasty(ca.855 to y9), 3{ 5 . The Two LoharaDynasties and the Last Hindu Kings (Tenth to Fourteenth Centuries), j68.The 368.Kairnhi lvories and Metal Images, Art of Adjacent Regions:WesternHimdlayanFoothillsandWestemTibetan Cultural Region,374 . Conclusion, 385 "J8.' Biher and Bengal Under the Palaand SenaKings BuddhistArt, 38g; Hindt Art, 407 . Conclusion, 4r3 19 Orissaand RelatedRegions Snpura (Sirpur)and Rajim: Madhya Pradesh, . Hindu Art and Architectureof 4r5 Orissa, . BuddhistArt of Oissa,444, Conclusion, 4zr 448 20 North-Central and Northwestern India: The Art of the Rejput Clans The Gurjara-Pratiharas Kanauj(ca.73oto tozT),452, The Haihayas Kalacuris) of (or of Tripun, 462.'fhe Cand,ellas Bundelkhand, . ThePanmaras Malwa, 480. of of 466 44g j87 j5J



The Solankis . The ofGujarat(ca.9Jo r3o4 196r-l,2441.1),483 Gahadvalas to ofVararlasi (ca.ro75to rzoo),499 . Manuscript ali\ting,500. Conclusion, P 5oz

Panr Frvr. Later Schoolsofthe Deccanand the South2I

The Cola and RelatedSchools the Tamil South (Mid-Ninth to of Thirteenth Centuries) Conclusion, 538 Later Deccan Schools The WesternGangas ofTalakad(TenthCenrury),54r . The LaterCalukyas Kalyani of (973to . tfig), S+l . The Yadavas Devagiri(ri9i to r3rr), J48 . The Kakatiyas of of " Hanamlor.rda Warangal Mid-EleventhCenturyto ca. :.1'25), . TheHoysalas and (ca. 549 ofSouthernKarr.rataka roo6to \46), 555. Conclusion,5Tz (ca.



z3 The VijayanagarPeriod (ca. r336 to rJ6J) Conclusion,536


2+ The Nayak PeriodConclusion,6oo25


The Kerala Region Conclusion, dt5 Afterword



Notes Select Bibliography Glossary List of Maps Illustration Index Index

6t9 659 715 7'33 735

ColotPlates appear t6z, 4oz, and 594. Jollouixgpages

A Noie on Fron'unciation anclTransiiteration Sansl.-rii of,

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