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Transcript of Ancient china
- 1.Ms. Eunice Antoinette M. FranciscoMs. Eunice Antoinette M. Francisco III-CommunionsIII-Communions World HistoryWorld History Ms. Eunice Antoinette M. FranciscoMs. Eunice Antoinette M. Francisco III-CommunionsIII-Communions World HistoryWorld History
2. Peking ManPeking Man (750,000 500,000 BCE)(750,000 500,000 BCE) SinanthropusSinanthropus pekinesispekinesis 3. Yellow River CivilizationYellow River Civilization 4. Neolithic PotteryNeolithic Pottery 3000 BCE to3000 BCE to 2000 BCE2000 BCE 5. The 4 Old-WorldThe 4 Old-World River Valley CulturesRiver Valley Cultures 6. Pan-Gu:Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator ofMythical Creator of the Universethe Universe 7. Chung KuoChung Kuo (The(The Middle KingdomMiddle Kingdom)) 8. Overview Time span of the dynasties 21st century B.C. thru 1911 A.D. Almost 4000 years Over 30 different dynasties We will present 13 of the most important one. 9. Xia Dynasty (21st until 16th B.C.) First prehistoric dynasty Excavations made at Anyang, Henan in 1928 Evolutionary stage between: Late Neolithic culture Hunter gatherers Stone tools Chinese civilization Agricultural communities Silk and pottery 10. Yu, the Great FounderYu, the Great Founder of the Hsiaof the Hsia 11. HuangdiHuangdi EmperorEmperor The YellowThe Yellow Emperor.Emperor. Legend has it thatLegend has it that he ruled for overhe ruled for over 100 years.100 years. Associated with theAssociated with the invention ofinvention of wheeled vehicles,wheeled vehicles, ships, armor,ships, armor, pottery, andpottery, and silk-making.silk-making. 12. Emperor FuxiEmperor Fuxi Mythical HsiaMythical Hsia ruler.ruler. Taught theTaught the Chinese howChinese how to read andto read and write,write, according toaccording to legend.legend. 13. Hsia Plaque,Hsia Plaque, 17001700 BCEBCE 14. Bronze Age EmpiresBronze Age Empires 15. Shang:Shang: 1523-1028 BCE1523-1028 BCE 16. Shang Dynasty (17st until 11th B.C.) Cradle of Chinese civilization Based on agriculture Developed a writing system High level of civilization: bronze workmanship Ruled by kings Cities were centers of glittering court life Court rituals honoring ancestors Slaves buried alive in royal tombs 17. Oracle BonesOracle Bones 18. Oracle BonesOracle Bones CalendarCalendar 19. The Evolution ofThe Evolution of ChineseChinese Writing during theWriting during the ShangShang PictographsPictographs Semantic-PhoneticsSemantic-Phonetics 20. Axe Scepter Axe Scepter 1100 BCE1100 BCE - jade- jade Ceremonial Dagger Ceremonial Dagger 1028 BCE1028 BCE 21. ShangShang UrnUrn 22. Shang BronzesShang Bronzes 23. Ritual Wine Vessel Ritual Wine Vessel bronze,bronze, 13c BCE13c BCE 24. Zhou Dynasty 10th until 2nd century B.C. Capital at Hao (near Xian) in Wei Valley Ruled much of China north of Yangtze river Extended Shang culture Early rule: Feudal Decentralized; control based on family ties Later: City States Central control over local governments Impersonal political and economic institutions Culture: philosophy, poetry and prose 25. Western Zhou:Western Zhou: 1027-7711027-771 BCEBCE 26. Eastern Zhou:Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE771-256 BCE 27. Ritual Food Vessel, bronzeRitual Food Vessel, bronze 11c BCE11c BCE (Western Zhou)(Western Zhou) 28. Pendant of a Dancer - jadePendant of a Dancer - jade 3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)3c BCE (Eastern Zhou) 29. Ritual Wine Vessel 4cRitual Wine Vessel 4c bronze, silver, gold,bronze, silver, gold, coppercopper 30. Zhou Coins - bronzeZhou Coins - bronze 31. Tien MingTien Ming The Mandate of HeavenThe Mandate of Heaven 1.1.The leader must lead by ability andThe leader must lead by ability and virtue.virtue. 2.2.The dynasty's leadership must beThe dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations.justified by succeeding generations. 3.3.The mandate could be revoked byThe mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will ofnegligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.the people was important. 32. Qin (221 until 207 B.C.) Achievements: Standardized language & Writing Standardized currency Standardized measurements Public Works Great Wall Roads & Irrigation canals Leader: Shi Huangdi 33. Western Han (206 B.C.- 9 A.D.) Eastern Han (25-225 A.D.) Achievements: Silk Road Better ToolsIron Agriculture Crop Rotation Education Paper and Porcelain 34. Xin (9 - 24 A.D.) Brief Interlude One Family Member had too much power Introduced Imperial Seal 35. Three Kingdoms (220-280 A.D.) Western & Eastern Jin (265-315 A.D.) Southern & Northern (420-588 A.D.) 36. Sui Dynasty (581-617) Reunified China in 589Reunified China in 589 High Taxes and Compulsory LaborHigh Taxes and Compulsory Labor Completion of the Grand Canal (connect YellowCompletion of the Grand Canal (connect Yellow and Yangtze/ Beijing to Hangzhou)and Yangtze/ Beijing to Hangzhou) Campaign against Korea in the early 7Campaign against Korea in the early 7thth centurycentury A lot of revolts and assassinationsA lot of revolts and assassinations 37. Tang Dynasty (618-907) High point of ChineseHigh point of Chinese civilization (comparable tocivilization (comparable to Han Dynasty)Han Dynasty) Golden age of literature and artGolden age of literature and art India and Middle-EastIndia and Middle-East relations stimulatedrelations stimulated creativitycreativity Buddhism (from India) wasBuddhism (from India) was widely promoted (Confuciuswidely promoted (Confucius era)era) Block printing was inventedBlock printing was invented 38. Tang Dynasty (618-907) Contd Better government systemBetter government system Civil service examination andCivil service examination and other competitive entranceother competitive entrance procedures (why?)procedures (why?) Independent from aristocracyIndependent from aristocracy and warlords (why? How?)and warlords (why? How?) Scholar-officials (who? dutyScholar-officials (who? duty and privileges?)and privileges?) Fragmentation of China (5 northFragmentation of China (5 north dynasties, 10 south kingdoms)dynasties, 10 south kingdoms) Economic, politic, societalEconomic, politic, societal reasons + Arab warsreasons + Arab wars North invadersNorth invaders 39. Song Dynasty (960-1279) 2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279)Southern Song (1127-1279) Centralized bureaucracy (more power on emperor)Centralized bureaucracy (more power on emperor) (regional governors(regional governors centrally appointedcentrally appointed officials)officials) City developments (admin., trade, industry,City developments (admin., trade, industry, maritime commerce)maritime commerce) Mercantile classMercantile class Printing and education spreadPrinting and education spread Private trade grewPrivate trade grew Market network grewMarket network grew The Neo Confucius Philosophy (by Zhu Xi)The Neo Confucius Philosophy (by Zhu Xi) inhibited pre modern societal developmentinhibited pre modern societal development 40. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Mongolian Rule Kublai KhanKublai Khan Established the YuanEstablished the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368dynasty (1279-1368 Moves Capital to BejingMoves Capital to Bejing Marco Polo visitsMarco Polo visits BejingBejing Drama and novels are developed 41. Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644) Construction of the Forbidden City Completion of the Great WallCompletion of the Great Wall Ocean voyages as far as Africa by Zheng HeOcean voyages as far as Africa by Zheng He 42. Ching Dynasty (1644 1911) Expansion andExpansion and unificationunification Opium WarsOpium Wars Boxer RebellionBoxer Rebellion 43. The Dynastic Cycle The Dynastic Cycle A new dynasty comes to power. A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here 44. Geographical Influences Mountains, sea, and desert provide some protection and isolation Vulnerable to northwest River valleys 1. Yellow(Huang Ho) earliest civilization - damaging floods 2. Yangtze- very important in unification- transportation- irrigation 45. Earliest Civilizations- most isolated Earliest- Neolithic- Ban Po- similar to other parts of the world/ one of the oldest Shang Dynasty 1500-11 BCE in No China along the Huang Ho- raised silk worms- silk part of lure and fascination of China, famous for bronze sculpture, daggers, jade jewelry paid homage to ancestors- family important Chou (Zhou) 1027-256-longest-developed foundations for Chinese society 46. Ancient China Way of Life- Confucianism p58- 59 Moral and ethical code highly developed treat everyone with consideration Advocated paternalistic government Value on family head- ancestor respect Values- loyalty, righteousness, wisdom, sincerity very practical and humanistic Gentility 47. Daoism (Taoism) LaoTzu (Lao Zi) p 60 contemporary of Confucius Tao= the road way Absolute=sum of existence Goal to bring people into harmony very introspective not as influential as Confucius 48. ANCIENT CHINA Great Wall Began 2000 B.C. Mandate of Heaven Dynasties Silk astronomy 49.