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Transcript of Ancient China
Ancient ChinaDynasties of ChinaDynasty a family of rulers who pass down the right to rule from generation to generation.3 Dynasties heavily influenced the development of ChinaZhou (pronounced Joe)Qin (pronounced Chin)Han
Mandate of HeavenRulers of each dynasty believe that the God of Heaven decided who should rule China.When a new dynasty took over it was because the old dynasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven.The Zhou DynastyZhou DynastyLongest of the 3 dynastiesDid not create a centralized form of government.Instead China was set up in territories.Each territory was ruled by a member of the royal family.Rulers of each territory were responsible for providing military service to the King.Zhou DynastyMade very important technological advances in China.IrrigationWaterways & canalsDyed fabricsPerfected the calendarIron weapons Used fertilizer & pesticidesMedical methods such as acupuncture
End of the Zhou DynastyAround 700B.C. local leaders began to fight among themselves for control of more territory.This caused the Zhou kings to lose control of the country.Over time the kings become little more than a figurehead a person who has a leadership role but no actual power.Real power was held by the rulers of about 150 states.Rise of the Qin DynastyBy 550B.C. there were 4 major powers competing for power and control in China.QinJinQiChuThese were called the Warring StatesThe Qin dynasty finally gained complete power in 221B.C.The Qin DynastyQin DynastyCame to power by militarily conquering the other Warring States.Their founder was Cheng.This dynasty only lasted about 15 years, but made major changes in Chinese life.Ruled over an area almost twice the size of the Zhou dynasty.Qin DynastyEmperor Cheng maintained order in China by establishing an autocracy a form of government where the emperor has complete and total power.He believed that it was dangerous for scholars to be able to research and solve problems on their own.He limited their right to discuss issues among themselves & executed anyone who criticized the government.Protected China by building walls along the borders of each state.These walls were eventually connected to form the Great Wall of China.The wall is 1,500 miles long about the distance from Key West, FL to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
The End of the Qin DynastyEmperor Cheng used forced labor to build the Great Wall.The people were extremely upset about being forced to work for the emperor.In 206B.C. a rebel army revolted again the dynasty.Liu Bang, a general in the Qin army, overthrew the empire and founded the Han Dynasty.The han DynastyHan DynastyLiu Bang named himself the King of Han.The empire had a centralized government instead of separate governments in each state.Remained in power in China for 400 years.Had so much influence over the development of China that many Chinese people today still call themselves the People of Han.Han rulers expanded the territory of China to an even larger area than the Qin dynasty.Accomplishments of the Han DynastyThe Civil Service SystemA civil service system is a system that runs the everyday business of the government.Originally government officials recommended people for civil service positions.Eventually a system of tests were put in place to select the best people for the jobs.The dynasty also established the imperial university to train people for government positions.Usually only the wealthiest people could afford to train at the university.Set up a system called leveling to help the economy.Under this system the government used price controls to balance prices of farm products.Set up the Silk Road a trade route that stretched from China through central Asia. Traded jade & silk for gold, silver, and wool.
Chinas population grew to almost 50 million during the Han dynasty.People in the capital of the Han dynasty began using paper for writing instead of papyrus, clay tablets, and stone. This development influenced writing in the rest of the world.The End of the Han DynastyThe Han ruled China until 220A.D.After the fall of the last Han emperor the country was overrun by many groups of nomadic people.These people caused many Han subjects to move south.China was not reunited until 581A.D.PHILOSOPHIES OF ANCIENT CHINAAncient Chinese BeliefsBelieved in two sides of nature.This idea says that everything in the world results from a balance between two forces.Yin a female force. Dark and passive.Yang a male force. Bright and active.Yin & Yang depend on each other and attempt to remain in balance.The concepts of Yin and Yang are believed to apply to the balance in human life.Anything that disrupts the balance will eventually end & balance will be restored.ConfucianismThe most influential Chinese philosophy!The creator of Confucianism was Confucius.Taught the importance of family, respect for elders, and reverence for your ancestors.Wanted to end the political trouble of the time period.Did not discuss gods, or religious ideas.Focused on the political problems in Chinese society & how moral and ethical leadership could solve these problems.