Ancient China

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Ancient China. Geography of Ancient China. Civilization on the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers Rivers flow out of Tibetan Mountains Chinese saw their land as the center of the civilized world “Middle Kingdom”. Chinese Society was held together by strong bonds. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient China

  • Ancient China

  • Geography of Ancient ChinaCivilization on the Yangtze and Yellow RiversRivers flow out of Tibetan MountainsChinese saw their land as the center of the civilized world Middle Kingdom

  • Chinese Society was held together by strong bonds.The group was more important than the individualThe family central to societyElderly had privileges and powerOldest man in charge of the familys possessionsFinal approval on all marriagesRespect for parents most important virtue

  • Women in ChinaExpected to obey fathers, husbands, and later, their sonsMarriage arranged between 13 and 16 Moved into husbands familys houseOnly improve status by bearing sons

  • Family closely linked to religionSpirits of the familys ancestors thought to bring good fortune on the familyFamilys paid respect to the fathers ancestorsNot gods but helpful or hurtful neighborsOnly sons could carry on the traditional religious duties

  • GovernmentChief loyalty to the familyPeople obeyed the ruler like a super-grandfather who was responsible for the peopleRoyal authority came from heavenMandate of HeavenDynastic cycle pattern of strength and decline in the different dynasties

  • The dynasties ruled for 2000 yearsShangChou Longest in Chinese historyChinShortest and cruelestHanMightiest

  • Shang Dynasty CivilizationFirst civilization along the Yellow River where loess is spreadUnpredictable flooding Chinas sorrow

  • CitiesAppeared along the Yellow River in 2000B.C.Anyang capital to the Shang dynastyHouses built of wood

  • Social ClassesDivided between nobles and peasantsNoblesOwned landServed in the army and governmentSkilled fightersPeasantsTilled the soil

  • Artisans were a special class.Bronze workSilkEmbroidery

  • Writing SystemAnimal bones and shells with written symbolsSymbols similar to those used todayEach character stands for an ideaSame system throughout China

  • Chou DynastyNo dramatic changes in civilizationFor first 300 years ruled a large kingdomGradually lost power771 B.C. barbarians invaded and murdered the Chou monarchFamily moved to Loyang and pretended to rule

  • In truth, they were powerlessNoble families fought for controlthe time of warring statesTraditional values collapsedled to Chinese love of orderSolutions?

  • Confucius urged orderSociety should be organized around five basic relationshipsruler and subjectfather and sonhusband and wifeolder and younger brotherfriend and friend

  • Code of Proper Conduct within each relationshipFilial piety- children should respect parents and eldersIf a ruler practiced kindness then all would go well

  • Confucius wanted to change Chinese societyPrince of Lu made him Minister of CrimePeople so impressed with his wisdom and courtesy that all crime vanished

  • Taoists sought harmony with natureNatural order importantNothing in nature strives for power, fame, or even wisdomFollowers withdrew from societyTao is the way

  • Legalist urged harsh governmentHighly efficient powerful government the key to orderReward those who do wellDisobedience punishedControlling ideas as well as actions

  • Chin DynastyFrom small state of Chin in western China256 B.C. destroyed Chou king246 B.C. new Chin kingAge 13ruthless Legalist

  • Chin Shih Huang-ti (the first emperor)Stopped petty warsConquered barbarians to the southProtected the North with the Great WallFormed a government that lasted 200 yearsResponsible for the people

  • Chin Dynasty concentrated onStamping out rival armiesDoubled the size of ChinaAttacked the barbarians in the NorthDestroying resistance inside the realmCommanded that all noble families live in capital cityChanged state boundariesBuilt gigantic network of highways

  • Uniform standards for law, money, weight, and measuresBuilt Great Wall

  • Great Wall provided protection

  • Great Wall

  • Decline of the Chin DynastySon less ableHan marched on the city

  • Han Dynasty known for glory, unity, and peaceHated laws of ChinBarbarians rarely threatenedConfuciouss teachings won influence

  • Most powerful Han emperor Wu-ti140-87 B.C.Marshal EmperorDrove Huns out of Northern border

  • Renewal of LearningScholars read old Chinese classicsConfucianism officialFounded national universityBrought back news of the civilized people of Persia

  • Search for culture led to tradeGreat Silk Roadcamel caravansTibet to Syria and Asia Minor

  • After Wu-ti prosperity declinedPeasants sufferedBurden of taxes and debtsbad harvestsfamine and plaguepeasants became banditsTwice overthrownEarly Han and Later Han

  • Buddhism came from the Great Silk RoadMonks taught that Buddha was a merciful god

  • Han Empire collapsedBuddhism spread