Ancient China

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    27-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    30
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Ancient China. Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Edited by Ms. Steward Gateway Middle School. Neolithic China. “Peking Man” (750,000 – 500,000 BCE). Sinanthropus pekinesis. The 4 Old-World River Valley Cultures. Yellow River Civilization. Isolated River valleys - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

  • Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYEdited by Ms. StewardGateway Middle School

  • Peking Man (750,000 500,000 BCE)Sinanthropus pekinesis

  • The 4 Old-World River Valley Cultures

  • Yellow River Civilization

  • Geographic InfluencesIsolatedRiver valleys 1. Yellow(Huang Ho) earliest civilization - damaging floods 2. Yangtze- very important in unification- transportation- irrigation

  • Yu, the Great Founder of the Hsia

  • Hsia

    Only know about this dynasty because of legendAssociated with invention of wheeled vehicles, ships, armor, pottery, and silk making

  • Hsia Plaque, 1700 BCE

  • Bronze Age Empires

  • Shang: 1523-1028 BCE

  • Distinct CharacteristicsRaised silk worms; production of silkBronze Age, daggers, sculptures, jade Ancestor worshipThe family was most important; not the government, not the self, not the religion

  • Oracle Bones

  • SocietyPeasants support nobles, officials, bureaucracy, etc.Government centered in townsWarrior elite; Poor live in primitive conditionsDifferences between rich and poorprice of civilization ?

  • The Evolution of Chinese Writing during the ShangPictographsSemantic-Phonetics

  • Axe Scepter 1100 BCE - jadeCeremonial Dagger 1028 BCE

  • Shang Bronzes

  • Western Zhou: 1027-771 BCE

  • Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE

  • Zhou/Chou DynastyProbable nomadic invaders ended Shang dynastythe Zhou dynasty 1027 B.C.replaced one ruling class with anothermeet the new boss...same as the old boss.

  • Zhou CharacteristicsDecentralized governmentLocal nobilityLong running problem771 B.C. Chou driven east

  • Political TheoryThe mandate of HeavenUniversal monarchfavors consolidationxenophobicEmperor is the Son of HeavenFeudal monarchy

  • Tien MingThe Mandate of HeavenThe leader must lead by ability and virtue. The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.

  • Period of Warring States771 B.C.Dozen-plus statesBalance of power until 500sPeriod of consolidation by warfarewarfare chronic

  • Development of Intellectual MovementResponse to crisis and uncertaintyConfucianisma sort of philosophyTaoisma sort of religion

  • Ritual Food Vessel, bronze 11c BCE (Western Zhou)

  • Ritual Wine Vessel 4c bronze, silver, gold, copper

  • Zhou Coins - bronze

  • Imperial Chinas Impact on HistoryThe Dynastic CycleSecular LawBeginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimateMandate of Heaven

  • The Dynastic CycleA new dynasty comes to power.Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged.Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.)Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected.Govt. increases spending; corruption.Droughts, floods, famines occur.Poor loose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords.Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor.Emperor is defeated !!The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient.Start here

  • Qin (Chin) Dynasty 221-206 B.C.Established Chinas first empireShi Huangdi (221-206 BC)Legalist ruleBureaucratic administrationCentralized controlMilitary expansionBuilt large section of the Great Wall

  • Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army

  • Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army

  • Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen

  • Cavalry

  • Individual Soldiers

  • The Details of an Individual Soldier

  • The Great Wall with Towers

  • Han dynastyRuled for 400 yearsNew bureaucracyEmphasis on centralization weakening of the aristocracyImperial expansion

  • Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many, cities develops Buddhism introduced into ChinaExpanded into Central AsiaHan Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.

  • Han Dynasty 206BCE-220 CE (Roman Times)-Advanced in science and literature

    -Invented rudder, paper, magnetic compass, acupuncture

    -Short period of Civil War- Sui Dynasty connected two rivers with canal- over extended

  • Han Roman Empire Connection

  • Han ArtifactsImperial SealHan Ceramic House

  • Ceramics, Later Han Period

  • Trade Routes of the Ancient World

  • The Grand Canal

  • The Grand Canal Today

  • Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E.Imperial examination system perfected to recruit. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China

    Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia

  • Tang Dynasty 618-907 CE ContributionsInternal renewal(improved lives of people) and external expansionSet up universityTried to equalize land holdings- fought corruption

  • Tang Dynasty 618-907 CE ContributionsLiterature and art flourished

    Inventions- paper during Han- used for clothes and writing

    Invented printing, gun powder, encyclopedia

  • Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 A.D.-Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class.-Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!

  • Song Peasant Family

  • Song(Sung) Dynasty 960-1279Moved the capitol east Economic expansion- used paper money, Used abacus Silk Road traffic at heightwhen dangerous went to sea routesfirst period of great oceanic commercetrades tea, silk and porcelain for exotic woods and precious stones

  • Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song

  • Mongolian Steppes

    Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.How effective do you think this kind of fortification would have been in pre-modern times? The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

    Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

    The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

    Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

    Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

    Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

    Above is a picture of Suzhou in Jiangsu province showing houses along the Grand Canal.From north to south, the Grand Canal is over 1,700 kilometers (roughly 1,100 miles) long,linking Hangzhou in Zhejiang province with Beijing in the north. An extremely importantwater project that was first started in the Sui dynasty (589-618), it connects several big riversand provides an important means of transportation and communication.With the two pictures below in mind, how do you think the access to rivers and lakes wouldhave made the lifestyle of people in the south different from that of people in the north?The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confuciuss teachings (The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family.

    Founded the Imperial UniversityRequired examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system)Soldiers dropped to lowest status.Confucianists at work; Daoists at home.

    The Han tried to replace literature, including Confuciuss writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake!

    Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation

    Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported.

    Wudis public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.

    Above is a picture of Suzhou in Jiangsu province showing houses along the Grand Canal.From north to south, the Grand Canal is over 1,700 kilometers (roughly 1,100 miles) long,linking Hangzhou in Zhejiang province with Beijing in the north. An extremely importantwater project that was first started in the Sui dynasty (589-618), it connects several big riversand provides an important means of transportation and communicatio