AP World Ancient Greece

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Transcript of AP World Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece, 1900-133 BCEThe First Greek Civilization The Greek City-States Classical Greece The Culture of Classical Greece Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

The First Greek Civilizations

Objectives: 1.Describe the Mycenaean Civilizations 2. Characterize the role models used in the Iliad and Odyssey, which the Greeks used to present values of courage, honor, and excellence

The Impact of GeographyGreece occupies a small area with a mountainous peninsula and numerous islands The mountains and the sea played especially signicant roles in the development of Greek history In additionally, small plains and river valleys Different communities arose according to different regions

The rivalry between the communities led to warfare that devastated Greek society Greece has a long seacoast dotted by bays and inlets that provided many harbors Seafaring people: *Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean, and the *Black Sea

The Minoan CivilizationBy 2800 BCE, a Bronze Age civilization emerged, particularly in Crete Called the Minoan civilization, it ourished by 2700 and 1450 Arthur Evans (archaeologist) named it after minos, the legendary king They had enormous and complex structures, particularly at Knossos The Ships of the *Minoans took them to Egypt as well as southern Greece

The centers of Minoan civilization on Crete suffered a sudden and catastrophic collapse c. 1450 BCE Tidal wave triggered by a volcanic eruption destruction was the result of invasion by mainland Greeks known as the *Mycenaeans

The First Greek State: Mycenae The term Mycenaean comes from Mycenaea fortication found by archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann The civilization, part of the IndoEuropean nomads, ourished between 1600 and 1100 BCE The various centers of power probably formed a loose alliance Among the noticeable features of these Mycenaean centers were the tombs where members of the royal families were buried

The Mycenaeans were a warrior people who prided themselves on their heroic deeds Mycenaean monarchies developed as extensive commercial network extensive pottery trade Military conquest of Crete and other Aegean islands *Homer described Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, sacked the city of Troy Mycenaean states fought one another until waves of Greekspeaking invaders came from the north around 1100 BCE

The Greeks in a Dark Age Development of the Dark AgeHistorians call the period from approximately 1100 to 750 BCE the Dark Age, because of the scant records Large numbers of Greeks left the mainland and sailed across the Aegean Sea to various islands

Colonies were established along Asia Minor and along *Ionia A revival of trade and economic activity Iron replaced bronze in the construction of weapons In the eighth century, the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet

Homer The Iliad and the Odyssey: two examples of *epic poetry Both served as examples of courage and honor; Homers characters are models of heroism and honor

Objectives: 1.Describe the Mycenaean Civilizations 2. Characterize the role models used in the Iliad and Odyssey, which the Greeks used to present values of courage, honor, and excellence

The Greek City-States

Objectives: 1.Describe the polis or city-state, which was the central focus of Greek life 2. Explain how the search for farmland and the growth of trade resulted in colonies and the spread of Greek culture and politics

By 750 BCE, the city-state called a *polis became the central focus of Greek life It served as the center of the polis where people could meet for political, social, and religious activities; The main gathering place was a fortied area called an *acropolis Below the acropolis was an *agora, an open area that served as a place where people could assemble

The Polis: Center of Greek Life

Citizens of a polis had rights, but these rights were coupled with responsibilities City-states fought one another for control of land and tradeearly on, with aristocratic cavalry soldiers By 700 BCE, the military system was based on *hoplites, who were heavily armed infantry soldiers forming a *phalanx

Greek ColoniesEach colony became a new polis this new polis was usually independent Thrace, southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Africa Established colonies along the shores of the Black Sea, *Hellespont, and the *Bosporus The most famous colony was *Byzantiumthe spread of Greek culture and politics

Tyranny in the CityStatesNew groups of rich men arose from these colonies, fostering the rise of tyrants in the 7th and 6th century BCE These tyrants seized powerboth the rich and the peasants were tired of the aristocratic dominance of city-states

Tyrants used hired soldiers and built marketplaces, temples, and walls Tyrants fell out of favor by the 6th century BCE This transition led to the development of *democracy in some places, in others *oligarchy Athens and Sparta are examples of each

SpartaThey needed more land, but instead of starting new colonies, the Spartans conquered the neighboring Laconians They also conquered their neighboring Messenia Both groups became serfs and made to work for the Spartans, calling them *helots (capture)creating a military state

A Military State

Between 800 and 600 BCE, the lives of Spartans were rigidly organized and tightly controlled Males spent their childhood learning military discipline Husbands lived in barracks while wives lived at home Women had greater freedom of movement and greater power in the household Spartan women reinforced the military structurewith the shield or on it

Government of SpartaOligarchy headed by two kingsa group of ve men, known as the *ephors, elected each year and were responsible for the education of the citizens Except for military reasons, Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad; the art of war was the Spartan ideal

AthensAthens had become a unied polis on the peninsula of Attica, by the 7th century Athens had become an oligarchy Near the end of the seventh century BCE, Athens faced political turmoil because of serious economic problems The ruling Athenian aristocracy to its aristocracy, by giving power to *Solon

Solons reforms included the cancelation of land debt, freeing people from slavery These did not solve the political strife, leading to the establishment of a tyranny particularly by Pisistratus, who seized power in 560 BCE; Rebellion emerged, led by *Cleisthenes He created a new council of 500 which supervised the state these reforms led to the foundation for Athenian democracy

Objectives: 1.Describe the polis or city-state, which was the central focus of Greek life 2. Explain how the search for farmland and the growth of trade resulted in colonies and the spread of Greek culture and politics

Classical Greece

Objectives: 1. Examine the Age of Pericles, when Athens became the center of Greek culture 2. Analyze how the creation of an Athenian empire led to war with Sparta

The Challenge of PersiaAs the Greeks spread, they came into contact with the Persian Empire to the east Ionian Greeks led an unsuccessful revolt against *Darius, the Persian ruler Persians responded by attacking Greece at Marathon in 490 BCE; The Persians were defeated Victory, we win After Darius died, *Xerxes became the new monarch and vowed revenge

By the time the Persians invaded again, the Greeks had rebuilt their ships Xerxes led a massive invasion 180,000 troops and thousands of warships The pass of Thermopylae protected by 7,000 Greeks, including 300 SpartansWe ght in the shade

The destruction of Athens and the Battle of Salamis, the nal blow to the Persians

The Growth of the Athenian EmpireAfter the defeat of the Persians, Athens took leadershipsIn 478 BCE, an alliance called the *Delian League was created to defend against the Persians island of Delos The Delian League liberated all the Greek States in Asia Minor, but moved the treasury to Athens Under *Pericles Athens expanded its new empire abroad*the Age of Pericles

The Age of PericlesThe Athenians became attached to their democratic system*direct democracy, the people participate directly in government decision making Most residents of Athens were not citizens and thus could not vote

The assembly passed all laws, elected public ofcials; ten ofcials known as generals were the overall directors of policy The Athenians also devised the practice of *ostracism from ostrakon Athens became the center of Greek culture, set in motion by Pericles massive rebuilding program

The Great Peloponnesian War

After the defeat of the Persians, two major camps emerged: The Athenian Empire and Sparta; These two centers cause the outbreak of the *Great Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE The Athenians planned to remain behind its citys walls; Sparta and her allies surrounded AthensPlague broke out, putting an end to Athenian resistance after 25 years of war The next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes sought to dominate Greek affairs but *Macedonian power arose at this time

Daily Life in Classical AthensSlavery was common in the ancient worldmost Athenians owned at least one slave Most Slaves in Athens worked in the elds or in the home as cooks and maids This slavery was not based on race (in part) but culture and wealth (ex. helots)

The Athenian EconomyThe Athenian economy was largely based on farming and trade grapes and olives Athens imported 50 to 80 percent of its grain, a basic item in their diet The building of a port at nearby Piraeus helped Athens become the leading trade center of the 5th century

The Family and the Role of WomenThe familys primary social function was to produce new citizens Women could not own property beyond personal items and always supervised by a male guardian The womans chief obliga